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Fifty years later, in 1950, the leading ten cities had doubled in size, and Shanghai, Buenos Aires, and Calcutta had joined the list. The oldest surviving corporations, Stora Enso in Sweden and the Sumitomo Group in Japan, are about 700 and 400 years old, respectively. I suspect that one cause of their durability is that cities are the most constantly changing of organizations. The reversal of opinion about fast-growing citiesa€”from bad news to good newsa€”began with The Challenge of Slums, a 2003 UN-HABITAT report. In 2007 the United Nations Population Fund gave that yeara€™s report the upbeat title Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth. If cities are concentrators of efficiency and innovation, an article about the scaling paper in Conservation magazine surmised, then, a€?the secret to creating a more environmentally sustainable society is making our cities bigger. In Peter Ackroyda€™s London: The Biography (2000), he quotes William Blakea€”a€?Without Contraries is no progressiona€?a€”and ventures that Blake came to that view from his immersion in London.
The common theory of the origin of cities states that they resulted from the invention of agriculture: Surplus food freed people to become specialists.
Agriculture, it appears, was an early invention by the dwellers of walled towns to allow their settlements to keep growing, as in Geoffrey Westa€™s formulation.
A study in Panama showed what happened when people abandoned slash-and-burn agriculture to move to town: a€?With people gone, secondary forest has regenerated. Though the squatters join forces for what the UN researchers describe as a€?cultural movements and levels of solidarity unknown in leafy suburbs,a€? they are seldom politically active beyond defending their own community interests.
A depiction of contemporary slum reality even more vivid than Neuwirtha€™s is an autobiographical novel by an escaped Australian prisoner who went into hiding in Mumbaia€™s slums, joined its organized crime world, and fell in love with the city.
Social cohesiveness is the crucial factor differentiating a€?slums of hopea€? from a€?slums of despair.a€? This is where CBOs (community-based organizations) and the NGOs (national and global nongovernmental organizations) shine.
For the first time in her life she had got rid of her husband, her in-laws, her village and their burdens.
Shimu prefers living in Dhaka because a€?it is safer, and here I can earn a living, live and think my own way,a€? she says. The magic ingredient of squatter cities is that they are improved steadily and gradually, increment by increment, by the people living there.
According to urban researchers, squatters are now the predominant builders of cities in the world. A reporter from the Economist who visited Mumbai wrote that a€?Dharavi, which is allegedly Asiaa€™s biggest slum, is vibrantly and triumphantly alive. The screen-printer who provides laundry bags to hotels, the charcoal burner who wheels his cycle up to the copper smelter and delivers sacks of charcoala€¦ , the home-based crA?che to which the managing director delivers her child each morning, the informal builder who adds a security wall around the home of the government minister, all indicate the complex networks of linkages between informal and formal.
In many cities, the roughest slums are pressed right up against the most affluent neighborhoods.
This book was finished before the full effects of the world financial crisis of 2009 could be studied.
Corporations are right to pay attention to what is now referred to as the BOPa€”bottom of the pyramid. It doesna€™t matter whether you give people title deeds or secure tenure, people simply need to know they wona€™t be evicted. For the first time in her life she had got rid of her husband, her in-laws, her village and their burdens.A  A few months after she arrived, Shimu, now able to support her children, mustered the courage to return to her town and file for divorce. That bond back to the village appears to be universal.A  The Challenge of Slums observes that a€?Kenyan urban folk who have lived in downtown Nairobi all of their lives, if asked where they come from, will say from Nyeri or Kiambu or Eldoret, even if they have never been to these places.
Yesterday, Mayor Bloomberg announced that New York City’s population is the highest it’s been in over 60 years, with more people moving in than moving out for the first time in decades. NYC has grown by more than 300,000 residents since Bloomberg took office and this continued growth may continue to spur under Bloomberg’s micro-apartment housing plans, which aim to provide affordable living for city dwellers. The growth is due largely in part to the increase of immigrants to the city, job growth, lower crime rates and the rise of life expectancy to 80.9 years. Please note that gratuitous links to your site are viewed as spam and may result in removed comments.
Manhattan was responsible for much of the growth, adding 9,364 new residents from July 2002 through June 2003.
Last year, the Census Bureau initially estimated that 12,000 fewer people moved to Manhattan from July 2001 through June 2002 than had come to the city during the same period a year earlier. Demographers and economists say that the instability of estimates is one of the problems with Census data focusing on a single year. Even so, the most recent data pointed to a strong trend in population increases in New York City, which added 13,371 new residents from July 2002 through June 2003.
According to net domestic migration estimates - the difference between the number of United States residents moving in and leaving New York City - more people left New York from July 2002 through June 2003 than moved to the city.
Professor Beveridge found that net domestic migration in New York City was minus 153,464 in the period from July 2001 to June 2002, and was minus 151,370 in the same period last year. Both the Bronx and Brooklyn posted increases in net domestic outmigration last year, while Queens and Manhattan posted decreases.
One of the more intriguing parts of the report was the population shift in Brooklyn and Queens, demographers said.
The population of Brooklyn declined by 3,127 people, and Queens fell by 1,686, according to the report. Analysts said the change in Queens, which has traditionally been home to waves of new immigrants, was intriguing particularly since for the second consecutive year, the Census Bureau's citywide figures on immigration are not current.
According to figures released yesterday by the United States Census Bureau, New York City lost 5,547 residents last year, bringing its population to 8,104,079 as of last July 1, down from 8,109,626. But city officials say that the numbers are almost certainly wrong and that the Big Apple is bigger than ever.

So begins an annual dance nearly as protracted and complex as - but rather more friendly than - the budget negotiations occupying state lawmakers upstate.
Every year between its decennial counts of the nation, the Census Bureau estimates populations of America's 3,141 counties. Last year, after challenging the bureau's estimates for the populations of Brooklyn and Queens in 2003, city officials succeeded in adding about 30,000 people to New York's rolls. Such volatility owes to the inherent difficulty of measuring the population of a country with high levels of internal migration as well as immigration from abroad. Both methods, say city demographers, are less reliable in counties with large populations of illegal immigrants from abroad and with illegal immigrants who have relocated after living in other states. Queens and Brooklyn, he noted, pose a particular challenge, since they account for about two-thirds of the city's immigrants from abroad, legal and illegal.
According to the most recent estimates, Manhattan, Staten Island, and the Bronx all gained in population; decreases in Queens and Brooklyn accounted for the city's net loss. From what I've seen, cities often challenge the Census estimates, and often enough their challenges are valid and the figures are changed in their favor. The Republicans are controlled by city hating suburbanites and country folk (of all colors and economics). With higher birth rates among Hispanic and Asian New Yorkers, immigrants continuing to gravitate to New York City and a housing boom transforming all five boroughs, the city is struggling to cope with a phenomenon that few other cities in the Northeast or Midwest now face: a growing population. New York might need an extra million or so slices of cake for its 400th birthday party in 2025.
Last month, the New York Building Congress, a trade group, estimated that proposed development, including the World Trade Center site and the Hudson Yards in Manhattan and the Atlantic Terminal area in Brooklyn, would generate a 21 percent increase in jobs by 2025. New York has ranked first in population among American cities since the first census in 1790. Queens will have 2.8 million people, the study says, and Staten Island nearly 600,000 ? records for both boroughs.
The Urbanomics projections say that among non-Hispanic whites, births will again outnumber deaths beginning after 2010 and that their net migration from the city will peak by 2015 and that the number of black residents will begin to decline in 2015. Compared to the last five years, according to the projections, between 2025 and 2030 among Asians the total of births over deaths will more than double, and the net migration ? people arriving versus leaving ? will more than triple. Population projections are notoriously subject to caveats and variables ? no one can predict the impact of terrorism, a possible resurgence in crime, medical advances or epidemics, the global economy or the effects of technological changes on jobs. Historically, those predictions tend to have overestimated growth, inspired, in part, by the optimism of the moment or to justify the ambitious agendas of developers and utility executives. The latest official census figures actually showed a slight decline in New York State's population. While some demographers question how long growth will continue, state and city officials say they generally agree with the overall projections.
Interesting that the Asian population is expected to grow at nearly three times the rate of the Latino population. I agree that the statistical (as opposed to a literal) loss of white people in the face of an influx of brown people is alarming.
But this is totally unfair to London: The volume of equities trading done on the London Stock Exchange doesna€™t capture at all equities trading done in any one place a€” just the ones local to that economy. When the Boston Consulting Group polled more than 200,000 people in 189 countries, London trounced the rest of the world when it came to where they would move to work. Whata€™s more, the eurozonea€™s dismal growth prospects and eye-watering rates in youth unemployment mean this trend probably isna€™t going to slow anytime soon. The cost of buying and renting is something that makes Londoners want to weep: but it's a side effect of the city's incredible success.
In 2012-2013, 49% of buyers in London's prime central market were not British, illustrating the huge demand from abroad.
London-based media organizations dramatically outperform in Comscorea€™s English-language ratings. The two biggest English-language newspaper websites in the world are London-based British organisations. A Deloitte survey puts London not only as the world's leader of highly skilled workers in media (particularly digital media), but as one of the areas in which it is extending a lead over the others. According to Japana€™s Institute for Urban Strategies, London takes a commanding lead over New York (and every other major city)A on cultural grounds. Part of this stems from a history that New York simply can't match: in the 19thA century, it became only the second city since the fall of the Roman Empire to reach a population of over one million. Countries that are highly urbanized have higher incomes, more stable economies, stronger institutions. According to data derived from the US Census Bureau, 161,000 more people have begun calling the city home in the past two years (an increase of 2 percent). Each of the boroughs registered population gains with Brooklyn experiencing the largest growth (possibly due in part to its ability to deliver a Manhattan-esque lifestyle for cheaper rent). The figures, which are gathered by analyzing international migration trends, birth and death records and domestic migration, are nearly always revised at some point during the year, demographers said.
Although the city is not growing as quickly as it did several years ago, its population is still increasing while other large cities have experienced declines, demographers said.
Beveridge, a professor of sociology at Queens College who analyzes the census numbers for The New York Times, said that much of the overall increase in population was probably due to an increase in births. The Bureau uses data from 2000 to 2001, which precedes the changes to many of the immigration laws after the terrorist attacks. The estimates are used to help allocate federal housing assistance and low-income tax credits, among other things.
But some - including the five counties that make up New York City - will push for changes, arguing that the bureau's numbers do not capture reality.

For good measure, the bureau also retroactively revised its estimate of the city's population for 2001 and 2002, incorporating city officials' estimates into their own.
Such residents are less likely to file tax returns when they arrive; moreover, the survey does not always produce reliable estimates of immigration at the county level. But that projected growth poses potential problems that New York is just starting to grapple with: ensuring that there are enough places in which to live, work, attend school and play and that transportation and energy are adequate.
Bloomberg's disclosure last month that city planners were drafting a strategy to cope with this expected growth, Daniel L. Doctoroff said the strategy would explore opportunities for growth both citywide and in 188 individual neighborhoods. Doctoroff said, are to produce greater geographic diversity ? more jobs in Downtown Brooklyn, Flushing and Jamaica in Queens, the South Bronx, Harlem and the Far West Side ? and to preserve manufacturing jobs. Almost steadily since the 1940's, more people have been leaving the city for other parts of the country than have arrived here from other areas of the nation. Foreigners are expected to account for much of the growth in the next two decades, growth that, according to the forecasts, would keep New York in first place among the nation's cities and maintain the New York metropolitan region either as the largest or, at least, tied with Los Angeles. Manhattan, with 1.7 million, will still be short of the more than two million people who lived there early in the last century, many in densely packed tenements.
They also say that after 2010 more Hispanic people will be leaving New York than arriving but that their birthrates will remain high, and that the number from Asia will continue to increase. But, on the basis of housing construction, the city has successfully challenged recent city estimates, and the Census Bureau has accepted the city's figure of 8,168,338 as of 2004. Yaro, president of the Regional Plan Association, said that with nearby suburbs nearly saturated, the city was no longer at as much of a competitive disadvantage.
Which of the world's two most financialised, globalisation-cheering megacities can reasonably be described as the world's capital? The London Stock Exchange isn't even the second-largest stock exchange in the world after the New York Stock Exchange.
So of course Londona€™s stock exchange is smaller than New Yorka€™s: the UKa€™s economy is much smaller than that of the US. In terms of foreign exchange market turnover, the UK isna€™t just the leader, it's still gaining ground, according to the Bank of International Settlements. Unprompted, 16% of respondents said they would move to the city, well clear of New York's 12.2%. In 2007-2008, 15,400 Italians registered to work in the UK, a figure that was up to 44,110 by 2013.
Endless anecdotes in the reports show exactly where the world's wealthiest people want to own homes, and the British capital comes out ahead of New York.
And they're not just buying to hold property as an investment: Only 28% of buyers live outside the UK, showing that a huge number of international buyers want to live in the city. The Daily Maila€™s Mail Online and The Guardian's website have broken into first and second place, according to comScorea€™s traffic figures.
That is based on a blend of cultural resources, facilities for visitors, and how trendsetting the city is. Attractions like Westminster Hall (the great hall of the UK's parliament) are almost twice as old as European colonization in the Americas, and four times older than the US as a country. This nautical chart depicts New York City in 1910, at the end of a decade of record population growth. Prahalada€™s The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty Through Profits (2005). When the bureau released the 2004 number yesterday, it revised each of the previous years' estimates yet again. Doctoroff, the deputy mayor for economic development, said the city could accommodate a million additional people or more, but only if it began planning for their needs now. It would determine how land use regulations and other constraints might be altered to create sufficient housing, schools, subway routes and parks, preserve factory jobs and identify sites for less desirable but necessary structures, including power plants. That will explore the potential for growth, identify the constraints and recommend how to provide the housing, transportation, energy and other public works, including parks, to accommodate a larger population, the mayor said.
Other projections computed by state demographers suggest that by 2020, Queens will overtake Brooklyn as the most populous borough.
After 2025, the population is projected to then expand more slowly, to nearly 9.5 million in 2030, for a 16 percent increase since 2005.
Louis, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Denver, Kansas City, Milwaukee and Atlanta just to name a few. In fact, the non-UK born population makes up 105% of the city's population growth between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Europea€™s young workforce is increasingly migrating to the UK (where its workers dona€™t need visas to live and work), and a huge number seek out London. That's even accounting for the fact that New York-based newspapers have a far bigger native American audience than London-based newspapers can find in the UK.
The report suggests that although US cities take the lead in terms of film and TV, the London is way out ahead in terms of digital media. Between 1900 and 1910, the city's population grew from 3,437,000 to 4,767,000?the highest ten-year population gain in U.S.

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