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Mikeabono saidA he started researching the city's best coffee shops using articles, blogs, Yelp, Google, and Zagat reviews, trying to avoid duplicates. Simply click on any area of the map and watch the screen reveal information about that area, price guide for area and links to local Estate Agents. The new page will show you links to Letting and Estate agents in that area of London, a brief description of that area and a rough guide to rents for typical accommodation. In the time it takes most people to read this sentence, the world will have used up (forever) about 9,520 barrels of oil. The United States plays a central role in the global energy system as the largest consumer, the largest importer and the third-largest producer of oil in the world. Then the question arose: Might information (thematic) topology now be interchangable with purely geographical topology? John Adam’s map from 1680 places towns in relative (not absolute) geographic lat-long coordinates in a rough framework that preserves their orientation to one another and in the rough-shape of their original geography. This topological focus (of NODES and EDGES in math-speak) is perfectly represented in Adam’s map. Modern scientific cartography, with an emphasis on visualization, might finally be loosening the geographic straight jacket to the point where purely lat-long geography doesn’t matter so much but the inter-connection (edges) of said features (nodes) gains emphases and is preserved. Zach Johnson has a good post on this topic on his blog (cartograms are the focus of his Masters Thesis).
Below a New York Times map showing the weighted electoral votes of the 48 contiguous states as the topological area of each state. The map is dispensing with equal-land-area between nodes (the overall area and shape are preserved) and instead focusing on DISTANCE and DIRECTION between each node. Such topological maps are not diagrams because they are still rooted in land-geography; the placement of the nodes is guided by land geography but shift accordingly to best show the interrelationships between nodes.
The above example from the 8th Edition National Geographic Atlas of the World focuses on the quantity difference between nodes and represents that with height spikes (3d). Projecting a n-dimensioned topology onto a 2d surface has one or more points tangent to the 2d surface.
Last night, the Museum of the City of New York brought together a panel of New York City subway map dignitaries for “The New York City Subway Map – Form v. Massimo Vignelli started off the conversation with an introduction to transit diagrams around the world.
Paul Shaw, author and typographer, then introduced some common problems to consider when making a subway map. With the onset of new technologies, more and more people are taking it upon themselves to alleviate some of these issues.
Despite the obvious frustrations with and criticisms of the MTA’s design choices (and perhaps because no MTA representative sat on the panel), it was a jovial evening overall. Meredith Baber is a Project Associate at Urban Omnibus and a Masters candidate in the Critical, Curatorial and Conceptual Practices in Architecture Program at Columbia University’s GSAPP.
The views expressed here are those of the author only and do not reflect the position of Urban Omnibus editorial staff or the Architectural League of New York.

Perhaps the discussion might have had some real meaning if there was someone representing the MTA map.
I could give you an essay, based on truth and actual experience with the map, because I’ve lived with it for over thirty years and am witness to its aging. But the problem is that the current map is *neither* a clear diagram of the subway system *nor* an accurate depiction of the city’s geography. Footer TextUrban Omnibus is the Architectural League's online publication dedicated to defining and enriching the culture of citymaking. The pilot and development phase of Urban Omnibus was made possible by the Rockefeller Foundation. NEW YORK CITY - September 25: A tourist finds her way in Manhattan with the help of the subway and bus map in Penn Station on September 25, 2011 in New York, NY. Today only, save on used books and help us reach 15,000 books sold to double the donations.
He also enlisted the help of his friends, and on the weekends tried to find out what type of equipment and beans were used at each shop to help determine quality.
With use of this finite resource rising at breakneck speed, will the world have enough to meet its needs, and will it be able to afford it? Just three countries — Saudi Arabia, Russia and the United States — pump about 31 percent of the world’s oil. But the primary purpose of this map is to emphasize the relationship between towns and intra-town distances.
Circles (nodes) are inscribed with town names and straight lines (edges) connecting town circles are annotated with road distance (not straight-line geographic distance). But the river segments are drawn exaggerated to their geographic width to represent the EDGE weight between nodes in the true geography space. Ignoring the land-geography by listing the nodes and edges in a chart or table is not a map. But I think it can be used to represent any map that is a representation of more than simply 2 variables (lat and long).
An ideal solution shows all nodes and edges shown flattened out but this would likely require using an interrupted projection with dashed linkage lines between like-lobes content (I have seen this somewhere, need example).
In the England example above for the Dorling cartogram the north-south direction axis tilts left in the topology. Massimo noted the differences between a diagram and a map, but stressed the importance of both form and function in both. Tauranac is a New York City native who has been making maps of the city for almost 40 years and sat as the chair of the committee to redesign the MTA subway map in 1979. He explores the subway system, looking at signage and stations, and has come to understand the complexities that are inherent in a large transit system such as that of the MTA. Eddie Jabbour designed the KickMap as a geographical and graphically legible alternative to the MTA map, and even offered it to them to use. Serious discussions were balanced by more lighthearted conversations, such as favorite subway stations (which ranged from the abandoned City Hall station to the grand space of the 181st Street station in Washington Heights).

I thought the discussion at the museum was great, but the MTA perspective would be valuable.
Ongoing support is provided by the National Endowment for the Arts, the NYC Department of Cultural Affairs, in partnership with the City Council, the membership and board of the Architectural League, and readers like you.
The price guide can help you decide an suitable areas based on the rental price of a flat or house in London, England. More than 9 million barrels per day of crude oil (plus another 1 million barrels per day of liquids derived from natural gas) are being extracted from the reserves underneath Saudi Arabia, the world’s single largest oil producer. Consumption in most developed countries, including Britain, France, Germany and Italy, hovers around 2 million barrels a day — barely a tenth of that used by the U.S. A topological map takes a complex n-dimensioned space and represents that topology in a 2d dimensioned space.
Really, much of thematic cartography is 2.5d when it tries to represent complex datasets (like precipitation) with color and other visual variables.
The redesign intended to retain certain elements of a diagrammatic map, but based on geography, with a new color coding system for grouped trunk lines (prior to this, there was a different color for each line).
One archival image he presented showed a woman in a station, standing at a large call board. If you just pushed a button representing your final destination, the board would tell you how to get there from your current station. So Jabbour and his son created an iPhone app, which notes day and nighttime service changes, options to receive notifications of unexpected delays, GPS technology to help locate nearby stations and a compass to help orient yourself after exiting to the street. This behemoth was the predecessor to smart phones and Google maps, but why did such a useful concept disappear from the subway system? The app has been downloaded by over 350,000 people — a sign, Jabbour pointed out, that people are calling for a less confusing option. Now, for unfamiliar travelers, it is hard enough even to know where to get on the subway, let alone travel from one destination to another and transfer trains. But, he added, we can’t rest on smartphone tools, which are only used by a fraction of subway riders. The 1972 Vignelli NYC subway map was an attempt at a diagrammatic display for the subway system, consisting of 45 and 90 degree angles, many colors, and extreme legibility. The current map is not for travelers who need expedited information, but for the person who has time to scan tiny type to decipher whether or not the N train stops at 28th Street. There is still a dire need for easily-accessible print media, or other innovations that can benefit everyone.
However, the map was criticized by the public, who found the lack of above-ground geographic and navigational details confusing. In 1979 the MTA ousted Vignelli’s diagram for a “more legible” version — legibility defined, not as visual and textual clarity, but as geographical clarity.

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