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We’ll understand the Big Four access techniques of captioning, audio description, subtitling, and dubbing. The oldschool technique is the embed element, which takes attributes similar to those of img. It will not surprise you to learn that the width and height specifications govern the size of the window in which the file identified by src will play.
Unlike the entirely new task of making text-and-graphics Websites accessible, we have decades of experience in accessible video outside the Web. In North America, the so-called Line 21 captioning system, in use since 1979, gives us two usable streams of captioning. We also get two usable channels (out of four, with the same distribution as above) of text information that occupies all or half the screen depending on the device you’re watching. Home videotape devices in North America have always been able to record and play back captions.
DVDs offer up to 32 subtitle tracks (not exactly the same as captions, but the tracks can be put to equivalent use) and up to eight audio tracks. RealVideo: Captions (one stream) and audio description (one stream), though the exact numbers are muddied given that you get one of each stream per language. Flash: Nothing whatsoever built into the data structure, but you can add text in a way that functions as captions. Even if you wanted to duplicate the degree of accessibility available in North America (let alone in a medium like DVD), you couldn’t do it in all the multimedia formats currently in use online. There does exist a platform-neutral, industry-standard markup language with which to create files for accessible media, including captioning and audio description.
When it comes to creating a SMIL file, though, we harken back to the early days of the Web’s commercial boom.
A great many professional Web developers mix and match, and indeed the seeming duality of text vs.
Now you need to ask yourself: On top of all that, do I want to learn the a new markup language known as SMIL, or do I want to learn new software that will produce SMIL files for me? Further, Microsoft has its own SMIL-like markup language for time-based media, the Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange or SAMI.
A deaf or hard-of-hearing person has no particular difficulty using the visual controls of media players.
At time of writing, leading screen readers provided incomplete access to all the controls and features of multimedia player applications. Even the seemingly simple case of an incompatibility of interface for captioning shows us how deep the technical obstacles run. You can work up a little onscreen button that turns captions on and off through calls to the QuickTime scripting language known as ActionScript. You’d think this approach would be just fine given that deaf people can see the nice onscreen button you have programmed. Multimedia players can pop up as free-standing miniapplications (even if still under the control of the browser), as in the example at top, the trailer for the Australian film Let’s Get Skase. The philosophy, backed up by essentially no research, holds that nondisabled people cannot stand captioning (especially) or audio description and hate having either form of accessibility rammed down their throats. In accessibility, we can use the capacity for multiple feeds to get around the shortcomings of closed accessibility. Sure, you’re encoding and saving four files rather than one, but disc space is cheap.
Until players are all at least as capable as existing TV and video, fully support certain standards, and are completely and effortlessly compatible and manipulable with screen readers and other adaptive technology, open accessibility is the way to go. A written manual that attempts to teach media access, without actual media at hand to work with, could never do much good.
In effect, in producing accessible media your room for creativity is severely hindered by the source material. I would suggest that everyone hoping to perform, oversee, manage, delegate, or simply understand any form of captioning or audio description spend a couple of weeks doing nothing but watching captioning and audio description. It is still possible to buy an external decoder for an old TV set, but you get better results (including colour captions) by using a new TV.
Readers pretty much everywhere in the world can watch subtitled DVDs, though the conventions used in subtitling aren’t even remotely comparable to those used in captioning. You will undoubtedly notice a wide divergence of captioning styles (if not in audio description). There’s more than one way to publish on the Web, and sites of every description, with budgets of zero on up, can be made accessible to varying degrees. Out in meatspace, for example, there’s a whole underground movement of home subtitling of Japanese anime videos.
If your Website has just a few videoclips, which themselves aren’t exactly of Stanley Kubrick quality, does it particularly matter that amateurs are doing the captioning and description?
I would certainly endorse this kind of homegrown captioning and description, with reservations. Every transcription file should state what is being transcribed, ideally with links back to the source page, the homepage of the entire Website in question, and the original audiovisual file. This method marks the paragraph as being the words of George, and the word George as being the name of a speaker. You can define typographic attributes for the class known as s to give it, say, a bold sansserif font. For example, if the video shows a person walking up to a podium and the floorboards creak en route, there is no particular reason to note that sound in writing.
Some sound effects are obviously always important (or nearly so): A ringing phone, a knock on a door, a crying baby. Because sound effects can occur as events unto themselves or right in the middle of dialogue, you need to use markup for both cases. Under battle conditions and as an absolute last resort, it is permissible to provide a separate, free-standing text transcript of a videoclip. If, however, you just don’t have the time, money, or expertise to produce even homegrown captions, you are not off the hook. Since online video is usually of short duration, I doubt it would take your company more than a day or two to produce even a rudimentary text-only transcript. Your obligation is to come up with some method of making your video accessible to deaf visitors. Even if you do provide a captioned clip, by the way, it is a good idea to give people a separate transcript, too. What about posting just an audio track, complete with descriptions, in lieu of a videoclip whose audio contains the descriptions? I acknowledge I am committing a sin, however venial, by telling you to add audio descriptions but not telling you how to go about it.
Another option, which I discourage altogether, involves writing text descriptions of videoclips. Transcription is complicated enough that it’s possible to earn a community-college degree in the discipline, and thus transcription actually is beyond our scope. Moreover, this book’s CD-ROM contains a demo version of CCaption (see the Extras folder), an application for Macs and Windows machines that can caption QuickTime and other video files.
Given that the two of the Big Three multimedia players and later Internet Explorer versions support SMIL files, and given that SMIL is a W3C recommendation, and given that the inventor of the SAMI file format doesn’t even support it properly, it behooves you to use SMIL whenever possible, which pretty much means always. If you do, then you are well-advised to send out your video for captioning and audio description by recognized professionals in the field.
Never under any circumstances use a postproduction house, dubbing operation, ad agency, or any other business that considers captioning or description Just Another Add-On Service We Provide for the Convenience of Our Clients.
Treat Canadian vendors with great skepticism, since I know firsthand just how poor Canadian captioning and description actually are. Some advanced vendors can make a good-faith but insufficient attempt at producing a file with closed accessibility features. For captioning, you should be able to provide your uncaptioned master in essentially any tape format, or even as an online file.
Some captioning houses can use a character generator or titling software instead of a caption decoder to produce the captions, which will sometimes result in a nicer appearance and better legibility. It is actually quite possible that your vendor of choice can handle only videotape and not online formats. Theoretically, your vendor could provide either descriptions mixed in with main audio (that’s what is used most of the time in the field of described TV and video) or a file consisting only of descriptions, which are of course timed to start and stop at just the right moment and silence at other times. If you have opted to offer a video file with open captions and open descriptions, you need to plan for that up front and tell your captioning and description providers what you want to do. Typography is important in captioning, though it is possible to provide only general advice in a general-interest book. In any event, custom-engineered screenfonts not specifically intended for titling are also rare. Canadians may have to live with American spellings in their captioning; since Canadian captioning of prerecorded programming is substandard, the use of American captioners may be wise. Can you handle British or Australian spellings or accents if you aren’t British or Australian? Something quasi-miraculous came to pass while I was writing this book: Macromedia Flash went from completely inaccessible to quite accessible overnight.
I can and will take partial credit for this event, since I had written an article in December 2000 explaining all that was wrong with Flash from an accessibility perspective.
Nearly every blind or visually-impaired person online who uses a screen reader does so on the Windows platform.
Adaptive technology can poll MSAA to find out where the cursor is located, where text, toolbars, and icons are located and what they say and mean, and more. Norio Nakatsuji received his Doctor of Science in developmental biology from the Graduate School of Science of Kyoto University in 1977. At present, I am leading a government-supported project of developing novel stem cell technologies which will enable large-scale 3D-culture production of quality-controlled human pluripotent stem cells, followed by differentiation into a number of cell lineages using various chemical compounds. 3. What do you presently think are the most important developments in your field, including in biomaterials?
Every frontier of the life sciences is now moving rapidly in a cross-disciplinary direction, in which we must work together and connect with each other in order to achieve novel and even higher-impact progress.
Every week I scan more than 50 scientific journals looking for good examples of such cross-disciplinary research, posting relevant citations in the “Cross-Disciplinary Journal Club” on the iCeMS’ website.
In my scientific career, I have been very interested in building networks and bridges among scientists in different fields and areas of expertise, in order to create new research frontiers. Recent progress in molecular investigation of living cells and also in the synthesis of various functional smart materials has created unlimited opportunities for the integration of both fields, resulting in an innovative breakthrough opportunity on many frontiers. Mesoscopic space exists between nanoscopic space (atoms and basic molecules) and bulk space (consisting of everything larger than one micron).
The Japanese government’s World Premier International Research Centre (WPI) Initiative aims to forge a new model for scientific institutions in Japan.
I advise that young researchers should explore multiple fields of science during the early phase of their scientific careers, before it becomes necessary to specialise. Among various areas other than scientific research, I am most intensely interested in architectural design and music.
Don’t forget you can Like us on Facebook or Follow us on Twitter to keep up with the latest news. If you want to find out about the first articles once they’re published online why not sign up for the Biomaterials Science RSS feed or Table of Contents alert.


The infrastructure problem is trickier: There are too many player and file formats for the various operating systems. Despite a few promising experiments here and there, there isn’t enough bandwidth in the world to duplicate even the quality of broadcast television online.
These are two of what I call the Big Four access techniques; the other two are subtitling and dubbing, which this book does not really cover. You can place one object inside another in (usually) descending order of desirability or technical sophistication: A movie file, then maybe a sound file, then an image in a high-quality format like PNG (with enclosed alternative text), then maybe a JPEG image (ditto).
Here we see the vaunted non-speech information crucial to making a film understandable to a deaf audience. Videotape devices in WST countries cannot record World System Teletext captions (with rare exceptions); the transplanted North American Line 22 captioning system works with any VCR. In North America, it is uncommon but quite possible to use the second audio track (its actual name is Second Audio Program, or SAP) to deliver audio descriptions mixed in with main audio. It then becomes possible to run a program with original audio, descriptions for the blind, dubbed dialogue, and descriptions in the language of the dubbing. Pick one that seems to work well (like QuickTime) and you leave out everyone who doesn’t have that player. Fonts and positioning are terrible (in some ways worse even than on TV); QuickTime makes it difficult to turn captions on and off (the CC button was added by the video creators to make that possible), though doing so is much easier in RealPlayer. Is it better to code by hand (preferred by oldschool Web programmers; allows precision and full standards compliance, but is as slow as it is error-prone) or use a graphical editing program (preferred by neophytes; tends to produce nonstandard, hard-to-maintain markup but is noticeably faster)?
Your source video track, any descriptions, and any captions or transcripts you create (which you will learn about shortly) are files that SMIL can manipulate. Unless you are creating accessible media for an intranet or some other installation that you absolutely know uses Windows Media Player and you are entirely sure you will never, ever need to migrate accessibility files anywhere else online, you should do no authoring at all in SAMI. While this is not technically your problem as a developer or designer, it is a necessary detail in understanding the practical obstacles standing in the way of accessible multimedia.
A blind or visually-impaired or a mobility-impaired person definitely does have difficulty given that it is normal for players to emulate VCR-style control buttons that you have to click with a mouse. How else do you gain access to the audio descriptions of the video file running in your RealPlayer window inside Microsoft Internet Explorer for Windows under the ægis of a screen reader you operate using the split keyboard you find pleasant to type on? The free QuickTime Player and the QuickTime Pro variant you must pay for will handle text tracks differently. In fact, this is so convincing a solution to the problem that contacts at Apple and the WGBH Educational Foundation all enthusiastically support it (rather than the more obvious permanent solution of fixing the players). Accordingly, we have invented heavily-compromised and expensive technical systems to hide captions and descriptions from the vulnerable, delicate eyes and ears of nondisabled people. We can run as many separate feeds as we like, each of them as different or as similar as we like. Instead of replicating the television model by providing, say, a single QuickTime file with every access feature hidden inside, why not give us a number of different but related QuickTime files?
Sure, you’re transmitting four files rather than one, but we have a range of ways to distribute server load at our disposal.
It’s a problem, but not such a pressing problem that it invalidates the whole approach.
Captioning has been widespread since the 1980s (and dates back to the 1940s); audio description of film and television is nearly fifteen years old.
You can do captioning and audio description yourself, but do not underestimate the difficulties involved. Think of the Priority 1 through 3 guidelines from the Web Accessibility Initiative, or this book’s Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced accessibility advice. The reservations have little to do with the probably low quality of the captioning (for small-time applications, that is not altogether important) and more to do with the enormous effort required. Failing that, reading existing transcripts and comparing them to the original audio is a good way to learn. If your videoclip is based on a script, start with that, taking care to note any deviations from the script.
Later on, it becomes possible to search for and extract only George’s speech, or to eliminate the names of all speakers, or to assemble a list of all the people who spoke.
Just type the speaker’s name and a colon at the opening of each paragraph in a simple text editor or word processor (yes, even Microsoft Word). If, however, a floorboard breaks and the person stumbles, the sound is suddenly more important. You do have to provide a transcript, which ideally should be available as soon as the original clip is available but can be delayed a reasonable period while you put it together. If you’re providing hours of video online, your budgets are already pretty high, and presumably you could at least send an audiotape of the video feed out of house for transcription. A number of options are at your disposal, not all of them technically onerous or expensive. Blind people can follow a videoclip with no picture much more easily than deaf people can follow it without sound. If you have to choose one over the other (as will often be the case in small business), choose captioning. I am also at risk of accusations of hypocrisy here given that I have spent a couple of decades arguing that lousy accessibility is worse than no accessibility at all. Since we’re creating descriptions for blind people, and blind people online have adaptive technology like Braille displays, screen magnifiers, and screen readers, if we provide understandable text then we’ve solved the access problem, right? Section 508 regulations (described in Appendix A, “Accessibility and the law”), to provide accessible video? If you have a budget large enough to carry the costs of serving a large quantity of discrete video files, or any number of files to a very large audience (possibly using Akamai or a similar technology to distribute the load), then you have more than enough money to make your video accessible properly. That is not how the assessment of undue hardship or other forms of financial appropriateness is ever undertaken. Depending on the length, difficulty, and turnaround time, such captioning and description could cost hundreds or thousands of dollars per item. In particular, Canadians may be forced to bite the bullet and hire American vendors, who will bill in painfully expensive American dollars. You’re much better off asking for open captions and descriptions (in separate files, with both of them added to yet a third file). In this section, the phrase online files refers to a videoclip in an electronic format, or possibly on a CD or a DVD, but in any event, no videotape is involved.
Or you could ask for an audio file by itself without video, which you may use as an adjunct to a video file with descriptions but not as a replacement. It is not particularly difficult to mate the description track to the open-captioned master, but you may want your vendors to take care of that for you rather than messing around in a video-editing program. The holder of the copyright must authorize the creation of the derivative works known as captions or descriptions. In the meantime, the RNIB has licenced the inclusion of a Tiresias variant on the CD-ROM accompanying this book (see the Extras folder).
Georgia and Verdana were designed for Microsoft by the undisputed greatest living practitioner of typeface design, Matthew Carter. So-called slabserifs or Egyptians (with serifs cut square and perpendicular), like Stymie, Rockwell, Lubalin Graph, Boton, and Serifa, are surprisingly effective.
Putting up with American accents in audio description is less onerous; American newsreader voices are similar to Canadian ones, and those are the sort of accents used in audio description. I also chatted on the phone with Macromedia and yentaed its developers to various (other) luminaries in the accessibility biz.
At press time, there remained quite a lot of work to do, but what Macromedia managed to accomplish is nonetheless impressive.
In ordinary HTML Web sites, screen readers can read text on the page, plus text equivalents like alt, title, and longdesc.
Apart from the large general installed base of Windows machines, the reason for Windows’ dominance traces back to a Microsoft software infrastructure known as Active Accessibility. This is not a small task, but it is a much easier task with MSAA than it would be if adaptive-technology makers were forced to reinvent the wheel, which is actually the case on, say, Mac OS, which offers nothing in the way of an accessibility infrastructure. He then spent several years in postdoctoral training at Umea University in Sweden, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and George Washington University in the United States, and MRC Mammalian Development Unit in the United Kingdom. My interests in mammalian development lead me to mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in 1984 during my stay in London.
I am collaborating with many public and private sector laboratories, combining different areas of expertise in multiple cross-disciplinary projects. For example, stem cells are exciting research subjects in both fundamental research and also in biomedical applications including in drug discovery. The primary purpose of this is to inspire my iCeMS colleagues, but all scientists are welcome to visit the Journal Club and search for articles of interest. I am also interested in connecting basic research in universities to innovative applications in industry and society. To realise this immense potential, both cellular and materials scientists, as well as basic science and application-focussed scientists, must work together to truly integrate their expertise. In cellular mesoscopic spaces, handfuls up to several dozen biopolymers are in constant motion, while forming multi-molecular architectures such as cell membranes and other organelle structures, all constantly and robustly executing intricate cellular functions. Biomaterials Science is being launched as collaboration between the Royal Society for Chemistry and the Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) at Kyoto University, Japan. This program seeks to 1) advance leading edge research, 2) create new interdisciplinary domains, 3) establish truly international research environments, and 4) reform existing research organisations.
Your scientific ability to examine and observe the target from multiple vantage points — and ultimately make the correct decision — will be considerably broader and more robust. I can easily spend many hours examining multiple ideas for the design of a new research institute building or residence. People just need to make use of the most effective business that may very easily together with adequately precede folks in one spot for a folks.
But the utility and practicality of online video access actually mirror those of online video itself.
The oft-cited principle of graceful degradation is at work here, or ought to be, if the element actually functions properly.
Your choice then becomes writing a standards-compliant page that breaks browsers and doesn’t actually do what you want or writing a noncompliant page that works just fine.
In North America, then, home video has offered closed captions for nearly a full human generation, and for almost a decade in certain WST countries. You might design your comps in Photoshop, touch them up in ImageReady or Fireworks, create HTML layouts in Dreamweaver, write CGI and database programs in a text editor, and test in a range of browsers.
There are two classes of player: Standalone (running as its own application) and embedded in a browser.
In fact, it is in no one’s interest for authors to view this layer cake of incompatibilities as a technical challenge to be solved for their own particular Websites.
If you encode hidden text tracks in a QuickTime movie, only the Pro version can turn them on. The Bourne Identity example at right shows the embedded approach, which is admittedly nicer to look at.
Why isn’t accessibility open or available as an intrinsic feature that cannot be deactivated? That single feed must accommodate sensitive nondisabled people and also the deaf and the blind.
And that turns out to be an entirely separate training course that is longer, more involved, and more taxing than this entire book.


While there is room for improvement in the existing practices, the fact remains that there are existing practices. At time of writing, the complete list appears to be ABC, CBS, Fox, Lifetime, NBC, Nickelodeon, PBS, TBS, TNT, USA Network, and Turner Classic Movies. You generally need a teletext television set (typical midrange and high-end models offer that feature), though you can find a very few external decoders and VCRs able to decode teletext captions.
It takes two solid weeks of watching captioning and audio description before it becomes comfortable.
To answer that question would require another book, plus a full-on training course, and I have to take things one step at a time. All actual character or speaker names inside a document share the same class; there is no need to differentiate them.
Isn’t that a bit more useful than a plain-text transcript where none of these transformations are possible?
It’s similar to evaluating which parts of a page must be modified for colourblind people: If you missed a notation of the sound effect, would you be confused, fail to understand a later event or statement, or make a mistake?
If the speaker bumps the microphone out of frame (invisibly, in other words) and says “Oops! Nondisabled people can run their own experiment: Watch TV for a day with the volume all the way down (and no captions). However, if you have more time than money, I expect you to do captioning first and pick away at the task of audio description gradually.
Blind people aren’t less important than deaf people, nor are they more important, nor is either group more or less important than others.
Training you to provide full-on audio description is quite another – something else indisputably beyond the scope of this book.
Through this book’s advice or lack thereof, it is virtually certain that the captioning and description you create will not be up to professional standards.
You may have to get the hang of transcription on your own, or simply choose not to worry about quality if you’re only transcribing a handful of clips. For this and all other MAGpie tasks, you’ll need to follow the directions in the MAGpie documentation. If your vendor can accommodate online file formats, they should be able to give you exactly the file format and degree of compression you require. Most of the time the copyright owner will be you, and you simply sign a standard work order authorizing the process. So are a couple of novelty fonts entirely dismissed by graphic designers, like Souvenir and Benguiat. It is possible to colour-code captions for different speakers; leave that up to the pros, and only if they have years of experience doing it.
I assume that the use of British audio-description narrators for American English materials is somewhat annoying, as the converse would be. MSAA acts as an intermediary between the structure and appearance of Windows software programs (including Windows itself and various browsers) and adaptive technology ike screen readers.
The Gnome Accessibility Project is an ongoing but incomplete effort to write an access infrastructure for Linux. He returned to Japan to join the Meiji Institute of Health Science in 1984, and became a professor at the National Institute of Genetics in 1991. After returning to Japan and establishing my own laboratory, our ES cell-related research extended to monkey and human ES cells, which further expanded my interests to include biomedical applications of such wonderful cell lines and synergic combinations with functional smart materials. Likewise, biomaterials including biological or synthetically designed materials can now be used to create powerful tools and resources for biomedical research and applications. My role as an Editor-in-Chief of our multidisciplinary journal gives me a new opportunity to contribute to such networking among scientists in multiple disciplines on a global scale.
From the point of view of materials science, the mesoscopic domain consists of complex, dynamic, multi-part components built up from nanoscopic building blocks consisting of handfuls of atoms and molecules. Our iCeMS was selected by competition and established in October 2007 as one of these WPI centres.
Also, take heed of the advice from Song Dynasty scholar Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi): Youth quickly turns to old age, but achieving learning is fraught with difficulty. My interest in music is regrettably mostly confined to listening, as I have not had sufficient opportunity to train myself as a musician. Note the white-on-black typography, and the lousy caption font my television set sticks me with. It is not easy to author the separate text files necessary to create the captions and synchronize those files with the online video. A standards-compliant SMIL document will not necessarily work in Windows Media, but captioning and description files are simple enough that they will usually work.
It is quite often impossible to use the Tab key to move from a surrounding Web page to the player application and within the regions of the player. It is not all that helpful for you to beaver away at programming a kludge that blind visitors can use to gain access to audio descriptions on your site, for example, to overcome some technical limitation of the sort just described.
At time of writing, by the way, I had never seen a single online movie trailer with captions or descriptions (both of which are readily achievable given movie-studio budgets and levels of expertise). If you want to download, say, a video player, you may be asked which server is closest to you (North America, Europe, Australia, Africa); those are multiple feeds as we understand them here.
You’re going to the trouble of creating captioning and descriptions anyway, so there is no real added effort here. It is difficult to explain captioning and audio description without sitting down in person with tapes rolling.
You must handle only the cards you are dealt, and don’t expect to receive a full deck.
Virtually all televisions built since mid-1993 (and ancillary TV-receiving devices like computer video cards) have included caption-decoder chips as standard equipment under U.S.
You may be able to produce a captioned clip (or at least a separate transcript) for publication at the same time the uncaptioned clip goes up on your site, with a described version published two weeks later. But the intrinsic difference in understanding an audio-visual medium when you have access to only the audio or the video means we have to set priorities.
But for small-budget productions and for online video that is of low quality to begin with, professional standards are beside the point and some kind of accessibility is better than none at all. You have a videoclip running in your player (with main audio and video), and somehow your speech synthesizer is supposed to keep tabs on a hidden text track and read it out loud at just the right moment.
And if your player offers exactly one text track, who gets to use it – blind people or deaf people? If your videoclip includes songs or music, you will, I assume, have the right to reproduce such songs or music online; you may not have the right to transcribe the lyrics, which is what captioning does.
Don’t even think of using traditional book typefaces like Times, Bookman, or Century. In all cases, open up the tracking (or letterspacing), the space between letters generally, as distinct from kerning, the space between pairs of letters. In 1999, Prof Nakatsuji joined the Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences at Kyoto University, where his laboratory established monkey embryonic stem cell lines in 2000.
It is worth noting that the United States Department of Energy, sensing the vast possibilities of this realm, has recently started exploring the potential of mesoscale science (Science vol.
I am its founding director, and our main concept is the integration of cell biology with material sciences (both chemistry and physics), which is providing the potential for a wide variety of novel research and innovation.
But, as if to spite real-world users, media files online are routinely offered in only one format, absolutely forcing you to run multiple players. Yes, I know, I promised never to authorize or promote nonstandard HTML use, but if I stuck to that faithfully here, online video would essentially disappear. Keyboard equivalents are incomplete and insufficient in all players except for Windows Media on the Windows platform per se, though all players, even Windows Media, suffer from the separation between standalone use and embedding in HTML pages. That same kludge probably relies on nonstandard methods (as a lot of JavaScript programming could be described) and definitely won’t work anywhere else. Or you may use Akamai or a similar technology to distribute the load of serving multiple copies of the same file across many different servers in different locations. And it is often technically simpler to add open captions and descriptions than closed ones. It is impossible to teach either discipline without extensive actual video to use as practice material. Quite simply, I have been around when it comes to this rather obscure and ill-understood discipline. It’s also possible to watch closed-captioned home videos that use the Line 22 system, for which you need a separate decoder (the so-called Videocaption Reader) or a VCR or TV with that separate decoder chip. Among neophytes, there is a tendency to be at once too literal in transcription (“Um, yes.
This is not quite the best way to do it, since you are only marking a sentence boundary and not the beginning and end of each sentence, but it could be useful.
If the player permits two or more tracks, how does a person using adaptive technology find out they are available and select them?
While separate transcripts suffice as a form of accessibility for deaf viewers if there is no other choice, they are a last resort in that setting. The version available at time of writing could add descriptions that you have already recorded; a later version, which had not been released at press time, lets you actually record your own descriptions as well as add them to a file.
Licenced works contained within your videoclip may require an explicit sublicence permitting them to be captioned or described. A typeface without italics is like a knife without a fork – unusable by itself here in the real world.
In fact, any typeface that would look classy and elegant in small sizes in a very serious and expensive book must be avoided like the plague in titling. Glowing letters tend to bleed into each other; letters that are nicely spaced for print are too close together in video.
In 2003, his group succeeded in establishing human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, five of which (KhES1–5) are presently in distribution to other researchers throughout Japan.
Among these, we are channelling our efforts into two important emerging areas: stem cell science and technology, and mesoscopic science and technology. Considering accessibility specifically, different players and versions have different capacities and are incompatible, to varying degrees, with assistive technology like screen readers. Global and CTV regularly air described programming in Canada, as do a few other networks and broadcasters on occasion. There is never a case where a separate text description file suffices as a form of access for blind viewers.
In 2007 he became the founding director of Kyoto University’s Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), which aims to advance cross-disciplinary research and technological innovation based on cell biology, chemistry, and physics. In short, mesoscopic domains, lying between 1 nm and 1 µm, are a realm where materials become life, and life inspires materials. Also, such cross-disciplinary research is anticipated to lead to innovations in medicine, pharmaceuticals, the environment, and industry.
A screen-reader user could remap the interpretation of such paragraph styles to speak in a different voice or volume.



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