Base spine tattoos,fairy tattoos designs video,tattoo flash drawing techniques 8th,butterfly tattoo designs on arm quilting - PDF 2016

Categories: Tattoo Pic | Author: admin 28.06.2014

Pain at the base of the spine stops the multifidis spinal muscles & transverse abdominal muscles engaging(3). A tall person with long legs, the base of the spine is strongly flexed (middle diagram, ref.6). The spine is composed of an alternating stack of bones and discs from the base of the skull to the pelvis.
A top down view better illustrates the solid front half of the bone and the fins that project off the back. The spinal cord and nerves are blue in this image, surrounded by the bone on all sides, with small tunnels at each level that allow individual nerves to exit the spinal canal.
Sometimes, with age, use, or injury, the outer wall of the disc may become weakened or cracked. The treatment for a herniated disc can range from simple observation with oral medication for symptom control to more invasive procedures like steroid injections or surgery to relieve the pressure on the nerves. Find helpful information here including the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, your anatomy, a glossary of medical terms, patient forms and frequently asked questions. The spine is a very complex mechanical structure that is highly flexible yet very strong and stable.
The normal adult spine is balanced over the pelvis, requiring minimal workload on the muscles to maintain and upright posture. Loss of spinal balance can result in strain to the spinal muscles and deformity of the spine as it attempts to maintain an upright posture.
The top 7 vertebrae that form the neck are called the cervical spine and are labeled C1-C7. The sacrum and coccyx (tailbone) are made up of 9 vertebrae that are fused together to form a solid bone.
When viewed from the front or back, the normal spine is in a straight line, with each vertebra sitting directly on top of the other. These curves help the spine to support the load of the head and upper body, and maintain balance in the upright position. Although the vertebrae have slightly different appearances as they range from the cervical spine to the lumbar spine, they all have the same basic structures, and the structures have the same names. Each vertebra has an anterior arch and a posterior arch, which form a hole, called a foramen. The intervertebral disc is made up of two components: the annulus fibrosis and the nucleus pulpous. Injury or aging of the annulus fibrosis may allow the nucleus pulpous to be squeezed through the annulus fibers either partially, causing the disc to bulge, or completely, allowing the disc material to escape the disc. The spinal cord functions as a sophisticated network that carries information from the outer elements of the body (skin, muscles, ligaments, joints) through the sensory tracts, to the central "computer," the brain. The spinal cord ends as the conus medullar is at the L1 vertebral level, where it branches into the caudal equine, a collection of nerves that extend from the conus medlars to the sacrum. Cranial anatomy is made up of the nervous system which is the central communication network for most body actions and the skull which protects the control center of the nervous system the brain. The skull is made up of 22 bones: the cranium includes eight bones that surround and protect the brain and 14 bones that form the face.
In newborns, the skull bones are not completely fused; they are linked by fibrous membrane called fontanels. The 14 facial bones provide the structure of the face and form the openings through which food, water, and air enter the body.


Small holes in the skull bones, called foraminae, and canals enable blood vessels, such as the carotid arteries and nerves, to enter and leave the skull. The nervous system is a communication network that controls and coordinates most body actions.
The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum, which controls the most sophisticated functions, such as thought, imagination, memory, emotion, speech, and sensory perception. The cortex of each hemisphere has four lobes: the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. The brain stem and hypothalamus control automatic processes, such as breathing and heartbeat. The cerebellum acts as a "mini brain" that coordinates body balance, posture, and movement. To reach a doctor after hours please contact our toll-free answering service at (855) 526-1100. In the normal spine, regardless of your position or activity, including sleeping, there is always some type of physical demand being placed on it.
Only the first and second cervical vertebrae are structurally different in order to support the skull. Discs connect one vertebral body to another to allow motion of the spine and cushion it against heavy loads. Nerve roots branch off the spinal cord and exit to the body between the pedicles of two vertebrae. The spinous process is the bony projection that can be felt through the back of someone's skin.
In the second and third decades, discs gradually lose this blood supply, until they are avascular.
Data are processed there, and new information such as muscle control is sent out through the motor tracts of the spinal cord. The conus medlars nerves float freely in spinal fluid, making it possible to pass a needle safely into the area to draw a sample of spinal fluid or inject drugs, anesthetics, or radiologic substances for x-ray, MRI or CT scan. In adults, all but one of the skull bones are fused together by immovable joints called sutures.
Fontanels allow the skull to be compressed slightly during birth and accommodate growth of the brain during early infancy.
The spinal cord passes through a largest hole, called the foramen magnum, in the base of the cranium to join the brain. People are not generally conscious of some of these activities as they occur, such as regulating body temperature, breathing, or heart rate.
Sensory neurons transmit nerve impulses from sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and touch) to the brain. If the spine becomes unstable, the pedicles may compress the nerve root, cause pain or numbness. The discs act as shock absorbers to the loads placed on the spine and allow movement of the spine.
The sutures lock the edges of the skull bones together, like pieces in a puzzle, to form a structure that is both rigid and strong. By one-and-a-half years of age, the skull sutures have formed and the fontanels have disappeared. The vomer is a single bone that makes up part of the nasal septum, which divides the nostrils, and the mandible forms the lower jaw.


The occipital condyles on either side of the foramen magnum articulate with the first vertebra (C1) of the spine to permit up-and-down movement of the head.
The nerves branching off the central nervous system make up the peripheral nervous system, or PNS. Neurons have many branched endings, called dendrites, which receive impulses from other neurons.
The brain constantly receives information and sends out instructions to the body through the spinal cord and the body's vast network of nerves. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves branch off the spinal cord, exiting between each level of vertebrae.
In the months before birth, these vertebrae grow together into one bone that forms the base of the spine and the center of the pelvis. Movement at a single disc level is limited, but all of the vertebrae and discs combined allow for a significant range of motion.
The fibers of the lamellae slant at 30-degree angles, and the fibers of each lamella run in a direction opposite the adjacent layers.
The mandible, or lower jaw, the only moveable skull bone, allows the mouth to open and close. Motor neurons transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to a specific area of the body.
A band of nerve tissue, called the corpus callosum, links two halves to allow them to exchange information.
This fluid forms a liquid cushion that reduces the weight of the brain and protects it from knocks and jolts. This triangular bone fits between the two halves of the pelvis, connecting the spine to the lower half of the body.Nerves that leave the spine in this area help control the bowels and bladder and provide sensation to the crotch area.
This reduces the amount of work required by the spinal muscles and can eliminate muscle fatigue and back pain.
The water content of the nucleus is about 90 percent at birth and decreases to about 70 percent by the fifth decade. Each hemisphere is covered by a layer of gray tissue, called the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for the higher functions of the brain, including conscious thought.
When an impulse arrives at the end of an axon, it releases chemicals that generate an impulse in the dendrites of the neighboring neuron. Association neurons make up 90 percent of all neurons and are found only in the brain and spinal cord.
The cortex is composed of sulci (folds) and gyri (bulges), which together provide a large surface area in the limited space inside the skull.
This area receives a great deal of stress and twisting during activities, such as sports or sitting for long periods. This may result in injury to the nerves and vertebrae, and the aging disc itself may generate pain.



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