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Kwok’s wife was with him and was taken to the hospital for trauma, police said, though she was not physically injured. Kwok was standing on the platform at the subway station at 167th Street and Grand Concourse, when he was apparently pushed. Police would not speculate whether there was an altercation between Kwok and the suspect or whether there are any indications of a hate crime. Sunday evening, police released surveillance video of a person wanted for questioning in connection with the homicide but did not call the person a suspect.
In the good old days it was necessary to call upon the lady with the magic wand for the attainment of any gift out of reach.
And still the cry goes up for more speed and less distance and a new method of caring for the weary breadwinners must be found. In 1868 the State Legislature of New York, gave to the New York City Central Underground Company a charter which granted the company unusual powers. These were the questions asked and vaguely answered until one man, more daring than his fellows actually dug his tunnel under the most crowded part of Broadway, at a depth lower than the foundations of the adjacent buildings, and this too, without the interruption of either traffic or business. Still the idea would not down, and though for years it slumbered, it finally awoke with increased vigor and demanded a hearing.
Our city-loving Mayor was still the practical business man and while he advocated all speed in the pushing forward any crying public need, he was wise enough to consider the ways and means by which the public need was to be supplied. Unfortunately for both New York City and the project of the then Mayor, the scheme submitted to the Common Council and the Legislature of the State, was reported upon with disfavor by both parties and nothing further could be done. Five years later, in 1893, the Chamber of Commerce took up the matter and appointed a Committee of which the members were Ex-Mayor Hewitt and judge Henry R. Thus was brought into being what was afterward known as the "Rapid Transit Commission," by whose orders the present subway was begun.
At the election of that year, however, the voters of New York City decided that the city should "own, control, and operate all rapid transit roads thereafter erected within the borders of the City," and as soon as the moneyed men discovered that the subway must be owned and controlled by the people, they became unwilling to advance the proper sums for the construction of the road. Another provision of the law made it obligatory upon the builders of the proposed routes to obtain the permission of the majority of the adjacent property owners and in default of their consent to make application to the Supreme Court for consent to build the road, despite the objections of these owners.
It so happened that at this time the consolidation of the boroughs of what was called for the first time Greater New York, brought with it such an accumulation of debt that it was found necessary to amend the Constitution of the State in order to extend the city's debt limit. The other day a trainload of newspaper men and other invited guests of the road traveled from one end of the road to the other. Ingenious methods have been used for the protection of the buildings, pipes, subways and vaults and the surface street-railway lines and surface traffic in general.
The subways of Paris and London have been built through clay and that of Boston entirely through earth. In the construction of this new highway, there have been used over seventy-one thousand tons of steel and nearly ten thousand tons of cast iron; over half a million yards of concrete and nearly a million square yards of waterproofing. The cost to the city will be in the neighborhood of $40,000,000 which sum is entirely covered by bonds. As completed, the main part of the subway is built in a shallow trench, with a roof to support the surface of the street. Of course lower Broadway is one of the busiest of streets and it would be impossible to obstruct its traffic.
Our morning and evening rides through the tunnel will be pleasure excursions through long, broad, airy passages, relieved here and there by commodious, well-lighted rooms, colored in a kaleidoscopic variety of tints. At the annual exhibition of the Architects' League last winter, a number of signs and numbers of the stations were on view and the various sizes and colors and general idea were criticized by those who had in mind the stereotyped blue and white lettering of our present elevated road.
In the sections now completed, a form of construction has been employed that is designed to obviate the disadvantages of the shallow subways previously built. Since the first agitation by the public at large for an extension of the system many additions have been made to the original loop. The question of rapid transit is one of the most puzzling of all questions to those who live in large cities. It is estimated that on an average, seventy-six thousand persons travel on these same surface roads from their homes to places of amusement every evening in the year and back again after the performances are over. Express trains making thirty miles an hour are run on the subway tracks between One Hundred and Forty-fifth Street and City Hall, stopping at stations a little over a mile apart.
The express stations are: Brooklyn Bridge, Fourteenth Street, Forty-second Street and Madison Avenue (Grand Central Station), Seventy-second Street and Ninety-sixth Street. The original Rapid Transit Subway Construction Company, behind which is at present the Interborough, but which is still the actual constructing company, had as its officers: August Belmont, President, Walter G. Money, great power though it be, has its limitations; it will not buy character, brains nor the splendid executive ability necessary to carry out the stupendous enterprise now established from a financial standpoint.
A novice, too, could not be selected for the work, for it was most essential that a man whose previous career and record for the successful accomplishment of large engineering exploits were such as to inspire the public and the financial backers with confidence in his ability to create, promote and successfully terminate the greatest underground enterprise ever conceived of in all history. In all the great contracting world, only two men had had the temerity to come forward and make a bid for the subway, and to Mr.
One of his greatest achievements in the line of railroading, with the exception of the subway, was the building of the Baltimore Belt Railroad which carries the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad under the streets, houses and great buildings of the city of Baltimore. The outline of the reservoir is somewhat unique, being irregularly oblong, about one mile long and one and one-half miles in width, covering an area equal to three hundred acres.
There could surely be no mistake in choosing a man with this record to carry out the building of the subway, for whatever obstacles were met with in the course of construction, the public would feel confident that Mr. Although the subway project had been before the public some ten years, its financial status was still discouragingly dark in the fall of 1899.
The situation at once changed, and although now January, all the formalities incidental to the commencement of work on the subway were covered and the first movement along the line of construction was made by the turning of a shovel of earth by ex-Mayor Robert A.
August Belmont is a New Yorker by birth and from a boy has had unsurpassed training in financial affairs, his father, the late August Belmont, being for many years one of the recognized leaders in the financial world. In addition to the subway, many railroads throughout the United States owe their reorganization and prosperous condition to his skillful management and untiring efforts. While Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Louisville and Nashville Railway, he made that system one of the chief in this country.
Philosophers tell us that the ancient Greeks were the most cultured of all races, because they flocked to the cities; because instead of living on isolated farms, and in the suburbs, they congregated in populous towns and insisted upon a constant interchange of ideas and opinions.
The contract for the construction, equipment and operation of the Manhattan Bronx Subway was awarded to John B.
The lease to the operating company runs for a period of fifty years with the privilege of renewal for an additional twenty-five years.
The '''New York City Subway''' is a rapid transit+ system owned by the City of New York+ and leased to the New York City Transit Authority+,Hood, Clifton. The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan+, Brooklyn+, Queens+, and the Bronx+. By annual ridership, the New York City Subway is the busiest rapid transit rail system in the United States and in the Western world, as well as the seventh busiest rapid transit rail system+ in the world; the metro (subway) systems in Beijing+, Seoul+, Shanghai+, Moscow+, Tokyo+, and Guangzhou+ record a higher annual ridership.
All services pass through Manhattan except for the train, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle+, and the Rockaway Park Shuttle+. A demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City was first built by Alfred Ely Beach+ in 1869 and opened in February 1870. The Great Blizzard of 1888+ helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system.
By the time the first subway opened, the lines had been consolidated into two privately owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company+ (BRT, later Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation+ (BMT)) and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company+ (IRT). In 1940, the two private systems were bought by the city and some elevated lines ceased service immediately while others closed soon after.
The New York City Transit Authority+ (NYCTA), a public authority presided by New York City, was created in 1953 to take over subway, bus, and streetcar operations from the city, and placed under control of the state-level Metropolitan Transportation Authority+ in 1968. Organized in 1934 by transit workers of the BRT, IRT, and IND, the Transport Workers Union of America+ Local 100 remains the largest and most influential local of the labor unions. As the system entered the 21st century, it continued to progress despite weathering several disasters. When the IRT subway+ debuted in 1904, the typical tunnel construction method was cut-and-cover+. About 40% of the subway system runs on surface or elevated tracks, including steel or cast iron elevated structures+, concrete viaduct+s, embankments+, open cuts+ and surface routes.
The 7,700 workers who built the original subway lines were mostly immigrants+ living in Manhattan. More recent projects use tunnel boring machine+s (construction with which comes at a higher cost than construction with cut-and-cover does) to build the subway tunnels to minimize disruption at street level, but also to avoid already existing utilities.
Since the opening+ of the original New York City Subway line in 1904, various official and planning agencies have proposed numerous extensions to the subway system. Though most of the routes proposed over the decades have never seen construction, discussion remains strong to develop some of these lines, to alleviate existing subway capacity constraints and overcrowding, the most notable being the Second Avenue Subway+. After the IND Sixth Avenue Line+ was completed in 1940, the city went into great debt+, and only 29 new stations have been added to the system since. Many rapid transit systems run relatively static routings, so that a train "line" is more or less synonymous with a train "route". Though the subway system operates on a 24-hour basis+, some of the designated routes do not run, run as a shorter route (often referred to as the 'shuttle train' version of its full-length counterpart) or run with a different stopping pattern during late night hours (usually indicated by smaller, secondary route signage on station platforms). This means that 61% of the stations are below the surface (59% being fully underground and approx 2% being sub surface stations).
Upon entering a station, passengers may use station booths (formerly known as token booths) or vending machines to buy their fare, which is currently stored in a MetroCard+.
A typical subway station has waiting platforms ranging from long, though some IND platforms may be as long as long. Since the majority of the system was built before 1990, the year the Americans with Disabilities Act+ (ADA) went into effect, many New York City Subway stations were not designed to be handicapped-accessible. The system maintains two separate fleets of cars, one for the A Division routes and another for the B Division routes.
On March 24, 2012, the MTA announced that it ordered 300 R179+ subway cars from Bombardier+.
Riders pay a single fare to enter the subway system and may transfer between trains at no extra cost until they exit via station turnstiles; the fare is a flat rate regardless of how far or how long the rider travels.
In November 1993, the subway system introduced a fare system called the MetroCard, which allows riders to use cards that store the value equal to the amount paid to a station booth clerk or vending machine.
In 2003, the MTA signed a $160 million contract with Siemens Transportation Systems+ to install digital real-time message boards at 158 of its IRT stations to display the number of minutes until the arrival of the next trains. To-day, we still seek our good fairy, but her name is Enterprise, and her wand is tipped with Gold.
Set upon an island long and narrow and hemmed about on all sides by deep rivers, she is precluded from expanding in any direction save by ferry and bridge. There is no space left on the surface of the island, and the spider tracks of steel overhead are insufficient for the city's needs.
This company built the first subway in New York City for local traffic, the present Fourth Avenue surface car tunnel. And still, men of means, who are always suspicious of any new scheme, refused to open their pocketbooks, the project of continuing the tunnel was abandoned, and the excavation already made was used by a wine company as a storage vault.
Hewitt in his January message, 1888, outlined the new scheme from which the present underground road became a fact.
But at the election of November 1899, this amendment was adopted and the Commission was placed in a position to carry out its project. During the first five years, no payment was to be made unless the profits of the road amounted to five per cent.


They have excavated 3,508,000 cubic yards of earth and stone; they have built a tunnel twenty-one miles in length. In the construction of the subway of New York, it has been necessary to cut away nearly a million cubic yards, of rock in the open and a half a million cubic yards of rock by tunneling. But a track has been constructed that is over three hundred thousand lineal feet in length, seven-tenths of the entire length being underground and sixty thousand feet overhead. In this one side of the street is blasted out to the depth of some thirty or more feet and one-half of the subway built in the trench as dug. During the building of the tunnel under this thoroughfare, crowds were passing overhead in utter ignorance of any excavating going on beneath their feet. A gentleman vitally interested in the work and whose office is on this lower Broadway, phoned the subcontractor having that part of the work in hand, and complained that this part of the work was not pushed fast enough and added that if he didn't start work soon, he would not get his section done on time. Architects, designers, painters, have been called in with suggestions, advice and practical demonstration of what could be utilized in William Morris' idea of beautifying the useful.
As a matter of fact, no two stations look alike, and in many places the decorations tell a story in a pictorial way. As now planned, the subway connects with a tunnel passing under the East River to Brooklyn, with stations at Brooklyn Borough Hall, Atlantic Avenue, Prospect Park, etc., making provision for rapid transit to the Borough of Brooklyn by numerous arteries of the original subway system, all connected with the original plant devised solely for the Boroughs of Manhattan and The Bronx.
The means of travel between one's home and one's place of business becomes one of the economics of the citizens of all large communities. McDonald had been a familiar figure in public life; from the time that be contracted in connection with Messrs. This enterprise was carried on under the name of the Maryland Construction Company, with whom were associated John K.
It forms almost an artificial lake, bounded on the north by Van Cortlandt Park, Kingsbridge Road on the south, Jerome Avenue on the east and Sedgwick Avenue on the west.
The powers that be in the world of capital, realizing that a perpetual franchise would not be granted to any one corporation and that this new thoroughfare would be distinctly under the control of the city, were far from enthusiastic regarding the financial backing of the underground enterprise. The Board of Rapid Transit Commissioners bad been most active and persevering in their appeals to the moneyed powers controlling the New York Central systems and the Metropolitan Street Traction interests, but these financiers still failed to be convinced of the profit and practicability of this much talked of scheme.
Van Wyck, on the twenty-fourth day of March, 1900, in the midst of most elaborate ceremonies and in the presence of crowds of people. Belmont identified himself with his father's banking house, and his natural ability in connection with his hard work and careful attention to details made it possible for him to assume entire charge of affairs and become the head of the banking house following the death of his father in 1890. Belmont's ability is also recognized and he is at the present time President of the First National Bank of Hempstead and Director of the National Park Bank, besides being President of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the Rapid Transit Subway Construction Company. Perhaps it may not be truthfully claimed that New York has become the Mecca of culture and refinement, but it is rapidly assimilating the wealth and the wealth-makers of the world, and it is here that the gold-tipped wand of Enterprise is surest of effecting magic cures.
McDonald transferred the contract for construction to the Rapid Transit Subway Construction Company, and the contract for equipment and operation to the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. From the center line of Chambers Street along Centre Street and Elm Street to the center line of Great Jones Street. Lafayette Place from the center line of Great Jones Street to Astor Place, and Fourth Avenue from Astor Place to 100 feet north of the center line of Thirty-third Street. From 100 feet north of the center line of Thirty-third Street along Fourth Avenue to the center line of Forty-first Street.
From the center of Forty-first Street and Fourth Avenue along Fourth Avenue to Forty-second Street, along Forty-second Street to Broadway, along Broadway to the center line of Forty-seventh Street. From the center line of Forty-seventh Street and Broadway to the north end of the station at Columbus Circle, Sixtieth Street and Broadway.
From Eighty-second Street and Broadway to the center line of One hundred and fourth Street and Broadway.
From a junction with the main line on Broadway, easterly under private property to One Hundred and Fourth Street, along One Hundred and Fourth Street to Central Park, under the northwest corner of Central Park to the center line of One Hundred and Tenth Street and Lenox Avenue. From the Centre line of One Hundred and Tenth Street and Lenox Avenue to 100 feet north of the center line of One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Street and Lenox Avenue. From a point 100 feet north of the center line of One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Street and Lenox Avenue to the center line of Girard Avenue in the Borough of The Bronx.
From the center line of Girard Avenue to the west building line of Brook Avenue and Westchester Avenue. Viaduct on Westchester Avenue, Southern Boulevard and Boston Road, from Brook Avenue to Bronx Park. From the center line of One Hundred and Fourth Street and Broadway to 10 feet north of the south side of One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Street on Broadway. Manhattan Valley Viaduct, from One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Street to the north building line of One Hundred and Thirty-third Street on Broadway. From the north building line of One Hundred and Thirty-third Street and Broadway, along Broadway to Eleventh Avenue, along Eleventh Avenue to the center line of One Hundred and Eighty-first Street. From the center line of One Hundred and Eighty-first Street and Eleventh Avenue, along Eleventh Avenue to Hillside Avenue at Fort George. See New York City Subway nomenclature+ for more information.(1 under construction+)24+ services(1 planned+)These "services" run on physical tracks. Without counting Cortlandt Street, the figure is stations (or by international standards). A small portion of the latter line's original right-of-way is still in daily use near Coney Island+. While Staten Island+ does have a rail line, the Staten Island Railway+, it is not officially considered part of the subway, due to its lack of any direct rail link with the subway system, so any passengers wishing to reach another borough must take a ferry+ or bus+.
Overall, the system contains of routes, of revenue track; and a total of including non-revenue track+age. Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments+, or in open cuts+, and a few stretches of track run at ground level. His Beach Pneumatic Transit+ only extended under Broadway+ in Lower Manhattan+ operating from Warren Street to Murray Street and exhibited his idea for a subway propelled by pneumatic tube+ technology. A plan for the construction of the subway was approved in 1894, and construction began in 1900. The city was closely involved: all lines built for the IRT and most other lines built or improved for the BRT after 1913 were built by the city and leased to the companies. Integration was slow, but several connections+ were built between the IND and BMT; these now operate as one division called the B Division+. Since the union's founding, there have been three union strikes over contract disputes with the MTA: 12 days in 1966+, 11 days in 1980+, and three days in 2005+.
Still, the NYCTA managed to open six new subway stations in the 1980s, as well as order 1,775 new, graffiti-free subway cars.
The September 11 attacks+ resulted in service disruptions+ on lines running through Lower Manhattan, particularly the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line+, which ran directly underneath the World Trade Center+ between the Chambers Street+ and Rector Street+ stations.
They had to deal with rock formations, and ground water, which meant that they had to build pumps in order to keep water out of the system. However, mining shields were required for deeper sections, such as the Harlem and East River+ tunnels, which used cast-iron tubes, segments between 33rd and 42nd streets under Park Avenue+, 116th Street and 120th Street under Broadway, and 145th Street and Dyckman Street (Fort George) under Broadway and Saint Nicholas Avenue as well as the tunnel from 96th Street to Central Park North – 110th Street and Lenox Avenue+, all of which used either rock or concrete-lined tunnels. All of these construction methods are completely grade-separated+ from road and pedestrian crossings, and most crossings of two subway tracks are grade-separated with flying junction+s. Examples of such projects include the extension of the IRT Flushing Line+ and the IND Second Avenue Line+.
One of the more expansive proposals was the "IND+ Second System", part of a plan to construct new subway lines in addition to taking over existing subway lines and railroad rights-of-way. Plans for new lines date back to the early 1910s, and expansion plans have been proposed during many years of the system's existence. Five stations were on the abandoned New York, Westchester and Boston Railway+-operated IRT Dyre Avenue Line+, fourteen stations were on the abandoned LIRR Rockaway Beach Branch+ (now the IND Rockaway Line+), six were on the Archer Avenue Lines+ and 63rd Street Lines+ (built as part of a 1968 plan+), two stations (57th Street+ and Grand Street+) were part of the Chrystie Street Connection+, the Harlem – 148th Street+ terminal, and the 7 Subway Extension+ to the west side+ of Manhattan.There is one station (10th Avenue+) planned as a future infill station. In New York City, however, routings change often because of changes in the availability of connections or the setup of service patterns. Each route has a color and a local or express designation representing the Manhattan trunk line of the particular service. The '''''', '''''', '''''', '''''', '''''', '''''', '''''' and '''''' train normally operates local, but during rush hour+s it is joined by the '''''' is used for three shuttle services: Franklin Avenue Shuttle+, Rockaway Park Shuttle+, and 42nd Street Shuttle+. In addition to these regularly scheduled changes, because there is no nightly system shutdown for maintenance, tracks and stations must be maintained while the system is operating. Platforms of former commuter rail stations, such as those on the IND Rockaway Line+, are even longer. On these lines, express stations typically have two island platforms, one for the local and express in one direction, and another for the local and express in the other direction.
Since then, elevators have been built in newly constructed stations to comply with the ADA.
The total price of the contract is US$+599 million, with the first test train of ten cars arriving in June 2016, due to ongoing delivery problems. Thus, riders must swipe their MetroCard+ upon entering the subway system, but not a second time upon leaving.
Single-use cards may be purchased for $3.00, and 7-day and 30-day unlimited ride cards can lower the effective per-ride fare significantly. The MetroCard was enhanced in 1997 to allow passengers to make free transfers between subways and buses within two hours; several MetroCard-only transfers between subway stations+ were added in 2001.
Payments to the company were stopped in May 2006 following many technical problems and delays and MTA started to look for alternative suppliers and technologies. Those who prefer to remain upon the island day and night, find more and more difficulty as years go by in fighting their way from office to home and seek every expedient to lessen the distance between the two.
It was built at the time- and used for several years thereafter- as an extension of the trunk-line roads upon which the cars of the New York and Rapid Transit Railroad were brought singly and by horse-power to their lower depot in Centre Street near the site of the present Criminal Court building. The way was now paved for the consummation of the cherished scheme and it became necessary but to select a financial backer and a constructor, for upon these two pillars would rest the ultimate success of the greatest underground railway system in the world. It required a volume of 180 printed pages to contain the entire contract between this city and the contractor.
McDonald, the contractor, is expending nearly $20,000,000 more for equipment; it being understood that the McDonald Company will operate the road for fifty years to come. It was necessary, however, in some places to open both sides of the street at once, and often in places where the surface-car lines had to be supported bridges and trestles and long lines of streets of boards were constructed.
In places, however, the road has been obliged to cut through rocky hills and twice it has had to pass under the bed of a river, and here, of course, a deep tunnel became necessary. The ground is very soft at this point and the workmen were thus able to make steady progress, and put in braces to support the street as fast as they proceeded. For instance, the decoration at Astor Place is a beaver, suggesting the story of the Astor family.
Others have been known to leak, because, though waterproof on the bottom, they bad not been waterproofed to the top on the sides, or on the roof. However, the Board has granted a franchise for a tunnel system passing from Weehawken in New Jersey, across the North River under Manhattan Island to the Borough of Queens by a double tunnel under the North River, ending in a massive depot covering the blocks bounded by Seventh and Ninth Avenues and Thirty-first and Thirty-third Streets. Most cities of any size are so situated that lines of travel may be extended in any and every direction.
These two combined means of transportation have been proven to be insufficient for those who would live on or near Manhattan Island, and consequently numbers of suburban places in Jersey and Long Island separated by ferry and bridge from the business center of the town have been selected by those who have business interests on lower Manhattan Island. McDonald, whose estimate was four million dollars lower than his competitor's, was awarded the contract. McDonald turned his attention to railroad construction and contracted with the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad to extend the road from Binghamton to Buffalo.
Cowan, the President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company and Samuel Rhea, now Vice-President of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company.


His splendid ability was also recognized in the working out of the gigantic enterprise- the building of the Jerome Park Reservoir, begun in 1895.
New Yorkers are wont to boast of their superiority over the rest of mankind, and at last they have good reason for their boast. The home and the office of the Manhattan Islander have been brought within the shortest possible distance of each other and the road has been beautified for the traveler.
The Port Authority Trans-Hudson+ and the AirTrain JFK+, in Manhattan and Queens respectively, accept the subway's MetroCard+ but are not part of the subway; thus, free transfers are not allowed.
The tunnel was never extended for political and financial reasons, although extensions had been planned to take the tunnel southward to The Battery+ and northwards towards the Harlem River+. The first underground line of the subway opened on October 27, 1904, almost 36 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line+.James Blaine Walker, , published 1918, pp.
The first line of the city-owned and operated Independent Subway System+ (IND) opened in 1932; this system was intended to compete with the private systems and allow some of the elevated railways to be torn down, but stayed within the core of the City due to the low amount of startup capital provided to the municipal Board of Transportation (the later MTA) by the state.
Since the IRT+ tunnels, sharper curves, and stations are too small+ and therefore can not accommodate B Division cars, the IRT remains its own division, the A Division+. By the early 1990s, conditions had improved significantly, although maintenance backlogs accumulated during those 20 years are still being fixed today. Additionally, 12 miles of sewers, as well as water and gas mains, electric conduits, and steam pipes had to be rerouted. The sole exceptions of at-grade junctions of two lines in regular service are the 142nd Street junction+ and the Myrtle Avenue junction+, whose tracks both intersect at the same level.
The most grandiose IND Second Subway plan, conceived in 1929, was to be part of the city-operated IND, and was to comprise almost 1 of the current subway system. Within the nomenclature of the subway+, the "line" describes the physical railroad track or series of tracks that a train "route" uses on its way from one terminal to another.
The color is exclusively assigned to the Crosstown Line+ route, which operates entirely outside Manhattan, while the shuttles are all assigned . To accommodate such work, services are usually changed during midday, overnight hours, and weekends.
After swiping the card at a turnstile, customers enter the fare-controlled area of the station and continue to the platforms. Due to the large number of transit lines, one platform or set of platforms often serve more than one service. Each island platform provides a cross-platform interchange+ between local and express services.
There is also a special fleet of B Division cars that is used for operation in the BMT Eastern Division+, consisting of R32+ and R42+ cars in married pairs, and R143+ and R160A+ cars in four-car sets. These cars are collectively known as New Technology Train+s (NTTs) due to modern innovations such as LED+ and LCD+ route signs and information screens, as well as recorded train announcements and the ability to facilitate Communication-Based Train Control (CBTC)+.
With the addition of unlimited-ride MetroCards in 1998 (for 7-day and 30-day periods, later 1-day "Fun Pass" and 14-day periods, both of which have been discontinued), the New York City Transit system was the last major transit system in the United States with the exception of BART+ in San Francisco+ to introduce passes for unlimited bus and rapid transit travel. Time was when the slowly dragging horse-car was fast enough for their needs, but as business increased and population swelled New Yorkers grew more and more impatient of the time consumed in their daily journeys back and forth, the trolley was substituted for the horse and the Elevated Railroad for the more easily blocked surface lines.
Plainly stated, however, the contract provided for the organization of a corporation with a capital of $6,000,000 for the construction of the road and to enter into a contract with the contractor to promote the construction, to furnish the necessary security, for him, and to supply him with all the financial aid necessary, to be used in the undertaking. During this fifty years, however, the Company is to pay to the city the $40,000,000 advanced, and at the completion of this term of half a century, the city will be the possessor of the subway and the equipment is to be turned over at a fair price.
In others the streets lay open with all the secrets of badly built and badly cared for underground laid bare to the gaze of the curious.
Letters and symbols in every corner, in every detail, assist the traveler in the detection of the number and name of the station at which he is alighting. At Bleecker Street, the name in large letters is inserted in a broad blue panel and an artistic B is woven here and there in the frieze.
The New York Subway, however, is built with top, sides, and bottom of concrete and waterproofing in alternate layers, incasing a framework of steel beams. From this underground station three tunnels are to extend under the East River into the Borough of Queens, giving the Pennsylvania Railroad Company direct communication not only with Manhattan Island, but with the extremities of Long Island.
London, Paris, Vienna, Chicago, Boston- these are examples where the city proper, the business center, is but a point from which radii extend in every direction and those who live within a circle of five, ten or twenty miles, secure what is popularly known as rapid transit between their places of business and their homes. So soon as it was found that both the surface and elevated railroads were insufficient for the practical needs of the city, various schemes for underground transportation were conceived and presented for practical solution. The West Shore and Baltimore and Ohio Railroad companies also secured his services and the extension of the latter road from Baltimore to Philadelphia was done under his supervision. The original contract was for $6,000,000, but will probably exceed that amount before completion. In an incredibly short time, and in spite of popular prejudice, and legal and civic hindrance, it has accomplished one of the most stupendous feats of business and mechanical engineering the world has ever seen, and the beauty of it all is that its brains and its millions have co-operated in the amelioration of present conditions, and for the purpose of giving the most vital assistance to its citizens, in their hurly-burly existence. In 1912, workers excavating for the present-day BMT Broadway Line+ dug into the old Beach tunnel; today, no part of this line remains as the tunnel was completely within the limits of the present day City Hall Station+ under Broadway.
162–191 Opening prices for a ride cost riders $0.05 and in the first day alone carried over 150,000 passengers. This required it to be run 'at cost', necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time. However, many passenger transfers between stations of all three former companies have been created, allowing the entire network to be treated as a single unit. Temporary steel and wooden bridges were built so that streetcar and vehicular traffic could operate above the construction. In order for the street above to be torn up to allow for cut-and-cover to be done, street railways had to be torn up. Inside fare control are "Off-Hours Waiting Areas", which consist of benches and are identified by a yellow sign. Passengers need to look at the overhead signs at the platform entrance steps and over each track to see which trains stop there and when, and at the arriving train to see which one it is. Some lines with four-track express service have two tracks each on two levels and use both island and side platforms. As of March 2016, there are 103 currently accessible stations; many of them have AutoGate+ access. Due to clearance issues on various sharp curves, long cars are not permitted on BMT Eastern Division trackage. The recorded announcements are used for station information, closing doors, and other general messages in lieu of conductor announcements, although live conductor announcements can still be made. In January 2014, the MTA stated that it wants to implement a contactless fare system to replace the MetroCard by 2019. August Belmont satisfied himself with the details of the scheme as presented and offered himself as the financial agent, and to Mr.
The company was organized by August Belmont & Company and called the Rapid Transit Subway Construction Company. The roof is supported by steel pillars five feet apart and set in parallel rows in concrete top and bottom. Furthermore, there is a further tunnel completed by the New York and New Jersey Railroad Company and which has been over twenty years in building, that enters Manhattan at Morton Street. Manhattan Island, however, is of such peculiar formation that traffic of this kind must needs go in one direction, north and south. He was also successful in securing the four-million-dollar contract from the Illinois Central. Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the world's most used metro systems, and the metro system with the most stations and the most trackage.
The oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line+ in Brooklyn and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line+. The foundations of tall buildings often ran near the subway construction, which meant that engineers in some cases had to underpin the buildings in order to ensure the stability of the buildings and the subway.
They are also designations for trains, as exemplified in the Billy Strayhorn+ song "Take the "A" Train+". Under the current MTA plans, the number of ADA accessible stations will go up to 144 by 2020.
The recordings began in the late 1990s and featured Bloomberg Radio+ on-air speakers, who volunteered at the request of their employer Michael Bloomberg+, who would later become mayor of New York City.
For the said consideration of $35,000,000, the contractor was to equip the road in everything that was necessary and build it ready for operation.
The contract further provided that the motive power was to be electricity, but that the Construction Company had the privilege of installing new and approved methods of locomotion at any time, by and with the consent of the Rapid Transit Board.
Glass roofs give the the stations plenty of light which is diffused from the glazed tiles and various decorations. At Twenty-third Street, there is a wainscoting of pink Georgia marble and innumerable 23s in plaques. Normally, the outer two are used for local trains, while the inner one or two are used for express trains. The oldest right-of-way, which is part of the BMT West End Line+ near Coney Island Creek+, was in use in 1864 as a steam railroad called the Brooklyn, Bath and Coney Island Rail Road+.
Voices include Jessica Ettinger Gottesman+, Diane Thompson, Charlie Pellett, Catherine Cowdery, and Melissa Kleiner.
The Board made application to the city officials in 1895 for its approval of all lines mapped out by them which was substantially the course now completed. The fare from one end of the road to the other was to be five cents, but the road has the privilege of providing parlor cars to the extent of one car per train and in which parlor cars an additional fare may be charged. It has become, therefore, one of the most puzzling questions of the day, to accommodate the thousands of travelers bent upon the same journey at the same moment.
McDonald for fifty years and required in return a rental equal to the interest payable to the city upon the bonds issued by it to provide means of construction and also to pay one per cent.
The contractor has the further option of a new lease of the road for a period of twenty-five years, at a rental to be agreed upon, and the city may buy the equipment at the termination of the lease. It is calculated that enough air will enter at the stations to keep the tunnel fresh and sweet, and that the current of air caused by the cars will keep the air in motion.
Take the surface roads for example: The various surface lines running north and south carry between the hours of seven and nine 100,000 persons in one direction, south, and between the hours of five and six carry these same 100,000 persons back to their homes.
Pellett's recordings are used for most of the remaining announcements, most notably "Stand clear of the closing doors, please" prior to train doors closing.
Property holders delayed giving their consent, and, while the Common Council and other city officials were willing to do what lay in their power, the Board was obliged to apply to the Supreme Court for its ruling, and the Court promptly decided that the entire act was unconstitutional and also held that the road must extend from one end of the city to the other and must not exceed $50,000,000 in cost, and, as the route as proposed by the Commission did not extend to the limits of the city, additions to the plan originally proposed had to be made.
By the provision of the contract, the city is also held harmless from all suit for damages, arising from both the construction and the operation of the new road.
With regards to why certain messages are voiced by males and others by females, MTA spokesperson Gene Sansone said in 2006 that, "Most of the orders are given by a male voice, while informational messages come from females.
These additions include a route beginning at the Post-Office with the loop for the trains running from the downtown tracks to the upper, and other changes across the Harlem Ship Canal and a portion of the Spuyten Duyvil Creek to Kingsbridge, etc. Even though this happened by accident, it is a lucky thing because a lot of psychologists agree that people are more receptive to orders from men and information from women". The Court finally approved of both the changed route and the manner of construction of the road, and now came the question of properly, financing the scheme, and the securing of a proper contractor to carry out the instructions of the Commission.



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