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The foregoing principles can be realized best by an arrangement in which the operating buildings, the holding ponds and the water control structures are in the vicinity of the geometrical centre of the area. Cross sections at not more than 500 m intervals and continuous profiles are needed on the connecting stream or canal extending for the distance affected by the fish farm (e.g. Where water is obtained from a natural stream, data must be acquired on the stages and flow rates to be anticipated at the diversion point in the periods of pond filling and for compensation of water losses.
In the case of ponds through which floods must be conveyed, or the dikes which are required to retain floods on the stream, the designer will require also data on design flood levels and discharges. Data on the peak values of monthly evaporation and rainfall are needed for estimating the water demand.
Data on the monthly average and extreme temperatures are needed for selecting the species of fish for farming, for planning the necessary feed supply rates and for designing the holding and storage facilities of live fish. The geotechnical explorations should be extended to the entire area of the fish farm, to provide data on the soil stratification in the pond area, under the dikes, along the canal traces and at the sites of structures.
The water supplied to the fish ponds must not contain pollutants and toxic substances detrimental to fish life. The water quality analyses should be such as to enable prediction of the interactions between the soil and the feed water.3.
The small fry are reared from the age of 4-5 days to 3-4 weeks in the fry rearing ponds and basins. The water supplied to the fry rearing ponds should be rich in oxygen and must contain no chemical or biological pollution.
The fry reared in the fry ponds are transferred for further growing into the nursery ponds at the rate of about 100 000 per hectare. The ponds vary from 20 to 100 ha in size, but the largest pond size should be determined by taking the total fish production envisaged into consideration, so that the total fish production in a single pond should not surpass 100 t.
The fish harvested from the ponds must be stored in holding ponds until they are marketed or processed.
For holding purposes small 500 to 2 000 m2 basins or ponds of 0.2 to 10 ha area should be provided.
To estimate the flow rate through, or air injection rate into the ponds, information is required on the oxygen consumption of the fish stored, the oxygen content of the feed water and the efficiency of the air injection system.
The oxygen consumption rate of fish depends on the water temperature, or on their body temperature which is identical.
The first two types of pond system are typical in rolling terrain, while paddy ponds are adopted in flat land. Such ponds are established in a valley of flat to medium longitudinal slope, by closing the valley with a low dam at a suitable site. The floods on the stream will pass through the ponds and must be released without causing damage to the dams, dikes and structures, and without allowing the fish to escape. The ponds established behind a longitudinal dike in the valley will not be affected by floods, these being passed along one of the valley sides. The dams and dikes (Figure 4) are normally constructed of the soil material available at the site. The feeder, or supply canals (Figure 6), carry water from the intake to the individual ponds, and are used occasionally as waterways for barges.
The feeder canals should be dimensioned to allow the various types of ponds to be filled within the times mentioned. The longitudinal profile of the feeder canal should be designed to ensure a canal water level at least 0.1 m higher than the normal water level at the intakes to the individual ponds. Depending on the seepage losses anticipated from the feeder canal, some kind of lining, or other method of seepage control, may be necessary. The drainage canals (Figure 6) serve to convey the water from the ponds to the recipient stream when the ponds are drained.
The lowest water level in the canal at the outlet of the drain sluices should be at least 20 cm deeper than the lowest bottom elevation in the pond, or than the bottom of the harvesting pit.
These ditches (Figure 6) serve to drain any seepage from the ponds and the feeder canals, and the external runoff that is prevented by the pond dikes from draining towards the recipient stream and, thus, to protect the surrounding areas against the potential damages caused by such waters. The bottom of the ditch should nowhere be less than 0.3 m below the terrain level and the water should not be allowed to overflow, even when carrying the design discharge.
The water from undrained depressions within the pond area is conveyed to the outlet sluice, from where the fish are carried to the cropping pit.
Where it is impossible to secure the earth needed for constructing the dikes from the cuts envisaged, separate borrow pits must be opened. For harvesting, cropping pits should be placed in the vicinity of the outlet sluice, either within or outside the pond. External harvesting pits are connected to the pond outlet sluices over drainage canals of varying length. The length and height of wind generated waves depend on wind speed, the fetch length and the depth of water.
Biological protection consists of establishing a vegetation cover as a means of controlling both wave action and erosion, provided that such vegetation can be planted and grown under the particular conditions, and is compatible with the requirements of fish production. Information on the plants potentially applicable and their biological requirements in any particular area should best be obtained at the site. For effective wave action control, the reed belt should be 4 m wide for the first 1 000 m length of fetch, and should be increased by 2 m for every subsequent 1 000 m increment of fetch length.
Whichever method of reed propagation is adopted, the water demand of the growing plants must be satisfied. On the slope surfaces and dike crests exposed to rain and wind erosion, a sound grass cover is often the most economical method of control.
Where no biological protection is possible, the earth structures exposed to wave action must be protected by other types of lining. Monk sluices (Figure 7) are the structures generally used for supplying water to, and draining water from, fish ponds. Open sluices are built where the passage of barges is required, or where the discharges to be passed are higher than those which normal monk sluices are capable of carrying. With closing gates provided on both the upstream and the downstream ends, such open sluices can be designed as locks. Spillways are essential components for the safe operation of fish ponds formed by valley closure.
A wide variety of spillway designs have been developed, of which a few simple types will be described. Simple unlined spillways are earth canals arranged at the junction of the dam and the valley side and having a sill level corresponding to the normal operating water level in the pond (Figure 8). Improved unlined spillways are similar in design to the foregoing but with fish screens between piers and lined for some distance upstream and downstream of the screen (Figure 9). Reinforced concrete spillways with recessed sill have the sill elevation below the normal operating water level in the pond, which is maintained by means of stop-logs (Figure 10).
At valley-dam fish ponds supplied by a perennial stream, measures must be taken to prevent fish from escaping from the upstream pond.
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Their relative positions, as well as their connection to the water supply and drainage facilities, power supply and transport roads, in fact the general arrangement of the fish farm, has a major influence on the operating costs. The probability of occurrence of the design flood is normally specified by the competent water agency.
These should be arranged in places sheltered from wind, on impervious soil and close to the hatching house and road. Within this range the actual size of the fry rearing pond depends on the number of fry which can be introduced within 1-2 days. The freshwater is introduced tangentially through nozzle pipes to maintain the water in permanent circulation.
The optimal size of the nursery ponds ranges from 1 to 10 ha, but the maximum size should not surpass 30 ha. In general no flow through the ponds is necessary, but provision must be made to compensate for any water losses. For this reason the bottom of the ponds should slope towards the outlet and should be so graded as part of the construction work on the ponds.
No continuous flow through the ponds is required, but the losses due to evaporation and seepage must be compensated for during the growing season. In dimensioning the drainage system, an essential criterion is that the number of days required to drain a pond should equal the square root of the pond area in hectares.
The capacity of the holding ponds is governed by the composition of the production according to species, the yield envisaged, the time schedule of fishing and marketing or processing.
Oxygen can be supplied by introducing a feed water saturated with oxygen, by allowing water to flow through the pond, or by injecting oxygen or air into the holding ponds. These types of arrangement differ from each other in their method of construction, structures and operation.
A site is considered suitable if the shortest possible dam will create the largest possible pond. The flat terrain offers wider opportunities for the favourable arrangement of ponds, in which each pond can be filled and drained independently, thus creating the possibility of intensive fish farming.5. The dimensions and cross sectional shape of the dikes are governed by the purpose they are intended to serve and the material available for construction. In estimating the water level in the feeder canal, the backwater caused by the structures should normally be taken into consideration. Where this is impossible to achieve, pumps should be considered to ensure complete drainage of the pond. Material may be obtained from areas outside the ponds, but also from within the pond as part of the bottom levelling work, or as special borrow pits.
An internal pit serves one pond only, while two or more ponds can be connected to an external pit. Fresh water should always be introduced into the external harvesting pits during the period of harvesting.
Under the conditions prevailing in Europe, a reed belt has been found most effective for controlling wave action. Over the surface on which the reed is to be planted a topsoil or humus cover of at least 20 cm thickness should be spread, in which the reed is planted either by seeding, as a soil root mixture or as root or shoot cuttings. For grass planting the surfaces should be covered by at least 10 cm of topsoil, but this can occasionally be replaced by manure and fertilizers.
By means of stop-log closures and fish screens or racks, the operator is free to decide whether the lower or the upper water layer from a pond should be released.
Three pairs of slots are incorporated in the shaft, one for the fish screen, the other two for the stop-log closure.
Their application is also needed for the inlet sluices of external cropping pits, to facilitate the passage of fish.
Openings wider than 1.5 m are cumbersome to close by means of stop-logs and here steel gates with proper hoisting gear are the better solution. These serve to pass the floods arriving at the ponds without damage, while preventing the water level in the ponds from sinking below the normal operating elevation and the fish from escaping from the pond system. The structure must be capable of passing at least the 10 percent probability flood without any human interference. The piers have cantilevers at the top, on which a service walkway is supported to permit cleaning the screen. Where the subsoil offers good foundation conditions, such structures are capable of passing safely minor flood discharges. The screen must be cleaned at the time of floods, so that a working platform must be provided for the operator. People want to enjoy their free time by doing their favorite stuff like reading books or even cooking a delicious meal to enjoy. Your own home is the place to relax and take a rest after a full day of work; there are some important room to relax such as bedroom. If you are a man and you have a small bedroom inside of your home, then you have to know about small bedroom designs for men. If you want to have an elite room in your house especially in choosing the models for your floor just see the marble flooring for a great choice. There are numerous products of bunk beds for teens available since teens tend to share a room with their siblings. Designing an office with cool office furniture will instantly change the look of the room decor.


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In the absence of such specification, the flood of 1 percent probability of occurrence (once in a hundred years) should be adopted as the design flood.
The supply system should be dimensioned to permit the water in the pond to be exchanged twice daily. The drainage system of the fry rearing ponds should be dimensioned hydraulically to permit each basin or pond to be drained in four hours. Wherever possible, the production ponds should have filling and drainage systems permitting them to fill and drain independently of the other ponds. For example, the draining sluice of a 30 ha growing pond should be dimensioned so as to make possible drainage in or 5.5 days. The breeding stock should be stored, if possible, in the production ponds, rather than in the holding ponds. Air injection must be accompanied by passing flow through the pond in order to remove the products of metabolism.
Thus, dams can be constructed most economically at a narrow point in the valley situated at the downstream end of a flat, wide section.
To create gravitational supply to the ponds, the stream is blocked by a weir, the water being diverted through a gated intake to the supply canal. The distance between the outer toe of the dike slope and the edge of the drain ditch should not be less than 2.0 m. Attempts should be made to obtain the dike material from levelling the pond bottom, which should slope towards the outlet sluice. External harvesting pits need not be dimensioned for the entire fish population in the ponds, since the fish are admitted intermittently to the pit.
Except for propagation as shoot cuttings, reed planting operations are confined to the winter hibernation interval. In the first period of growth, up to the appearance of 3 to 4 leaves, the soil should be saturated, but a permanent water cover is definitely undesirable.
The shaft is normally on the upstream side, thus inlet monks for filling have their shaft on the side of the supply canal, while outlet monks are on the pond side.
They are preferable also in the screen-box structure of nursery ponds where drainage or fishing of two nursery ponds can be handled by means of a single structure. The hoisting gear of frequently operated gates should be driven by an electric motor where power connection is possible. At higher flood discharges human control may be necessary at the closing mechanisms of the structure.
For stabilizing the sill, a recessed beam of concrete or hand-placed rock may be advisable. Behind the shaft of the monk sluice a drop shaft having a crest elevation at the normal pond level is also provided.
The mesh width of the screen or the spacing of the rack bars depend on the size of fish kept in the pond.
As you know that a man loves something simple, and it is totally different rather than a woman. In this case, there are many people that use the built in book cases inside their own room. So, if you want to have the best place to take a rest, make your bedroom as comfortable as possible. In the case of minor ponds, where a dam failure would cause no other losses, a flood of say 3 percent probability might be adopted as the design flood.
In densely populated ponds, a distribution network of perforated pipes should be provided at the bottom for the uniform distribution of inflow water. The nursery ponds should be arranged in the vicinity of the fry ponds, preferably in a manner to permit direct transfer of the fry to the nursery pond, together with the water from the fry rearing ponds.
Another requirement is that the drainage period of the entire fish farm must not surpass twice the square root of the total pond area.
At high rates of air injection, the rate of flow through can be reduced to around one-third of that without air injection. From the latter, each pond can be filled separately, while separate drainage is possible to the original stream bed except during flood conditions. The earth excavated from these drains might possibly be used for constructing the dikes or for filling any depressions. The shoots should be planted at the time when the fresh shoots have developed 7 to 8 leaves. The desirable seed mixture should be determined with due consideration to the soil type and climatic conditions. The pipe crosses under the dike and serves also to dissipate the energy of the water falling over the stop-logs.
The depth of flow over the spillway, or the highest allowable flow velocity must be determined with due regard to the local soil conditions so as to prevent scouring. For ease of handling the stop-logs, the spans between the piers should not be longer than 1.5 m. The flood discharge is carried by the pipe of the sluice, so that the pipe must be dimensioned for the design flood flow. The retention capacity of upstream ponds is taken into account in estimating the design flood. For example, the drainage canal of a 500 ha fish farm should be capable of removing within or 45 days the water from all ponds of the fish farm. The relocated stream bed must be dimensioned to carry the design flood safely, while the crest of the longitudinal dike running parallel to the stream must be raised above the design flood level. The bottom of the external harvesting pits should be at least 30 cm deeper than the deepest point within the pond and an additional differential elevation of 20 cm is necessary between the two ends of the harvesting pit.
The grass cover must be mowed regularly and in dry climates provision must be made also for irrigation.
The surface of the spillway may be protected against scouring by a grass cover, reinforced if necessary by rows of buried brushwork or hand-placed stone ribs. The internal borrow pits and pond drains should be connected to the harvesting pit, so that their bottom at the entrance should be at least 20 cm above the pit bottom.



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