Joes n scale trains uk,model railroad ho scale vehicles,model cars and trucks videos,train from new york city to milford connecticut gis - Tips For You

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Hi --- Looking at Justin's thread reminded me how fun really small switching layouts can be.
LarryEnginemanSSRy“Shut one’s eyes tight or open one’s arms wide, either way, one’s a fool.” Flemeth. Layout number 2 gets my vote -- it just looks better than the first one, and it looks like it would be more fun to switch. Conventional almond growers in Merced and Stanislaus counties who use organophosphate, carb-amate and pyrethroid insecticides were compared with participants in the Biologically Integrated Orchard Systems (BIOS) program, who do not use these broad-spectrum insecticides. Participants in the Biologically Integrated Orchard Systems (BIOS) program attend field days, such as this one in Hopeton, to learn how to avoid the use of broad-spectrum insecticides. In 1988, UC farm advisor Lonnie Hendricks began a study in which he evaluated the pest management practices of two brothers, Glenn and Ron Anderson, who farmed almonds in Merced County. From this grower interest was born the almond Biologically Integrated Orchard Systems (BIOS) program, initiated in 1993 by a nonprofit organization, Community Alliance with Family Farmers (CAFF). In 1996, we designed an intensive 3-year study to evaluate the elimination of broad-spectrum insecticides in almonds, on a larger scale than the Hendricks study. Seven BIOS and seven conventional almond orchards were initially selected and monitored throughout the season, beginning in 1996 (table 1). Each of the conventional sites received either dormant oil and organophosphate spray (usually chlorpyrifos but sometimes phosmet) for a dormant spray, or a hullsplit organophosphate spray in July of each year, or both.
During the winters of 1996,1997 and 1998, we selected 10 to 20 trees in each orchard and counted the number of unharvested mummy nuts.
Three of the conventional orchards were not established early enough in 1996 to take mummy counts.
Mummy nuts that remain on almond trees after harvest can serve as a wintering site for the navel orangeworm, an important almond pest. In 1996, all of the orchards were monitored for peach twig borer with two Pherocon 1c traps and Consep pheromone dispensers in each orchard, changed every month. At harvest 500 nuts were randomly collected from each orchard, with no more than 20 nuts taken from beneath one tree. The first objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between winter sanitation, which involves removing mummy nuts from trees, and navel orangeworm abundance, as well as the impact of sanitation on infestations in unsprayed orchards (fig. The data from 1996 does not include one BIOS orchard that had a count of 113 mummies per tree; however, that orchard was included for harvest infestations. The seven BIOS orchards (including the nonsprayed orchard comparison site) were categorized by the number of mummies per tree in each of the 3 years.
The second study objective was to investigate the relationship between winter sanitation and the abundance of overwintering G.
The third study objective was to evaluate the abundance of San Jose scale and its associated parasitoids in BIOS and conventional orchards. San Jose scale is an increasingly damaging pest in many almond-growing areas of California.
The numbers of San Jose scale trapped in this study were remarkably low (compared with previous trapping data in heavily and moderately infested orchards), with only one of the BIOS orchards showing symptoms of scale damage (limb death in the lower canopy). San Jose scale has become an increasingly damaging pest in many almond-growing regions of California. There was no difference between treatments in the numbers of another San Jose scale parasitoid,Aphytis spp., trapped on pheromone sticky traps. The fourth study objective was to monitor navel orangeworm and peach twig borer throughout the growing season, to determine whether there are major differences in abundance and seasonal activity based on the use of broad-spectrum sprays. The abundance of navel orangeworm, based on egg counts found on navel orangeworm egg traps, was very low in both BIOS and conventional or chards.
The abundance of peach twig borer, based on pheromone trap counts, was not significantly different between the BIOS orchards and the conventional orchards (fig.
The fifth study objective was to assess damage due to ants, navel orangeworm and peach twig borer at harvest in BIOS and conventional orchards and to tabulate differences in navel orangeworm parasitism between the two practices. Based on the management practices we studied, damage due to ants, navel orangeworm and peach twig borer were of greatest importance to almond farmers (fig.
Although flight by peach twig borer was quite high in all orchards, damage by this pest was minimal. Finally, total insect damage was not significantly different between the two pest management practices. Goniozus legneri, a navel orangeworm parasitoid, was periodically released in four of the BIOS orchards studied. The results of the winter sanitation investigation indicate that survival of the navel orangeworm parasitoid, G.
The results of the scale monitoring indicate relatively low infestation in all but one of the test orchards. In this study, orchards using orga-nophosphate sprays at hullsplit averaged significantly fewer E. In the Hendricks study (1995), a difference in the initial abundance of pests' in orchards could account for greater damage in the sprayed compared to unsprayed orchard.
Even though neither trapping method we used is considered a strong indicator of damaging populations, they are indicators of relative abundance and periods of sexual activity for both species.
The damage from peach twig borer was minimal in each of the years studied, and was never greater than 1%. A survey conducted by CAFF with different BIOS growers during 1996 and 1997 verified the results of our study (M. Although the differences in damage may seem small to those not involved in producing almonds, many growers are unwilling to risk higher levels of damage. The authors thank the Almond Board of California, California Department of Pesticide Regulation and cooperating growers: Glenn Arnold, Golvert Balvert, Dan Baptista, Bruce Beekman, Sherman Boone, Mike Bragga, Fritz Helzer, Leonard Kinoshita, Robert Lambrix, Sandra Madsen, Galen Miyamoto, Lane Parker, Chuck Segers and Ivan and Scott Stinson. By clicking Confirm bid, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder.
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I'm now working on a rail-marine terminal themed layout, but before I started I thought it would be a good idea to build some sort of a trial layout. The cars used on the layout have been selected so that there is only one combination of each color and roadname. A couple weeks ago, I did some survey work along the far eastern portion in St J where a bike path is being built. LYNDON CENTER – A 95-mile multi-use recreation path proposal for a discussed railroad bed connecting St. The proposed Lamoille Valley Rail Trail would allow snowmobiles in winter, but other seasons would be restricted for non-motorized use. VAST is the nonprofit organization based in Berlin that oversees snowmobiling in the state, and preserving the trail's use for winter snowmobiling has long been a goal as VAST faces increasing pressures on its 6,000-mile trail system, most of which is on private land. The Vermont Agency of Transportation chose VAST over other organizations bidding to oversee that trail and implement a management plan for its use, Watson said, explaining why VAST is in charge of the statewide recreation project. However the snowmobiling emphasis VAST places on the trail management plan prompted comments from some people who prefer non-motorized use or who own land along the trail.


Others, including Phil Gimli-Mead of Danville, agreed with Scarlet, saying, "My problem with this whole plan is you guys aren't being good neighbors.
Only a minor portion of the trail is currently used for snowmobiling, and many of the bridges need to be repaired or replaced, so full development of the trail would open up a whole new corridor for permanent recreation use. Some of those participating praised VAST for its ability to pull together a plan promising economic development potential that is open to snowmobilers and non-motorized users, including walkers, cross-country skiers, hikers, bicyclists and horseback riders. Making the trail accessible to those in wheelchairs concerned some, including Roger Damon of St.
Some expressed concerns about ATVs using the trail, but Watson said ATV use is currently prohibited.
The line looks better now as a trail, then it did when there was a neglected and overgrown railbed with just about every major crossing paved over.. For 6 years in the mid 70's my family and my cousins family would vacation on Caspian Lake in Greensboro.
Just as an FYI, the former LVRC coaches are alive and well on the Valley RR (Essex Steam Train) in CT.
It is a prudent decision to ban the use of motorized vehicles, outside of winter, upon the proposed Lamoille Valley Rail Trail.
My area lost a great deal of rail branch lines by the mid 1990's and soon thereafter, a growth of recreationals trails was prevalent on some of the abandoned lines.
I've seen the detrimental effects of ATV's on Rec trail surface infrastructures, such as rutting and the removal of the fine granular stone.
Motorized vehicles are not compatible with other trail uses, such as biking, hiking, horseback riding. If enforcement is not apply applied to trail uses, by motorized vehicles, then I would not wish to be living along its route. This will reduce the cost for me so that I can continue to pass those savings along to you. You have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab.
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I'm always impressed by your plans and suggestions.I have a N scale layout which was built for running trains in a great scenery (Somewhere West) but now I would like to build a switching layout in HO scale. But never so bad it is not good for something - it gave me time to think some more about the track plan for the small layout. The results demonstrated consistent but not significantly lower infestation by navel orangeworm and peach twig borer for growers who used broad-spectrum sprays. In a 3-year study, the authors compared the effectiveness of pest management techniques, and the levels of pests and their parasitoids, in BIOS and conventional almond orchards. Although some almond growers in Merced, Stanislaus and Modesto counties, such as Ray Eck and Glenn Anderson, had been moving away from using organophos-phate, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides for many years, the results of the Anderson study intrigued others who wished to reduce inputs for insect pest management. Programs such as BIOS emphasize less reliance on broad-spectrum materials and greater reliance on cultural, biological and nondisruptive pesticides (Swezey and Broome 2000). Information on pest and beneficial insect dynamics as well as nut infestation was gathered from orchards that followed two different pest management approaches.
A national IPM study reported that 92% of California almond growers used broad-spectrum dormant sprays in 1983, while more than 78% used May sprays and 81% used hullsplit sprays (Rajotte et al.
Two of the conventional orchard comparisons were not treated in 1997, and data from these two sites were not used during 1997. Mummy nuts serve as the wintering site for navel orange-worm: when they are removed, so is the pest. The categories used were orchards with two or fewer mummies, or more than two per tree during the winter.
The abundance of both pests was not significantly different in BIOS and conventional orchards. However, almond growers in Stanislaus, Merced and Madera counties have reported little tree damage from this pest. This became evident during the third year of the study, when traps in that BIOS orchard averaged 707 male San Jose scale during the season.
However, the numbers trapped in the study orchards, located in Merced and Stanislaus counties, were very low.
The number of males caught (monitoring three flights) per trap per season averaged 152 over the 3-year period in the unsprayed BIOS orchards and 524 in the sprayed conventional orchards (fig. A total of 85 eggs per trap per season were found in the BIOS orchards, compared with 118 eggs per trap per season in the conventional orchards (fig. This was a BIOS orchard that averaged 707 male San Jose scale per trap per season and only 564 E. For instance, trapping of the first male peach twig borer indicates that moths are present, and the timing of sprays can be based on the greatest abundance of small worms (Zalom et al. An average difference of 1% would appear to be of minor importance when considering the cost of damage in relation to the expense of control, unless the grower receives a bonus payment because infestation levels are kept below 2%.
Although most almond growers consider damage from peach twig borer an annual problem, it was not a problem during this study.
Although relatively low when compared to navel orangeworm infestation, individual BIOS growers did experience economic damage from ants (5.4% by BIOS grower 6 in 1996).
Total insect damage levels did not vary significantly between the two pest management practices, but BIOS damage levels were slightly higher. Until reliable predictive techniques are identified and reasonably effective nondisruptive control methods developed, many growers will not stop applying the broad-spectrum insecticides. Johnsbury to Swanton could boost tourism, but sleep deprivation, herbicide use and accessibility dominated public concerns at a hearing Tuesday night. Written public comment on the $7 million Lamoille Valley Rail Trail recreation path must be postmarked no later than Dec. Susan Bartlett, chair of Senate Appropriations Committee, added $25,000 to fund some law enforcement for the Lamoille Valley Recreational Trail," Watson said.
If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable.
Infestation by ants resulted in the most consistent difference between the two management practices, with significantly less damage when broad-spectrum sprays were used.
However, many growers still want the security of broad-spectrum insecticides in managing almond pests. A BIOS approach, not using disruptive sprays, was compared with a more conventional pest-management system that used sprays. Each of the orchard comparisons was composed of the Nonpareil cultivar, which is quite susceptible to navel orangeworm. In addition to the seven orchards in the comparison, we counted mummy nuts in 44 BIOS orchards in 1996 to evaluate winter survival of G.
Navel orangeworm dynamics were monitored in 1996 with two black navel orangeworm egg traps baited with almond press cake and almond oil, changed monthly during the growing season or when they became wet.
A total of 2,720 mummies were examined and 379 (13.93%) were infested with navel orangeworm.
Our study results indicate that San Jose scale is not a common problem in either BIOS or conventional orchards in these counties. Also, as with the navel orangeworm, peach twig borer flight dynamics were not different between the two treatments. There was no significant difference between BIOS and conventional pest-management practices in infestation due to navel orangeworm, peach twig borer, or total damage. There was no significant difference in peach twig borer damage as influenced by pest management practice. Such differences in total damage rates are considered important when infestations are greater than 5%, the level where processing is more costly and growers receive less money. One of the BIOS orchards averaged 113 mummies per tree in 1996 and no wintering parasitoids were found, even though 10.4% of mummies were infested with navel orangeworm. It is clear that not all almond orchards in Merced and Stanislaus counties require annual dormant sprays to manage San Jose scale and that the abundance of E. Even though the difference in navel orangeworm was not significant, the variation in infestation was usually greatest in the BIOS orchards.


If peach twig borer infestation varies widely from year to year, almond growers could move away from using organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid sprays during the dormant season by predicting the severity and using less-disruptive pesticides such as Bt and spinosad.
We are currently evaluating thresholds for treating ants and use of selective bait instead of broadcast spraying.
Growers may still be hesitant to risk higher levels of crop damage by not applying insecticides. In 1996, 13 BIOS almond growers in Merced County and 12 in Stanislaus County provided grade sheets from processors that indicated insect infestation. It is important for the almond industry to continue demonstrating to farmers and pest control advisers the success of new programs as they are implemented. 7, said Bryant Watson, executive director of the Vermont Association of Snow Travelers Tuesday night during the final of several public hearings via Vermont Interactive Television. I will add 4' and perhaps 6" in the depth because those 60' cars need much more place. The differences in overall pest damage were relatively minor, but the variation was greatest among those not using broad-spectrum sprays.
Hendricks monitored infestation from peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella) and navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) over a 6-year period. The perceived risks of damage from omitting sprays are more than they are willing to accept. Also, the BIOS growers planted cover crops, while only two of the conventional growers used them (both low-grow mixture).
Nonpareil (NP) is currently the predominant and most desirable almond cultivar because of its mild taste and the ease of processing it. The BIOS orchards did not receive any broad-spectrum sprays during the study period (Santer 1995). Each winter, we collected a sample of 50 to 100 nuts from trees and quantified navel orangeworm infestation and parasitism. The abundance of San Jose scale males trapped in San Jose scale sticky traps is correlated to crawler abundance (Bentley et al.
Because of the high level of variation in trap catches, there was no statistical difference in the numbers of scale between BIOS and the conventional orchards. Aphytis spp., an internal wasp parasitoid, tended to be trapped very early and very late in the growing season, with few trapped during June and July.
There was no significant difference in the number of eggs deposited on egg traps between the two comparisons over the 3-year period. The beginning of male flight in each of the three generations in each of the 3 years was identical in the BIOS and conventional orchards. During the 3 years, damage by navel orangeworm was least in the conventional orchards, and the variation among growers was also least. During 1996,197 navel orangeworm were collected and held for parasitism, and four (2%) were parasitized by G. Alternatively, the practice of winter sanitation resulted in a consistent reduction of navel orangeworm infestation at harvest. Also, it is possible that the dynamics of pest populations could be influenced by sprays or beneficial arthropod activity, resulting in pest activity at different stages of nut susceptibility. We were not able to detect any difference in the development of navel orangeworm or peach twig borer flight initiation between the two management practices.
For example, BIOS grower 1 experienced 14% navel orangeworm infestation in 1996 and 6.2% navel orangeworm infestation in 1997.
Although no significant difference in total damage was found between the two practices, many growers perceive that eliminating sprays will result in too much damage, as experienced in the unsprayed orchards in 1996. Winter survival of the navel orangeworm parasitoid, Goniozus legneri, and parasitism by this beneficial insect were low in all orchards, sprayed or unsprayed. The use of organophos-phate, carbamate and pyrethroids can also cause web-spinning spidermite problems, which are costly to control.
In addition, Goniozus legneri, a navel orangeworm parasitoid, was periodically released in four of the unsprayed BIOS orchards at least once during the study. In each of these comparisons, except for comparison 3, the orchards were located side by side. Some were treated with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) at bloom to manage peach twig borer, and four received releases ofG.
As many mummy nuts as possible were collected from the tree (or from the ground if necessary) and examined for navel orangeworm and parasitoids.
San Jose scale was monitored with two Pherocon tent traps baited with Trece San Jose scale pheromone dispensers, changed monthly.
UC pest management guidelines state that two or fewer mummies per almond tree is the key to managing navel orangeworm (Barnes et al.
The initiation of navel orangeworm oviposition on black egg traps was identical between the BIOS and conventional orchards, with no obvious shifts in periods of egg deposition.
This is one of the key pests that almond growers attempt to manage with dormant sprays; it appears to pose less of a risk than believed. Based on these findings, the practice of not removing and destroying mummy nuts, in order to preserve G. More importantly, these same San Jose scale pheromone traps can allow growers and pest control advisers to detect the presence of key scale parasitoids such as E. In our study, the season-long monitoring of navel orangeworm and peach twig borer in the orchards revealed no difference in the abundance of navel orangeworm eggs or peach twig borer males. Of particular interest was the lack of a difference in the numbers of peach twig borer between the almond growers using the dormant and growing-season sprays with those not using such sprays. The infestations were then compared to the county averages, as reported in the Almond Board of California's 1997 and 1998 annual yield and damage summary. Winter removal of unharvested almonds to fewer than two per tree reduced navel orangeworm infestations in both treatments.
In fact, damage in the unsprayed orchard was often lower than in the sprayed orchard (Hendricks 1995). Based on the pheromone trapping data, we can assume that populations of both pests are equally present with both management practices. Gibbs was Research and Documentation Coordinator, BIOS, Community Alliance with Family Farmers; M. Although many of the almond growers not using organo-phosphate, carbamate or pyrethroid sprays had less damage than some who used these materials, the greater range of damage experienced by these growers may explain why more almond growers prefer to use them annually to combat insect pests. Navel orangeworm and peach twig borers feed on the nut meats, leaving excrement, webbing or body parts; damaged nuts are more prone to aflatoxin contamination.
Feeding by San Jose scale results in the death of fruit wood and can eventually kill the tree. None of the six intensively monitored BIOS orchards had parasitoids in the infested mummy nuts. By integrating the information gathered from traps with visual symptoms on the trees, growers can reduce the use of annual dormant sprays as a means of preventing San Jose scale damage.
Orchard 7 used no insecticide applications in the conventional plots and was not included in the comparison of conventional versus BIOS, but was used for the winter sanitation portion.
Over the 3-year period, 522 navel orangeworm were sampled from unharvested mummy nuts in unsprayed orchards. The inconsistency of low navel orangeworm infestation is one key reason why growers are hesitant to reduce their chemical usage. Also, the presence of parasitoids in orchards should give growers more confidence in managing scale with horticultural oils during the dormant season, thereby eliminating the use of broad-spectrum sprays.
The only difference in management practices in orchard 7 was the planting of a low-grow cover crop in the BIOS side.




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