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The building's architect was David Childs+, whose firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill+ (SOM) also designed the Burj Khalifa+ and the Willis Tower+. On March 30, 2009, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey+ (PANYNJ) confirmed that the building would be officially known by its legal name of "One World Trade Center", rather than its colloquial name of "Freedom Tower". The new World Trade Center complex will eventually include five high-rise+ office buildings built along Greenwich Street+, as well as the National September 11 Memorial and Museum+, located just south of One World Trade Center where the original Twin Towers stood.
The construction of the World Trade Center, of which the Twin Towers (One and Two+ World Trade Center) were the centerpieces, was conceived as an urban renewal+ project and spearheaded by David Rockefeller+. The towers were designed as framed tube structures+, giving tenants open floor plans, unobstructed by columns or walls. Construction of the North Tower (One World Trade Center) began in August 1966; extensive use of prefabricated components sped up the construction process. In the 1970s, four other low-level buildings were built as part of the World Trade Center complex. After Seven World Trade Center+ was built in the 1980s, the World Trade Center complex had a total of seven buildings; however, the most notable ones were the main Twin Towers built in the 1970s—One World Trade Center was the North Tower+, and Two World Trade Center+ was the South Tower+. When completed in 1972, One World Trade Center became the tallest building in the world for two years, surpassing the Empire State Building+, which had held the record for 40 years. The tower's electrical service was supplied by Consolidated Edison+ (ConEd) at 13,800 volts. The 110th floor of One World Trade Center (the North Tower) housed radio and television transmission equipment.
On a typical weekday, a combined total of 50,000 people worked in the North and South Towers, with another 200,000 passing through as visitors.
Together with a simultaneous attack+ on the Pentagon+ in Arlington, Virginia+, and a failed plane hijacking that resulted in a plane crash+ in Shanksville, Pennsylvania+, the attacks resulted in the deaths of 2,996 people+ (2,507 civilian+s, 343 firefighter+s, 72 law enforcement officer+s, 55 military personnel+, and the 19 hijackers+). Following the destruction of the original World Trade Center, there was debate regarding the future of the World Trade Center site. There was criticism concerning the limited number of floors that were designated for office space and other amenities in an early plan.
Contrasting with Libeskind's original plan, the tower's final design tapers octagonally as it rises. In a December 18, 2006, ceremony held in nearby Battery Park City+, members of the public were invited to sign the first steel beam installed onto the building's base. Detailed floor plans of the tower were posted on the New York City's Department of Finance website in May 2011, resulting in an uproar from the media and citizens of the surrounding area, who warned that the plans could potentially be used for a future terrorist attack.
The tower's loading dock, however, was not due to be finished in time to move equipment into the completed building, so five temporary loading bays were added at a cost of millions of dollars. The still-incomplete tower became New York City's tallest building by roof height in April 2012, passing the roof height of the Empire State Building+.. A report in September 2013 revealed that, at the time of the report, the World Trade Center Association (WTCA) was negotiating with regard to the "World Trade Center" name, as the WTCA had purchased the rights to the name in 1986. On November 12, 2013, the Height Committee of the Chicago+-based Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat+ (CTBUH) made the controversial announcement that One World Trade Center was the tallest building in the United States+ at 1,776 feet, declaring that the mast on top of the building is a spire since it is a permanent part of the building's architecture. On November 1, 2014, moving trucks started moving items for the tower's first tenant, magazine publisher Conde Nast+, from its old headquarters+ in Times Square+ to One World Trade Center. The building opened on November 3, 2014, and Conde Nast employees moved into spaces spread among 24 floors.Margolin, Josh (November 3, 2014).
On November 12, 2014, the supporting wire rope+ cables of a suspended working platform slacked.
An estimate in February 2007 placed the initial construction cost of One World Trade Center at about $3 billion, or $1,150 per square foot ($12,380 per square meter). Many of Daniel Libeskind+'s original concepts from the 2002 competition were discarded from the tower's final design. The building occupies a square, with an area of , nearly identical to the footprints of the original Twin Towers.
From the 20th floor upwards, the square edges of the tower's cubic base are chamfered+ back, shaping the building into eight tall isosceles triangle+s, or an elongated square antiprism+.
David Childs+ of SOM, the architect of One World Trade Center, said the following regarding the tower's design:. Just south of the new One World Trade Center is the National September 11 Memorial and Museum+, which is located where the original Twin Towers stood. One World Trade Center's top floor is officially designated as floor 104, despite the fact that the tower only contains 94 actual stories. The tower has a three-story observation deck, located on floors 100–102, in addition to existing broadcast and antenna facilities.
There are three eating venues at the top of the building: a cafe (called One Cafe), a bar and "small plates" grill (One Mix), and a fine dining restaurant (One Dining).
The original design went through significant changes after the Durst Organization+ joined the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey as the co-developer of the project in 2010. The tall base corners were originally designed to gently slope upward, and have prismatic glass. The spire was originally to be enclosed with a protective radome+, described as a "sculptural sheath of interlocking fiberglass panels". The large triangular plaza on the west side of One World Trade Center, facing the Hudson River+, was originally planned to have stainless steel steps descending to the street. Durst also removed a skylight from the plaza's plans; the skylight was designed to allow natural light to enter the below-ground observation deck lobby. The Port Authority formally approved all these revisions, and the revisions were first reported by the New York Post+. A contract negotiated between the Port Authority and the Durst Organization states that the Durst Organization will receive a $15 million fee and a percentage of "base building changes that result in net economic benefit to the project." The specifics of the signed contract give Durst 75 percent of the savings, up to $24 million, with further returns going down to 50 percent, 25 percent and 15 percent as the savings increase. One World Trade Center is the second-tallest freestanding structure in the Western Hemisphere+, as the CN Tower+ in Toronto+ exceeds One World Trade Center's pinnacle height by approximately . After design changes for One World Trade Center's spire were revealed in May 2012, there were questions as to whether the -tall structure would still qualify as a spire, and thus be included in the building's height. Like other buildings in the new World Trade Center complex, One World Trade Center includes sustainable architecture+ features. Along with the protection provided by the reinforced concrete base, a number of other safety features were included in the building's design, so that it would be prepared for a major accident or terrorist attack. The building is no longer away from West Street+, as the Twin Towers were; at its closest point, West Street is away. Once the World Trade Center site is fully completed, the plaza will be completely opened to the public, as the original World Trade Center plaza was. In March 2014, the tower was scaled by 16-year-old New Jersey resident Justin Casquejo, who entered the site through a hole in a fence. The Port Authority has opened a new platform at its World Trade Center station, giving commuters a glimpse of a transportation hub that's been in the works for years.The new "Platform A" will serve PATH trains going between the WTC and Hoboken. It's "a beautiful platform, about 15 feet wide, that will receive trains for decades to come," said Steven Plate, director of construction at the WTC. Plate said the wall "wasn't really designed to handle the load it took, because no one could have foresaw that load against it, but it withstood that.
Construction on the World Trade Center transportation hub, with its Calatrava-designed entrance, is ongoing, and expected to be completed in 2015. New Yorkers have anxiously awaited the long-overdue opening of the World Trade Center Transit Hub, designed by famed Spanish starchitect Santiago Calatrava, and today the world got a glimpse of what's to come at the Oculus. It is the tallest skyscraper+ in the Western Hemisphere+, and the fourth-tallest in the world+. The construction of below-ground utility relocations, footings, and foundations for the new building began on April 27, 2006.
The construction of the new building is part of an effort to memorialize and rebuild following the destruction of the original World Trade Center complex.
This design was accomplished by using many closely spaced perimeter columns, providing much of structure's strength, with the gravity load shared with the core columns. The North Tower was tall, and in 1978, a telecommunications antenna was added to the top of the roof; by itself, the antenna was tall. During the early years, various governmental organizations became key tenants of the World Trade Center, such as the State of New York+.

The electricity passed through the World Trade Center Primary Distribution Center (PDC), and was then sent up the building's core to electrical substations located on the mechanical floors. The roof of the North Tower contained a vast array of transmission antennas, including the center antenna mast, rebuilt by Dielectric Inc. Fire spread through the core of the building to the 9th and 14th floors, as the insulation for telephone cables, located in a utility shaft that ran vertically between floors, had been ignited. More than 90% of the workers and visitors who died in the towers had been at or above the points of impact.Sunder (2005), p. There were proposals for its reconstruction almost immediately, and by 2002, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation+ had organized a competition to determine how to use the site. Only 82 floors would have been habitable, and the total office space of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex would have been reduced by more than in comparison with the original complex. To address security issues raised by the New York City Police Department+, a concrete base was added to the design in April of that year. Construction of the tower's concrete core, which began after the cranes arrived, reached street level by May 17. Vantone plans to create the China Center, a trade and cultural facility, covering 191,000 square feet on floors 64 through 69.
On the weekend of July 4, 2011, it was lit up with the colors of the American flag+ to commemorate Independence Day+, and it was lit up with the same colors on September 11 to mark the 10th anniversary of the September 11 terrorist attacks.
The temporary PATH station was not to be removed until its official replacement, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub+, was completed, blocking access to the planned loading area. The WTCA sought $500,000 worth of free office space in the tower in exchange for the use of "World Trade Center" in the tower's name and associated souvenirs. The cables were manufactured by Tractel, and they were used to hold workers who performed maintenance on the building's exterior.
However, the tower's total estimated construction cost had risen to $3.9 billion by April 2012, making it the most expensive building in the world at the time. One World Trade Center's final design consisted of simple symmetries and a more traditional profile, intended to compare with selected elements of the contemporary New York skyline.
The tower is built upon a tall windowless concrete base, designed to protect it from truck bomb+s and other ground-level attacks.. Immediately to the east is World Trade Center Transportation Hub+ and the new Two World Trade Center+ site. The building has 86 usable above-ground floors, of which 78 are intended for office purposes (approximately ).
Similar to in the Empire State Building+, visitors will be separated from the tenants, having their own separate entrance next to the museum, descending down to a below-ground security screening area.
A plan to build a restaurant near the top of the tower, similar to the original One World Trade Center's Windows on the World+, was abandoned as logistically impractical. Patrick Foye, the executive director of the Port Authority, said that he thought that the changes were "few and minor" in a telephone interview.
If the antenna is included in the building's height, as stated by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat+ (CTBUH), One World Trade Center surpasses the height of Taipei 101+ (), is the world's tallest all-office building, and the fourth-tallest skyscraper in the world, behind the Burj Khalifa+, Abraj Al Bait+, and Shanghai Tower+. The Chicago Spire+, with a planned height of , was expected to exceed the height of One World Trade Center, but its construction was canceled due to financial difficulties in 2009. Like 7 World Trade Center+, the building has thick reinforced concrete walls in all stairwells, elevator shafts, risers, and sprinkler systems. The windows facing West Street are equipped with specially tempered blast-resistant plastic, which looks almost like the glass used in the other sides of the building. All vehicles will be screened for radioactive+ materials and other potentially dangerous objects before they enter the site through the underground road.
It features new lighting, speakers, illuminated signs, escalators, and elevators—but it also preserves a piece of the original World Trade Center. Platform B at the World Trade Center Port Authority (PATH) Station in New York City opened quietly today and we got a first look at this stunning transit station, which is already infamous as "the most expensive train station in the world" at over $4 billion, and the structure is still not yet complete! The supertall structure+ has the same name as the North Tower+ of the original World Trade Center+, which was completely destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001+. One World Trade Center became the tallest structure in New York City+ on April 30, 2012, when it surpassed the height of the Empire State Building+. The project was planned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey+, which hired architect Minoru Yamasaki+. The elevator+ system, which made use of sky lobbies+ and a system of express and local elevators, allowed substantial floor space to be used for office purposes by making the structural core smaller.
In the 1980s, the city's perilous financial condition eased, after which an increasing number of private companies—mostly financial firms related to Wall Street+—became tenants. The Windows on the World+ restaurant, located on top of the North Tower, reported revenues of $37 million in 2000, making it the highest-grossing restaurant in the United States. Areas most affected by the fire were extinguished almost immediately, and the original fire was put out in a few hours. The greatest damage was on levels B1 and B2, with significant structural damage on level B3.
The proposals were part of a larger plan to memorialize the September 11 attacks and rebuild the complex. The floor limit was imposed by Silverstein, who expressed concern that higher floors would be a liability in the event of a future terrorist attack or other incident. The design originally included plans to clad the base in glass prisms in order to address criticism that the building might have looked uninviting and resembled a "concrete bunker". A formal agreement was drafted the following day, the 75th anniversary of the 1931 opening of the Empire State Building+. Foundation and steel installation began shortly afterward, so the tower's footings and foundation were nearly complete within a year. However, construction of the base was not finished until two years later, after which construction of the office floors began, and the first glass windows were subsequently installed; during 2010, floors were constructed at a rate of about one per week.
On October 27 of that same year, it was illuminated with pink in honor of Breast Cancer Awareness Month+. By March 2012, One World Trade Center's steel structure had reached 93 floors, by the end of the month. The tower's construction was partly funded by approximately $1 billion of insurance money that Silverstein received for his losses in the September 11 attacks.
The tower's central spire draws from previous buildings, such as the Empire State Building+ and the Chrysler Building+. On the observation deck, the actual viewing space is on the 100th floor, but there will be a food court on the 101st floor and a space for events for the 102nd floor. The tower's window-washing tracks are located on a 16-square-foot area, which will be designated as floor 110 as a symbolic reference to the 110 floors of the original tower. Douglas Durst+, the chairman of the Durst Organization, stated that the design change would save $20 million. The building is currently the tallest in New York City with the antenna; however, without the antenna, it was surpassed in 2015 by 432 Park Avenue+, which topped out at high. Although the roof area of any tower is limited, the building implements a rainwater collection and recycling scheme for its cooling systems.
There are also extra-wide, pressurized+ stairwells, along with a dedicated set of stairwells exclusively for the use of firefighters, and biological and chemical filters throughout the ventilation system.
The Port Authority has stated: "Its structure is designed around a strong, redundant+ steel moment frame consisting of beams and columns connected by a combination of welding and bolting.
Four hundred closed-circuit surveillance cameras+ will be placed in and around the site, with live camera feeds being continuously monitored by the NYPD. He allegedly dressed like a construction worker, sneaked in, and convinced an elevator operator to lift him to the tower’s 88th floor, according to news sources.
Crews scrambled last night painting and cleaning to get the station ready for its big reveal, and we feel like this design was worth the wait. The new skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the World Trade Center site+, on the site of the original 6 World Trade Center+.
The design and construction of the towers involved many other innovative techniques, such as wind tunnel+ experiments and the slurry wall+ for digging the foundation+. During the 1990s, approximately 500 companies had offices in the complex, including financial companies such as Morgan Stanley+, Aon Corporation+, and Salomon Brothers+.

The complex was also served by emergency generators located in the sub-levels of the towers and on the roof of Five World Trade Center. The Twin Towers became known worldwide, appearing in movies, television shows, postcards, and other merchandise. Most of the damage was on the 11th floor, where the fire was fueled by cabinets filled with paper, alcohol-based fluid for office machines, and other office equipment.
Six people were killed, and more than a thousand were injured, as 50,000 workers and visitors were inside the tower at the time. In the North Tower, 1,355 people at or above the point of impact were trapped, and died of smoke inhalation, fell, jumped from the tower to escape the smoke and flames, or were killed when the building eventually collapsed. When the public rejected the first round of designs, a second, more open competition took place in December 2002, in which a design by Daniel Libeskind+ was selected as the winner. Much of the building's height would have consisted of a large, open-air steel lattice structure on the roof of the tower, containing wind turbines and "sky gardens".
However, the prisms were later found to be unworkable, as preliminary testing revealed that the prismatic glass easily shattered into large and dangerous shards. Construction began in May; a formal groundbreaking ceremony took place when the first construction team arrived.
An advanced "cocoon" scaffolding system was installed to protect workers from falling, and was the first such safety system installed on a steel structure in the city.
On December 11, the Port Authority illuminated the tower with multicolored lights to celebrate the holiday season+. However, because the floor numberings were based on standard measurements, the 94th floor was numbered "floor 100", because the extra space was occupied by the high-ceilinged 91st floor, which was used for mechanical purposes. It also visually resembles the original Twin Towers, rather than being an off-center spire similar to the Statue of Liberty+.
To show visitors the city, and give them information and stories about New York, an interactive tool called City Pulse is used by Tour Ambassadors. However, the tower's architect, Skidmore Owings and Merrill, strongly criticized the change. In comparison, the original Twin Towers used a purely steel central core to house utility functions, protected only by lightweight drywall+ panels. A computer system will use video-analytic computer software+, designed to detect potential threats, such as unattended bags, and retrieve images based on descriptions of terrorists or other criminal suspects.
He then used stairways to get to the 104th floor, walked past a sleeping security guard, and climbed up a ladder to get to the antenna, where he took pictures for two hours. The opening of this portion of the "Oculus" not only provides New Jersey commuters with a spacious new platform for their commutes, but it also reveals the full immensity of the awe-inspiring Calatrava structure.
The building is bounded by West Street+ to the west, Vesey Street+ to the north, Fulton Street+ to the south, and Washington Street+ to the east. On May 10, 2013, the final component of the skyscraper's spire+ was installed, making the building, including its spire, reach a total height of .
After extensive negotiations, the New Jersey+ and New York State+ governments, which supervise the Port Authority, consented to the construction of the World Trade Center at the Radio Row+ site, located in the lower-west area of Manhattan+.
At 110 floors, the World Trade Center towers had more floors+ than any other building at that time.
The basement concourse of the World Trade Center included The Mall at the World Trade Center+, and a PATH station+. The towers came to be seen as a New York City icon, much like the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building+, and the Statue of Liberty+. Many people inside the North Tower were forced to walk down darkened stairwells that had no emergency lighting, and some took two hours or more to reach safety. One stairwell in the South Tower, Stairwell A+, somehow avoided complete destruction, unlike the rest of the building. This design went through many revisions, mainly because of disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein+, who held the lease to the World Trade Center site at that time. In a subsequent design, the highest occupiable floor became comparable to the original World Trade Center, and the open-air lattice was removed from the plans.
As a result, it was replaced by a simpler facade consisting of stainless steel panels and blast-resistant glass.. On February 24, 2012, the building was lit up with red in honor of Archbishop of New York+ Timothy Dolan+, who became a cardinal+ on February 18. President Barack Obama+ visited the construction site two months later and wrote, on a steel beam that would be hoisted to the top of the tower, the sentence "We remember, we rebuild, we come back stronger!" That same month, with the tower's structure nearing completion, the owners of the building began a public marketing campaign for the building, seeking to attract visitors and tenants.
The workers were rescued by over 100 FDNY firefighters+, who used a diamond saw+ to cut through the glass. The New York Power Authority+ selected UTC Power+ to provide the tower's fuel cell system, which was one of the largest fuel cell installations in the world once completed. Its height in feet is a deliberate reference to the year when the United States Declaration of Independence+ was signed. To satisfy the New Jersey government, the Port Authority agreed to buy the bankrupt Hudson and Manhattan Railroad (renamed to Port Authority Trans-Hudson+), which transported commuters from New Jersey to Lower Manhattan. This number was not surpassed until the construction of the Burj Khalifa+ (163 floors), which opened in 2010. The North Tower became the main corporate headquarters of Cantor Fitzgerald+, and it also became the headquarters of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey+. Access to the roof was controlled by the WTC Operations Control Center (OCC), located in the B1 level of the South Tower. In addition to the fire damage on the 9th and 14th floors, water used to extinguish the fire damaged a few floors below. When Flight 11 hit, all three staircases in the North Tower above the impact zone were destroyed, thus making it impossible for anyone above the impact zone to escape.
In 2002, former New York Governor+ George Pataki+ faced accusations of cronyism+ for supposedly using his influence to get the winning architect's design picked as a personal favor for his friend and campaign contributor, Ron Lauder. It is expected that the company will attract new tenants to occupy the remaining 40% of unleased space in the tower, as Conde Nast had revitalized Times Square after moving there in 1999.
After the incident, the workers suffered from a slight case of hypothermia, and were taken to the hospital.
Originally, the base was to be covered in decorative prismatic+ glass, but a simpler glass-and-steel facade was adopted when the prisms proved unworkable. It was then revealed that officials had failed to install security cameras in the tower, which facilitated Casquejo's entry to the site.
After the September 11 attacks+ of 2001, the broadcasting equipment for the radio and television stations was moved to the Empire State Building+.
The current base cladding consists of angled glass fins protruding from stainless steel panels, similar to those on 7 World Trade Center+. On September 8, 2012, it was once again illuminated with red, white, and blue to honor the 11th anniversary of the September 11 attacks. Future tenants will include Kids Creative, Legends Hospitality, the BMB Group+, Servcorp+, and ''GQ+''. However, the Manhattan District Attorney+ probed the Port Authority about the firm to which it awarded a contract to operate the deck. On June 24, 2013, the building was again illuminated with red, white, and blue to celebrate the Fourth of July+. Cable-net glass facades on all four sides of the building for the higher floors, designed by Schlaich Bergermann, will be consistent with the other buildings in the complex.
The facades are high, and range in width from on the east and west sides, on the north side, and on the south side.
In 2012, Douglas Durst gave a statement regarding the final decision: "(the antenna) is going to be mounted on the building over the summer.
The curtain wall was manufactured and assembled by Benson Industries in Portland, Oregon+, using glass made in Minnesota+ by Viracon.

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