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Categories: Japanese Tattoo Designs | Author: admin 29.11.2015

The word ''cosmetics'' derives from the Greek+ ????????? ????? (''kosmetike tekhne''), meaning "technique of dress and ornament", from ?????????? (''kosmetikos''), "skilled in ordering or arranging" and that from ?????? (''kosmos''), meaning amongst others "order" and "ornament". Ancient Sumer+ian men and women were possibly the first to invent and wear lipstick, about 5,000 years ago.
One of the most popular traditional Chinese medicine+s is the fungus Tremella fuciformis+, used as a beauty product by women in China and Japan. During the sixteenth century, the personal attributes of the women who used make-up created a demand for the product among the upper class. In the second part of the 19th century, great advances were made in chemistry from the chemical fragrances that enabled a much easier production of cosmetic products.
Actresses were allowed to use make up, and famous beauties such as Sarah Bernhardt+ and Lillie Langtry+ could be powdered. In the Middle Ages it seemed completely natural that the face should be whitened and the cheeks rouged.
By the middle of the 20th century, cosmetics were in widespread use by women in nearly all industrial societies+ around the world. As of 2016, the world's largest cosmetics company is , which was founded by Eugene Schueller+ in 1909 as the French Harmless Hair Colouring Company (now owned by Liliane Bettencourt+ 26% and Nestle+ 28%; the remaining 46% is traded publicly). During the 18th Century, there was a high number of incidences of lead-poisoning because of the fashion for red and white lead makeup and powder.
Beauty products are now widely available from dedicated internet-only retailers, who have more recently been joined online by established outlets, including the major department stores and traditional bricks and mortar beauty retailers. Although modern make-up has been traditionally used mainly by women, an increasing number of men are using cosmetics usually associated to women to enhance or cover their own facial features such as blemishes, dark circles, and so on. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up", refers primarily to products containing color pigments that are intended to alter the user’s appearance. Cosmetics that are meant to be used on the face and eye area are usually applied with a brush, a makeup sponge, or the fingertips.
Handmade and certified organic+ products are becoming more mainstream+, due to the fact that certain chemicals in some skincare products may be harmful if absorbed through the skin. The term "mineral makeup" applies to a category of face makeup, including foundation, eye shadow, blush, and bronzer, made with loose, dry mineral powders. Although the chemical constituent of cosmetics sometimes cause concerns, some chemicals are widely seen as beneficial. Mineral makeup is noncomedogenic (as long as it does not contain talc) and offers a mild amount of sun protection (because of the titanium dioxide and zinc oxide). The manufacture of cosmetics is dominated by a small number of multinational corporations+ that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of businesses.
The worldwide cosmetics and perfume industry currently generates an estimated annual turnover of US$170 billion (according to Eurostaf – May 2007). Due to the popularity of cosmetics, especially fragrances and perfumes, many designers who are not necessarily involved in the cosmetic industry came up with perfumes carrying their names.
Procter and Gamble+, which sells CoverGirl+ and Dolce and Gabbana+ makeup, funded a study concluding that makeup makes women seem more competent. Criticism+ of cosmetics has come from a wide variety of sources including some feminist+s, religious groups+, animal rights activists+, authors+, and public interest groups.
There has been a marketing trend towards the sale of cosmetics lacking controversial ingredients, especially those derived from petroleum+, sodium lauryl sulfate+ (SLS), and paraben+s. Paraben+s can cause skin irritation and contact dermatitis+ in individuals with paraben allergies+, a small percentage of the general population. Balsam of Peru+ was the main recommended marker for perfume allergy before 1977, which is still advised. Cosmetics companies have been criticized for making pseudo-scientific+ claims about their products which are misleading or unsupported by scientific evidence. Cosmetics testing is banned in the Netherlands, Belgium, and the UK, and in 2002, after 13 years of discussion, the European Union (EU) agreed to phase in a near-total ban on the sale of animal-tested cosmetics throughout the EU from 2009, and to ban all cosmetics-related animal testing.
In the European Union, the circulation of cosmetic products and their safety has been a subject of legislation since 1976.
Cosmetic regulations in Europe are often updated to follow the trends of innovations and new technologies while ensuring product safety+. Under the EU cosmetic regulation, manufacturers, retailers and importers of cosmetics in Europe will be designated as “Responsible Person”.
ANVISA (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria, ''Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency'') is the regulatory body responsible for cosmetic legislation and directives+ in the country. The current legislation restricts the use of certain substances such as pyrogallol, formaldehyde+ or paraformaldehyde and bans the use of others such as lead acetate+ in cosmetic products. Most Brazilian regulations are optimized, harmonized or adapted in order to be applicable and extended to the entire Mercosur economic zone+. The International Organization for Standardization+ (ISO) published new guidelines on the safe manufacturing of cosmetic products under a Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) regime. ISO 22716 provides a comprehensive approach for a quality management system for those engaged in the manufacturing, packaging, testing, storage, and transportation of cosmetic end products. The standard is based on other quality management systems, ensuring smooth integration with such systems as ISO 9001 or the British Retail Consortium (BRC) standard for consumer products. In July 2012, since microbial contamination is one of the greatest concerns regarding the quality of cosmetic products, the ISO has introduced a new standard for evaluating the antimicrobial protection of a cosmetic product by preservation efficacy testing and microbiological risk assessment. An account executive is responsible for visiting department and specialty stores with counter sales of cosmetics. A beauty adviser provides product advice based on the client's skin care and makeup requirements. Professionals in cosmetics marketing+ careers manage research focus groups, promote the desired brand image, and provide other marketing services (sales forecasting, allocation to retailers, etc.).
Many involved within the cosmetics industry often specialize in a certain area of cosmetics such as special effects makeup+ or makeup techniques specific to the film, media and fashion sectors. With the new Facebook Timeline Cover Photo you essentially have 2 pictures you can edit or create with a free online photo editor: the larger Cover Photo and the smaller original profile picture. With the impending mandatory switch to Timeline for all its hundreds of millions of users the race is on to make cool, creative and funny Facebook Cover Photos. You’ll also find that the new Cover Photo can highlight or enhance your old profile picture. With so much at stake to make a good first impression it’s time to get a jump on your Facebook  friends and start creating interesting and funny Cover Photos today.
I put together a list of some of the top free online photo editors that apply particularly to making funny faceand body images. According to one of our readers, the chemical that should be listed on this image is Bisphenol A, as there are two phenol groups in this chemical. Founded as a print magazine in 2002, we went national in 2005 and then (because mainstream magazine distribution is wildly inefficient from an eco-responsible point of view) transitioned online in 2009. I challenge the idea that one sip of any drink will cause me to be a fat person with osteoporosis, kidney disease, asthma and eczema.
They are generally mixtures of chemical compound+s, some being derived from natural sources (such as coconut oil) and some being synthetics.Gunther Schneider, Sven Gohla, Jorg Schreiber, ''et al''.
They crushed gemstone+s and used them to decorate their faces, mainly on the lips and around the eyes.


Cosmetics are mentioned in the Old Testament+, such as in 2 Kings 9:30, where Jezebel+ painted her eyelids—approximately 840 BC—and in the book of Esther+, where beauty treatments are described. The fungus reportedly increases moisture retention in the skin and prevents senile degradation of micro-blood vessels in the skin, reducing wrinkles and smoothing fine lines. For example, in the 19th century, Queen Victoria+ publicly declared makeup improper, vulgar, and acceptable only for use by actors. Most cosmetic products available were still either chemically dubious or found in the kitchen amid food colorings, berries and beetroot+.
The absence of regulation of the manufacture and use of cosmetics has led to negative side effects+, deformities+, blindness, and even death through the ages.
The market was developed in the USA during the 1910s by Elizabeth Arden+, Helena Rubinstein+, and Max Factor+. This led to swelling and inflammation of the eyes, attacked tooth enamel and caused skin to blacken. Most are meant to reduce the appearance of pore size, prolong the wear of makeup, and allow for a smoother application of makeup. Lip stains have a water or gel base and may contain alcohol to help the product stay on leaving a matte look. Concealer is often used for any extra coverage needed to cover blemishes, undereye circles, and other imperfections. They can give the illusion of a slimmer face or to modify a face shape in other desired ways. It is available in natural colors such as brown and black, but also comes in bolder colors such as blue, pink, or purple. For example, using white eyeliner on the waterline and inner corners of the eye helps to make the eyes look bigger and more awake. Transparent, colorless versions may strengthen nails or as a top or base coat to protect the nail or polish. Their basic design usually consists of human hair or synthetic materials attached to a thin cloth-like band, which is applied with an eyelash glue to the lashline.
They are usually applied to a cotton pad and wiped over the skin, but can be sprayed onto the skin from a spray bottle.
As the clay dries, it absorbs excess oil and dirt from the surface of the skin and may help to clear blocked pores or draw comedones to the surface. This is achieved either by using mild acids or other chemicals to loosen old skin cells, or abrasive substances to physically scrub them off. They may be liquids or gels, and may or may not contain an abrasive to remove old skin cells afterwards.
Loofahs, microfibre cloths, natural sponges or brushes may be used to exfoliate skin, simply by rubbing them over the face in a circular motion. Night creams are typically more hydrating than day creams, but may be too thick or heavy to wear during the day, hence their name. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defines cosmetics as products intended to cleanse or beautify (for instance, shampoos and lipstick).
Titanium dioxide, found in sunscreens, and zinc oxide have anti-inflammatory properties, mineral makeups with those ingredients can have a calming effect on the skin, which is particularly important for those who suffer from inflammatory problems such as rosacea. The worlds largest cosmetic companies are L'Oreal+, Procter and Gamble+, Unilever+, Shiseido+ and Estee Lauder+.
Europe is the leading market, representing approximately €63 billion, while sales in France reached €6.5 billion in 2006, according to FIPAR (Federation des Industries de la Parfumerie – the French federation for the perfume industry). Although not as large as in other European countries, the cosmetic industry in Italy was estimated to reach €9 billion in 2007. Animal experiments have shown that parabens have a weak estrogen+ic activity, acting as xenoestrogen+s.
Studies concluded from patch test+ing show synthetic fragrances+ are made of many ingredients which cause allergic reactions+.
The presence of Balsam of Peru in a cosmetic will be denoted by the INCI+ term ''Myroxylon pereirae''. Such tests involve general toxicity, eye and skin irritancy, phototoxic+ity (toxicity triggered by ultraviolet+ light), and mutagenicity.
France, which is home to the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oreal+, has protested the proposed ban by lodging a case at the European Court of Justice+ in Luxembourg+, asking that the ban be quashed.
One of the newest improvement of the regulation concerning cosmetic industry is a result of the ban animal testing+.
This new status implies that the responsible person has the legal liability+ to ensure that the cosmetics and brands+ they manufacture or sell comply with the current cosmetic regulations and norms. The rules apply to manufacturers, importers and retailers of cosmetics in Brazil, and most of them have been harmonized so they can apply to the entire Mercosur+. Regulators in several countries and regions have adopted this standard, '''ISO 22716:2007''', effectively replacing existing guidance and standards.
The standard deals with all aspects of the supply chain, from the early delivery of raw materials and components until the shipment of the final product to the consumer. Therefore, it combines the benefits of GMP, linking cosmetic product safety with overall business improvement tools that enable organisations to meet global consumer demand for cosmetic product safety certification.
They explain new products and "gifts with purchase" arrangements (free items given out upon purchase of cosmetics items costing over some set amount). The term cosmetologist+ is sometimes used interchangeably with this term, but the former most commonly refers to a certified professional. Cosmetic surgery in Australia+ Cosmetic surgery, also referred to as aesthetic surgery, is a surgical procedure which endeavours to improve the physical aspects of one's appearance to become more aesthetically pleasing. You can use several free Facebook Cover Photo editors to help you complete your final Cover. MagMyPic: put your photo on a fake magazine with lots of magazine and comic templates to choose from. Dumpr: this is an effects based app where you select the effect first then upload a picture from your computer or the web. Also around 3000 BC to 1500 BC, women in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization+ applied red tinted lipstick to their lips for face decoration.
Cosmetics brands release products especially tailored for men, and men are increasingly using them. Primers are applied before foundation or eyeshadows depending on where the primer is to be applied. Concealer is often thicker and more solid than foundation, and provides longer lasting, more detailed coverage. Tinted face powders may be worn alone as a light foundation so that the full face does not look as caked up as it could. Usually a few shades darker than one's own skin tone and matte in finish, contour products create the illusion of depth.
An alternative to setting spray is setting powder, which may be either pigmented or translucent. Designs vary from short, natural-looking lashes to extremely long, wispy, rainbow-colored lashes. Toners typically contain alcohol, water, and herbal extracts or other chemicals depending on skin type whether oily, dry, or combination.


Exfoliation can even out patches of rough skin, improve circulation to the skin, clear blocked pores to discourage acne and improve the appearance and healing of scars.
Gels, creams or lotions may contain an acid to encourage dead skin cells to loosen, and an abrasive such as beads, sea salt, sugar, ground nut shells, rice bran or ground apricot kernels to scrub the dead cells off the skin. Tinted moisturizers contain a small amount of foundation, which can provide light coverage for minor blemishes or to even out skin tones. A separate category exists for medications, which are intended to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease, or to affect the structure or function of the body (for instance, sunscreens and acne creams). France is another country in which the cosmetic industry plays an important role, both nationally and internationally.
The Italian cosmetic industry is dominated by hair+ and body products and not makeup as in many other European countries. Designer perfumes are, like any other designer products, the most expensive in the industry as the consumer pays for the product and the brand.
In some instances, Balsam of Peru is listed on the ingredient label of a product by one of its various names+, but it may not be required to be listed by its name by mandatory labeling conventions (in fragrances, for example, it may simply be covered by an ingredient listing of "fragrance"). This regulation applies to single-person companies making or importing just one product as well as to large multinationals.
Testing cosmetic products on animals has been illegal in the European Union since September 2004, and testing the separate ingredients of such products on animals is also prohibited by law, since March 2009 for some endpoints and full since 2013. The responsible person is also responsible of the documents contained in the Product Information File (PIF), a list of product information including data such as Cosmetic Product Safety Report, product description, GMP statement+ or product function.
The FDA joined with 13 other federal agencies in forming the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) in 1997, which is an attempt to ban animal testing and find other methods to test cosmetic products.
There are also many pre-provided templates to choose from to give your face or image a funny surreal look.
There are 5 main photo effects you can utilize with the Pizap App: Facebook Timeline Covers (beta), Edit a Photo, Backgrounds, Make a Collage, and WebCam effects. Choose your photo, upload it to the Magazine Cover template and customize it to your liking.
There are thousands of pictures to choose from with some classic characters and popular images. Living in a city and breathing in brake dust from cars, or living in farm country and inhaling trace amounts of pesticides, walking past the smoking area outside your workplace and catching a whiff of cigarette smoke, eating one meal containing non-organic meat, fruit or vegetables – all will arguably introduce more toxins to your body than a SIP of soda. Ancient Egypt+ians extracted red dye from fucus-algin+, 0.01% iodine+, and some bromine+ mannite, but this dye resulted in serious illness. Usually designed to be waterproof, the product may come with an applicator brush+, rollerball, or could be applied with a finger.
There are many formulas, including waterproof+ versions for those prone to allergies+ or sudden tears. Salt and sugar scrubs tend to be the harshest, while scrubs containing beads or rice bran are typically very gentle.
They are usually applied with the fingertips or a cotton pad to the entire face, avoiding the lips and area around the eyes. Some products, such as moisturizing sunscreens and anti-dandruff shampoos, are regulated within both categories.Kessler R. According to data from 2008, the cosmetic industry has grown constantly in France for 40 consecutive years.
Due to the fast-decreasing age of make-up users, many companies, from high-street brands like Rimmel to higher-end products like Estee Lauder, cater to this expanding market by introducing flavored lipsticks and glosses, cosmetics packaged in glittery, sparkly packaging and marketing and advertising using young models+. Manufacturers and importers of cosmetic products must comply with the applicable regulations in order to sell their products in the EU. They are usually paid by the hour by a cosmetic company, however they sometimes work independently. Upload a photo and start using the free editing tools such as add borders, photos, cutouts, speech bubbles, catchphrases, holiday clip-art, stickers, facial expressions, photo effects like Circle Splash, paint options, and sparkly letters.
Why discredit your own good advice (fizzy soft drinks are not a good source of nutrients and harmful if ingested to excess) with the alarmist rhetoric of ONE SIP? Lipsticks with shimmering effects were initially made using a pearlescent+ substance found in fish scales. Lip glosses are intended to add shine to the lips and may add a tint of color, as well as being scented or flavored for a pop of fun.
Some primers come in powder or liquid form to be applied before foundation as a base, while other primers come as a spray to be applied after the foundation to set the make-up and help it last longer throughout the day. In Germany, the cosmetic industry generated €12.6 billion of retail sales+ in 2008, which makes the German cosmetic industry the third largest in the world, after Japan and the United States.
Makeup and facial care, however, are the most common cosmetic products exported to the United States. In this industry it is common fall back on a suitably qualified person, such as an independent third party inspection and testing company, to verify the cosmetics’ compliance with the requirements of applicable cosmetic regulations and other relevant legislation, including REACH+, GMP+, hazardous substances+, etc. Cosmetics in Ancient Rome+ Cosmetics, first used in Ancient Rome for ritual purposes, were part of daily life for women, especially prostitutes and the wealthy. Once your done with your photo you can easily save it on Facebook under your photos or download it to your computer. Just select the template of your choosing and upload an image from your computer, webcam or Internet.
Six thousand year old relics of the hollowed out tombs of the Ancient Egyptian pharaohs are discovered. Witch hazel solution is a popular toner for all skin types, but many other products are available. The skin around the eyes is extremely thin and sensitive, and is often the first area to show signs of aging.
German exports+ of cosmetics reached €5.8 billion in 2008, whereas imports of cosmetics totaled €3 billion. Famous cosmetic brands produced in France include Vichy, Yves Saint Laurent+, Yves Rocher+ and many others.
Eye creams are typically very light lotions or gels, and are usually very gentle; some may contain ingredients such as caffeine or Vitamin K+ to reduce puffiness and dark circles under the eyes.
For this reason, dermatologists may consider mineral makeup to be gentler to the skin than makeup that contains those ingredients. Eye creams or gels should be applied over the entire eye area with a finger, using a patting motion.
Cosmetic industry+ The cosmetic industry is dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses.
Cosmetics in the 1920s+ Cosmetics in the 1920s were characterized by their use to create a specific look: lips painted in the shape of a Cupid's bow, kohl-rimmed eyes, and bright cheeks brushed with bright red blush.



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