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Categories: Tattoo Pic | Author: admin 07.08.2014

For the seahorse, the shape of its head, along with its stealthy approach and lightning speed, literally makes a meal of some of the ocean’s most sought after prey: the copepod, according to a new study. To catch something that fast you have to be just a bit faster, and a previous study had shown that seahorses were better at getting copepods under calm conditions than other fish. This remarkable lead prompted the question of why seahorses are such wicked predators, and the new study shows that the head shape of the seahorse, “creates this zone with very little disturbance, which allows them to get really close to these very sensitive, highly evasive copepods,” said Gemmell. It might seem counterintuitive: the head of a sea horse seems bulkier than other, sleeker fish, but they have what’s called pivot or pipette method of feeding, a trait of the Syngnathid fish family which includes seahorses, pipefish, and sea dragons.
So even the zippy copepod’s getaway speed of two or three milliseconds is no match for the one millisecond strike of the seahorse. The researchers used high-speed digital techniques to capture the movements of the live dwarf seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae, and fluid disturbance in 3-D imagery at the strike zone. Seahorses, Gemmell points out, are less successful in more turbulent environments where other fish have an easier time capturing copepods.
The study refers to the calm space in the water that the seahorse’s head creates as a “quiet zone,” which, combined with other factors, is bad for the copepod. Hope people are getting to watch the video – you can really see how fast the seahorse moves there! I am willing to predict that sometime in the future this scientific discovery will be used to better some humans lives.
We’re Moving!As of October 22, 2014, Weird & Wild will be hosted on National Geographic's main news site. You've reached the home page for Francis O'Brien, a 3D artist working in the industry since 1996.
Male seahorses get pregnant, not the females, as the female expels her eggs into the male’s stomach pouch. Seahorse courting rituals including floating around with tails linked around one another (it’s like they’re holding hands! Seahorses are the slowest fish in the ocean, according to Guinness World Records.  The Dwarf Seahorse moves at under five feet per hour, and some seahorses move even slower. Seahorses change color when they are stressed and can change colors dramatically to camouflage themselves into their environment. Seahorses curl their tail around coral or seaweed while they’re at rest so they don’t float away. Unfortunately, eel grass is in trouble in the Chesapeake Bay.  Nutrient pollution from farms, sewage and other human activities often leads to large algal blooms, which grow near the surface of the water and block light that the grasses need to grow. What you can do to help:  Reduce waste runoff, which pollutes waters like the Chesapeake Bay.
Don't pour anything down storm drains because they lead to the bay, which connects to the ocean. The National Aquarium is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to inspire conservation of the world’s aquatic treasures. If you don’t live near an ocean or urban aquarium or even a zoo, then you might not have seen many seahorses and seadragons to realize how stunning these tiny sea creatures are. Thorny Seahorse is sometimes also called the spiny seahorse due to the distinct spines sticking out on it. Not pregnant, but Big-belly, or Pot-bellied seahorses at the Tennessee Aquarium, Chattanooga. The thorny seahorse, according to Wikipedia, is like many other species of seahorse — increasingly threatened by traditional and patented Chinese medicine.
Like seahorses, Leafy and Weedy seadragon males are the sex that cares for the developing eggs. The photographer noted, “Every morning, seahorse couples do a mating dance in order to reinforce their permanent bond. Entire family of Syngnathidae fish which includes seahorses, pipefishes, weedy seadragons and leafy seadragons. The main reason these incredible creatures are dying in vast numbers is that climate change is killing off the kelp and seaweed forests and as a result all the sea creatures that depend upon them will die . I assume that it is ok to share this on social media, as long as I provide proper attribution, right? When you look at a seahorse, it’s easy to wonder how such a bizarre creature could come to be. One of our readers pointed out in the comments that this is already out of date, and new molecular genetic data points to a very different origin of the seahorse family, and that sticklebacks are no longer considered to be part of the evolutionary tree to seahorses.
From there we go to pipefish that carry the eggs at the base of their tails, some in partial pouches, later with pouches that almost entirely encase the eggs.

There are at least 200 species of pipefish, with a dizzying array of body types and behaviors.
Pygmy pipehorses are loosely grouped as pipefish-like pygmy pipehorses and seahorse-like pygmy pipehorses because of how similar they are to one or the other. The head is distinct from the body, the male has a full brood pouch at the base of the tail.
This is a book with great information,when i can i will make a copy so that i can read it at my leisure(lol)but it seems that it is something which you can learn from. Copepods, a type of small crustacean, can’t see images and rely on a remarkable sensitivity to fluid disturbances to sense predators approaching.
Gemmell says they had a 90 percent success rate compared to the 30-40 percent success rate of other predators.
They also used preserved seahorse specimens and positioned them in flume studies, a method that allows researchers to control the flow of the water so that any disturbance would be clearly generated by the head of the animal. The slow, deliberate stealth of the seahorse works in the calmer environments of deep water and coral reefs. But perhaps the folksiness of the essay overall sets a new standard for National Geographic. Additionally, destructive fishing techniques like bottom trawling can rip up huge swaths of submerged aquatic vegetation, causing wide-spread loss of habitat.  Because they are so specialized in their habitat needs, lined seahorses have little hope of successfully hunting and breeding without the grasses. Americans directly apply 70 million pounds of pesticides to home lawns and gardens each year and, in so doing, kill birds and other wildlife and pollute our precious water resources. A one-quart container of oil disposed of at the local landfill can contaminate up to 2 million gallons of drinking water and the water home of our seahorse friends.
Most sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants do not remove poisonous cleaners, and yard and car-wash chemicals make their way into local waterways, and, eventually, into our ocean, harming animals along the way. With a long face like a horse, they have an almost mythical appearance, but are far from immortal as none of the seahorse family are strong swimmers and they often die during storms.
Both seahorse and seadragon are the spelled as one word by official governments such as Australia, but may commonly be used as one or two words. Weedy sea dragons are protected by the Australian government due to illegal collectors that have threatened the population. The leafy can grow to a length of up to 13.8 in (35 cm), while the weedy is even bigger and can reach up to 18 in (46 cm) in length. In nature, leafy seadragons live in the tropical coastal waters of south and west Australia.
This one was seen while diving Egypt, but thorny seahorses have one of the largest species ranges of any seahorse and can grow to 6.7 in (17 cm) in length.
Wikipedia states, “The leafy seadragon uses the fins along the side of its head to allow it to steer and turn.
Pipefish are like their seahorse relatives with males responsible for most of the parenting duties. Not strong swimmers, they curl their tail around coral or seaweed so they won’t float away. The photographer noted, “This miniature seahorse, among the smallest living vertebrates, evolved to beautifully camouflage itself among the branches of soft corals. As long as human beings refuse to accept and take steps to halt or at least slow down global warming then all the beautiful creatures we share this planet with are in dire peril …not to mention our own species. You can’t beat Mother nature as she will freeze or heat as she has done for centuries but we can do something about the ever increasing numbers of consumers who are destroying the planet. They are probably a branch off of a common ancestor that shared many of the traits seahorses do, but with some differences. They’ve made the leap to standing upright most of the time, the bent head allowing for a longer reach to snap up prey.
As mentioned earlier, this is a rough map based on living relatives, not the exact ancestors of seahorses. Sticklebacks are now in the Cottoidei, with sculpins and many other families of no relation to seahorses.
They excel at camouflage and many can change colors to hide themselves in their natural underwater surroundings.
The pipefish comes in a variety of colors and sizes, ranging from 1 inch to 26 inches in length. Sea dragons develop their color and style of appendages based upon food supply, environment, depth and geography. Adding to declining numbers is the fact that the seahorse is used as an herbal medicine regimen in many Asian countries.

With it’s unusual horse-like head, chameleon eyes, monkey tail, kangaroo pouch and insect-like armor; how did did it evolve to be so strange?
There are a few fossils that show some early seahorses, but like most sea-dwelling creatures, it’s a very limited number. A quick cursory glance suggests that the beginning of the article is completely different, and somewhere before pipefish comes something like dragonnettes. Still fishlike, still swimming like a fish, but the mouth of a seahorse is clearly evident.
Also known as flutemouths, these elongated fish still swims mid water, but has reduced fins and a very long snout. These fish have started to move to caring for their eggs on their body, like most close seahorse relatives. Chances are it never left, but it’s not clear why some living relatives like the trumpetfish and ghost pipefish developed different reproductive strategies. They do not have a tail fin, instead using their prehensile tails to grasp onto algae and wait for food to swim by. They look much closer to that of a true seahorse, and even have some of the head structures that seahorses have.
But like their distant ancestors, still relies on camouflage to hunt and gulps their prey whole; only this time through a straw. Taxonomy, the study of how animals are related and categorized is always changing so we may find new information about these relationships as time goes on. Looks like they changed everything around and I’m going to need to revise this article. Dunno, but if I had to classify it, I'd liken it to a quirky arcade cabinet from the summer of 76. As a result of these and other conservation pressures, it is estimated that the world's lined seahorse population has declined by at least 30 percent in the past 10 years.
However since it is the master of camouflage, the leafy seadragon can best manage to hide itself easily among the plants and is therefore rarely eaten. Individual leafy seadragons have been observed remaining in one location for extended periods of time (up to 68 hours) but will sometimes move for lengthy periods. Only some seahorses actually mate for life, but they do stay together at least during mating season. Until I’ve digested and updated the article, you can see for yourself in the paper here. Sticklebacks are starting to develop the armored skeleton for protection, and lacks scales.
This also is not uncommon in fish, with many males taking on the role of primary caregiver. It’s pretty clear this is the beginning of what we think of as the paternal care common in these fish. Many use their bodies and even their tails to help grip on to rocks, seagrass, or floating algae.
The photo below shows a literal handful of different species found off the coast of North America.
They hitch just like seahorses and lack a tail fin, and their body is starting to take the angular shape that seahorses have, but their heads are still overall in alignment with their long bodies. They are frequently misidentified as pipefish or missed all together because of their diminutive size. But hopefully these examples will make it easier to understand how the seahorse became what it is today.
We must begin to take steps to preserve the local habitat, or we risk losing this very interesting and important Chesapeake Bay species. While these relatives aren’t exactly what seahorses evolved from, they give a pretty clear picture of how changes over time go from subtle to extreme to become seahorses. Interestingly, males prefer to keep their body vertically, but females perch more upright, similar to seahorses.
Here are some fun facts and sensational shots of these tiny “sea monsters” that are truly spectacular! The Three Spine Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus pictured below still looks overall fish-like.

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