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admin 08.03.2014

One day after being the subject of near-universal outrage for running a cover photo of a man about to be crushed to death by a subway train, the New York Post ran the much despised front-page again on its cover.
Tuesday’s cover showed Ki-Suck Han, 58, clinging to the subway platform, seconds before he was about to be hit by the oncoming subway and dragged to death.
Criticism of the paper’s Tuesday cover came in fast and furious across the globe from readers, other journalists and Twitter users. Many specifically blamed Abbasi for taking the photos, but some said the criticism should only be laid at the feet of the New York Post‘s editors. Police said a suspect in Han’s death implicated himself in the matter after investigators found security video of him working with street vendors near Rockefeller Center. Witnesses said they saw the suspect muttering to himself shortly before having an argument with Han and then pushing the man on to the tracks.
Motor car (before 1916): Westinghouse Type 'M' switch group, using GE 69 or Westinghouse 86 motors (200hp each). The Composite is a New York City Subway car class built in 1903–04[1] for the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and its successor, the NYC Board of Transportation.
The Composite derived its name from its build as a "protected wooden car." The car frame was made of steel, while the car body itself was made from wood encased in a layer of copper sheathing. Because of the Composites' copper sheathing, IRT crews and shop personnel coined the nickname for the cars: Copper Sides. New York's IRT subway would prove to be the first attempt at an underground heavy rail subway. However, car manufacturers of the time were unwilling to undertake such an experimental proposition. Engineering work began on the protected wooden cars, and two Composite prototypes were ordered from Wason in 1902. The mainline fleet of Composites began arriving in New York as early as 1903, and were tested on the IRT's elevated lines shortly thereafter as work continued on the IRT subway. Not counting the two Composite prototypes, the IRT received 500 Composites: 340 motor cars and 160 trailers. Despite their copper sheathing, the cars proved not to be as well protected from fire as originally thought (23 Composites had been retired from service due to fire or minor accidents by 1916).
Because of the concerns over wooden construction, the Composites employed a number of vintage, turn-of-the-20th-century mechanisms to reduce the risk of fire. As originally delivered, the cars came only with two doors on each side of the car, located at the end vestibules.
The cars as delivered featured rattan seats and incandescent lighting, staples of most pre-WWII subway cars in New York City. As originally delivered, the cars featured manual "Armstrong" doors, a reference to the "strong arm" that would be needed by trainmen to open them. Route destinations and service patterns were indicated to riders by means of steel signs placed in holders along the side of the cars, near the doors.
Tunnel lighting was accomplished by means of kerosene lanterns hung on the front and rear of each train. All of the cars, as originally built, featured high voltage propulsion control equipment, which sent 600 volts through the motorman's control stand as well as through the train via the use of jumpers between cars. Additionally, like all of the old high voltage equipment, the cars featured a ten point brass controller with manual acceleration, which required motormen to notch up gradually as the train came up to speed.
When it had been determined to transfer the Composites to the elevated division of the IRT in 1916, several changes were made to the equipment.
The cars, as built, featured an old style of WABCO passenger braking equipment previously used on passenger railroads. When it had been decided to transfer the Composites to the elevated division of the IRT in 1916, the cars' braking was modernized further. Though they were quickly replaced by more modern all-steel equipment in the subway, the Composites represented a solid first effort at car construction by the IRT. New York City Subway rolling stock — The New York City Subway is a large rapid transit system and has a large fleet of rolling stock. Rollmaterial der New York City Subway — Die Geschichte des Rollmaterials der New York City Subway ist ahnlich kompliziert wie die New Yorker U Bahn selbst. Osterhout DAILY NEWS FEATURE REPORTER Thursday, September 22, 2011, 4:00 AM A A A facebook Tweet email News Train operator Alex Bowen has worked for the MTA for 18 years. A Post freelance photgrapher happened to be on the same platform and snapped dozens of shots of the incident, saying he was trying to alert the train operator of the situation. Umar Abbasi, has been widely condemned for his actions, with many people questioning why he did not attempt to help Han, who had been hurled on to the tracks by a panhandler. For example, the underground portion of Boston's Green Line, which opened in 1897, had been light rail.
They were originally numbered 1 and 2, and named the August Belmont (after the president of the IRT) and the John B. In 1903, George Gibbs used his influence to contract with the Pennsylvania Railroad's shops in Altoona to build an all-steel prototype for the new subway.
Since the design of the Composites was heavily influenced by both elevated equipment and railroad coaches of the time, the cars featured only two doors at the extreme ends of the subway car. In addition, since subsequent car orders for the IRT were all-steel, concerns had grown about the effects of running the wooden equipment alongside steel equipment, should a collision occur.
All of the cars were scrapped following their removal from service, culminating when the last cars were scrapped in 1953.
Most commonly, this involved the use of asbestos, electrobestos, or the asbestos containing material transite. The original seating configuration was what was known as "Manhattan Style", a name given because the seating arrangement originated on the cars that ran on the Manhattan Elevated during the 19th century. All areas of the cars were lit, as bulbs were placed along the center roofline and down the sides of each car's interior.
These signs could be physically removed and changed when a train was assigned to a different service pattern.

Red was to be displayed in the rear of the train, and white was to be displayed at the front.
This had to be the case to make the electrical contacts to allow all of the motor cars of a train to draw power in a synchronized effort from the Third rail.
Should a motorman advance too quickly with the controller handle, however, a device would actually prevent the car's propulsion system from notching up at too rapid a rate. As subway cars, the Composite motor cars were simply too heavy to run on elevated structures. The high voltage propulsion control was replaced with a safer low voltage propulsion control, which utilized battery voltage (32 volts) to control the train's motors.
This setup, and all others to come after, permitted graduated release of the brakes for finer control of brake applications. In AMRE schedule braking, the electric brake must be activated at all times by use of the electric brake key to synchronize the train's braking effort electrically.
At the time they were introduced, they represented the most advanced electric railcar in America. They have no idea how very quickly it happened,” he said in the first-person article, figuring the entire incident happened in about 22 seconds. Therefore the IRT and its chief engineer George Gibbs felt compelled to develop a subway car that would be stronger and safer than any previously designed railway cars. Conventional wisdom of the day (since proven to be false) held that an all steel car would vibrate itself to pieces, claiming wood was "necessary" for its damping effects on the car's vibration. The all-steel prototype would serve as the inspiration for the Gibbs Hi-V cars, so named after George Gibbs, who had done so much to see to their creation. Along with the Gibbs Hi-Vs, the Composites were part of the original IRT fleet which ran along New York City's first subway route (the IRT Manhattan Mainline) beginning October 27, 1904.
Therefore, when the 300 Gibbs Hi-V motors were added to these numbers, the new totals were 640 motor cars and 160 trailers. It was determined that adding a center door for improved passenger flow would be a good idea. Since the adverse health effects of such were not yet fully known nor understood, asbestos was present in numerous locations throughout the car, most notably under the floors, and around any electrical wiring[3]. This meant that each train of Composites required a number of trainmen to operate doors at each station stop. Marker lights at the front and rear of each car also indicated the routes to crews en route, as well as astute riders who came to recognize their trains' marker light patterns over time. At each terminal turnaround, lanterns would be changed to reflect the train's new direction of travel.
However, this could be dangerous for motormen and shop personnel alike by creating an electrocution hazard. Mounted on the top of the controller handle was a button which had to be depressed at all times, acting as a deadman's switch, which would automatically apply the train's emergency brakes should the motorman let go. This battery voltage was what would pass through the motorman's control stand and between cars. Originally, it was known as AM, but the 'P' was added later to distinguish the setup from newer AM types like AML.
Additionally, AMRE allowed for the electric synchronization of braking throughout an entire train, causing all brakes on all cars of the train to apply uniformly and simultaneously. If it was not "cut in" or failed en route, the system could still be manipulated to apply the brakes pneumatically. Engineer George Gibbs was widely praised for his work in designing the cars, though for Gibbs it was bittersweet, having hoped the first IRT subway car design would be all-steel (he would get his chance to engineer one soon enough though). This inevitably led them to the conclusion that it would be best to design an all steel car to run in the new tunnels.
It was also widely believed that a steel car would be very loud, and poorly insulated from temperature extremes such as heat and cold. Each was designed to sample different features and amenities - the Belmont explored the possibility of offering a "first class" service (which never materialized), while the McDonald tested a layout intended to be more standard.
Along with similar all-steel equipment that arrived later, the Gibbs cars would eventually phase the Composites out of subway service.
This required removing the transverse seats which faced each other in the center of the car. The Composite was badly crushed while the all-steel car suffered considerably less damage, proving the superior strength of the steel cars. No seating was provided in end vestibules as they were primarily for entrance and exit, and to accommodate standees.
As delivered, they did not come with fans, however windows and clerestory vents along the upper roof could be opened for ventilation.
Even unpowered trailer cars had to carry the 600 volts through these jumpers, because it was necessary to pass on the voltage to motor cars behind the trailer so as to synchronize them with the lead car. The trucks were replaced with the lighter elevated type, and smaller, less powerful motors (120hp instead of 200hp) were installed. Therefore for the purposes of this notation, the P has been included in parentheses - as in Braking Schedule AM(P) - to acknowledge this change. This would still allow the train to stop, but deceleration would take longer such as on the older AM(P) schedule braking. The Composites also are a historical reminder of the reality at the turn of the 20th century - that car builders were simply not willing to experiment with all-steel construction.
With a large backlog of orders for wooden cars, manufacturers had no incentive to explore the new technology as there was still plenty of demand for wooden railcars. After thorough evaluation of all features of both prototype cars, it was time to decide on a design for the Composites to be ordered for the subway.
Meanwhile, as the effort to design a steel car continued in 1903, the IRT awaited arrival of the Composites. After the modification, passenger seating would be in the longitudinal direction (along the sides of the car) only.

As a result of these two fears - fire and collision - the 477 remaining Composites were transferred during 1916 to serve on the elevated division of the IRT. Steel and wood were used to complement each other and give rigidity to the body by strengthening the frame. Each end vestibule was accessible at all times except for the ones at the very front and very rear of a train, which were closed off by sliding vestibule doors to block entry.
All windows were drop sash type (rather than rising sash type) for improved safety and to reduce the amount of draught in moving cars. Even in the event of failure of subway third rail power, the kerosene lamps would remain lit.
Variations of a deadman's switch, or deadman's device, have been used continuously since and are still used on all current New York City Subway trains.
As mentioned above, by 1916, 208 of the motorized Composites had already been converted into trailers. Meanwhile, each car would respond individually to the battery voltage, by moving its own 600 volt contacts to direct power obtained locally by each car directly from the third rail toward the motors.
On a train equipped with AM(P), there was no electric synchronization of braking throughout a train, so a braking effort took a few seconds to apply or release uniformly throughout a train as different cars reacted to the brake request (which was entirely pneumatic) at different times. In order for the electric synchronization to work, it was necessary to insert an electric brake key to activate the feature.
However, in AMRE, the notches in the brake stand to cause this pneumatic application are completely separate from the notches to cause an electric application. Since Composites bore many similarities in their construction and style to the elevated cars that came before them, the elevated was ultimately determined to be the best place for the cars once it had been decided to use a fleet of all-steel cars in the subway. The IRT knew that the October 27, 1904 opening of the new subway route was fast approaching, and that rolling stock had to be designed and built soon or the line would not be ready. All engineering work on the cars was finally completed during 1902, and orders were placed with four manufacturers for 500 cars shortly thereafter.
As all Gibbs Hi-V cars were motors, the preference was to keep them that way while converting more Composite motors into trailers. Doing so also meant modifying their weight accordingly so as to reduce the stress on the weaker elevated structures. In 1917, one year after the production fleet of Composite cars had been converted for service on the elevated division, the prototype John B. Floors were made of wood (maple), and grab holds were provided along the roof for standees. When the IRT looked at this, and noted the reduction in power of motor cars associated with using the smaller motors, it decided to convert all Composite trailers to motors in 1916.
Using 32 volts to control the propulsion in this way was a much safer proposition for trainmen and shop personnel than the 600 volts associated with the older high voltage setup. Additionally, an operator could not partially reduce his braking effort so as to smooth out stops or correct if he had undershot the mark (a feature known as a graduated release of the brakes). All of the older IRT cars, including the Composites, were refitted with the new AMRE system circa 1910.
Therefore, if a motorman with a defective or inactive electric AMRE brake were to electrically apply the brakes, nothing would happen! Sadly, when their service life came to an end in 1950, none were saved, so little remains outside of the history books to remind us of the time when wooden IRT subway trains ran in New York's tunnels. With time running short to order rolling stock, a wood-based alternative had been proposed - a protected wooden car to be known as a Composite. McDonald was also converted and added to the elevated fleet where it ran alongside the rest of the Composite cars.
But as an added fireproofing measure, the wood siding would be encased in a layer of copper sheathing that ran halfway up the side of the car.
Originally, these grab holds were made of leather (as on elevated trains), and later replaced with the steel grab holds that were IRT standard for many years. While this modification added weight to the trailer cars, the load on each wheel was still within the acceptable range to run on elevated structure. The AM(P) setup required the train to fully release the brakes before they could be applied again.
Valuable seconds would be lost while he realized his electric brake was inactive, before he could move to the pneumatic apply notch to begin slowing his train down (which would still take longer than usual without electric synchronization of the brakes). Exit was difficult, with riders needing to access the car's extremities for a pathway out of the car via the vestibule. This made making precision stops in stations by motormen a real art, but a task that the majority of IRT motormen proved up to. In a serious scenario, this could cause him to overshoot a station or an important stopping point, or overspeed. Entering riders had to wait while exiting riders alighted from the train before they could begin a long boarding process.
In a new braking schedule known as AMUE, however, the electric and pneumatic notches are joined together on the motorman's brake stand. Consequently, the most prudent course of action was determined to be adding center doors to each Composite car. Therefore, even if the electric brake is defective or inactive, his moving the brake handle to the apply position would still begin setting up a pneumatic application of the brakes, creating a much quicker response to the condition than possible under any other previous system. As part of the modifications for elevated service, the Composites were equipped with AMUE schedule braking from 1916 until their retirement. Adding a center door to the carbody, however, directly conflicted with the Manhattan style seating, so the center transverse seats had to be removed for these modifications.
The carbody had also not been designed with the strength necessary to support a center door, so when this modification was made, it was necessary to add fishbelly girders underneath the center doors to provide added strength for the car's frame.

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