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The Infected is the generic term given to mutated humans who have been infected and reshaped into horrific new forms by the Cordyceps Brain Infection. Along with human enemies the Infected are one of the main enemy types in The Last of Us and Left Behind. The Infected are the result of a sudden outbreak of a mutant Cordyceps fungus that now affects human beings as opposed to merely insects. Those who are clear of infection are ordered by martial law to reside within a Quarantine Zone.
For humans that have been exposed to a mutated strain of Ophiocordyceps Unilateralis, the fungus attacks the brain and begins to alter the behavior of its host. The infection is also spread directly through contact with an Infected or via their corpse - that is, the infectious spores created by the Cordyceps and released from the host's body upon death. Due to growing a fungus within themselves, all of the infected are extremely vulnerable to fire.
The Infected humans have since undergone a strange mutation by a specialized strain of cordyceps. Upon becoming Infected, the victims gradually lose any ability to think freely and begin to behave irrationally as the fungus spreads in the brain. The Infected, while having a higher pain tolerance than ordinary humans, are still susceptible to conventional injuries.
Runners are the first and weakest stage of the Infected who have just recently entered their transformation. Runners seem to have an easier time than humans when it comes to spotting Joel and Ellie, since, with humans, Joel can just walk up behind them and strangle them; something that is not possible to do with Runners without them spotting Joel. Anything works against Runners, and generally, the main concern when fighting them is the possibility of being swarmed by them in large numbers. Their croaking may be heard from a distance in various other areas, but it only serves as ambiance rather than a threat. Some Stalkers have a bioluminescent vein in the face which makes them easier to see in the dark. Stealth is an option, but not advised due to them being almost impossible to shiv while moving. One blast from a shotgun or El Diablo is enough to take them down, as is a headshot from the hunting rifle. There is a tag worth 100 in-game currency called 'The Hunter Becomes the Hunted' for stealth killing a Stalker from behind for the first time. It is very difficult for Ellie to combat them, as she only has her pistol when facing them. Clickers are the third and most iconic stage of the Infected and take anywhere between 2-4 years to reach this stage of infection.
Clickers appear less human than Runners and Stalkers, with faces that are completely skewed and scarred by fungus developed from their infected brains. When provoked, a Clicker will immediately enter into a "berserk mode," aggressively flailing its arms and 'roaring'. Punching a Clicker with bare hands is ineffective — after three punches, Joel will not have time to back away and will be instantly grappled by the Clicker, especially if the Clicker is in berserk mode, where it overrides Joel's punch. If Joel is grappled by a Clicker, he can save his life if he has a Shiv and at least level 1 of the Shiv Master skill, unless the player is playing on easy mode, where they already have the skill. When the Clicker does manage to go into berserk mode, it is advised to keep your distance before aiming at it or trying to hit it to avoid being grappled. If the player desires to engage them stealthily, Clickers can be killed by either using a shiv or the bow and arrow.
It is fairly easy to outrun a Clicker, as their crude echolocation has a short range and, unlike Runners or Stalkers, they jog at a moderate pace rather than sprint. Clickers can be killed with melee attacks if they are not in Berserk mode and if you hit them with a brick first, then attack them while they are stunned. Clickers are extremely susceptible to Molotov Cocktails and groups of Clickers can be taken down by them. Bloaters are the fourth, final, rarest, and most dangerous stage of infection as they take the longest to develop, taking anywhere between 1-2 decades to reach this stage. The most efficient way to kill bloaters is to throw a Molotov Cocktail or use the Flamethrower on them, due to their vulnerability to fire. Another very efficient way shown in "TheMediaCows" walkthrough of the game to kill Bloaters is to throw a Molotov Cocktail, then use a nail bomb while they are on fire. The Bloater actually draws its Mycotoxin bombs from bright, deformed patches growing on its body.
When dealing with a Runner, Stalker or Clicker, if the player has access to a brick or empty bottle, as well as a blunt weapon, the player can stun the Infected by throwing the object at it, and then continue by running towards the Infected while swinging a melee weapon.
For the early game, when the player does not have the Flamethrower, they can use their shotgun. They are commonly found in places that are underground or wet such as sewers and basements. Clickers can be found scratching the fungal growth on their eyes as if trying to get rid of their blindness.
When the Bloaters in the Pittsburgh hotel basement and UEC dormitory kill Joel, his gas mask is nowhere to be seen, though it can be seen on closer examination that this is because the Bloater actually knocks the mask off of Joel's face. In-game materials, concept art, and the "Grounded" Making Of documentary all show that the fungus is able to rip through bone. The skin of Clickers visibly "chalks," or forms large patches of scale-like tissue that glow in the dark. Runners don't moan as much nor in the same way as in previous beta demos as if in horrific pain but remain silent for the most part. Despite Clickers using echolocation, their echolocation is very crude compared to creatures like bats where they will not notice that something is alive or moving unless it is directly in front of them. Clickers do not click the same way as in previous beta demos where it would sound more like constant tapping of the tongue.
The Screamer was a prototype Special Infected formulated early in Left 4 Dead's development.
The idea for the Screamer was for him to lurk in different areas, much like the Witch, paying no attention to his surroundings until coming in contact with a Survivor whereupon, if sufficiently agitated, he would run away from Survivors in an attempt to hide. As stated in the Developer Commentary, Screamers and Boomers co-existed for a time during development.
The Screamer serves as the progenitor for the Hunter, Witch, the retail version of the Boomer, and the Jockey, as well as the Fallen Survivor.
The straitjacket is usually used as a restraint to prevent mental patients from harming themselves and others. Another resemblance is seen in the zombie survival game "State of Decay", where zombies sometimes called "Screamers" are seen, with their arms removed at the shoulder, and they attract other zombies via screams. In the XBox 360 version of Left 4 Dead, there's a test CFG file for the Screamer to spawn him, he's referenced as the Scout in the config's name, but in the config itself he's referenced as the Screamer.


In addition, a folder named classes exists there, inside which the Screamer can be referenced, he was a playable character once in development.
In various talker files in both the main game and the DLC The Sacrifice the Screamer can be referenced. In the 2006 Trailer for Left 4 Dead there's a Hunter scream that can be heard, at first glance one would think they just put a infected sound there to be the reason of triggering the horde, but it's actually the Screamer being referenced.
The blackened area (indicated by a yellow arrow) shows an infected uterus ready to rupture. The resulting creatures are highly aggressive, and will attack any uninfected human on sight. The fungus reportedly originated in South American crops; various newspapers in the prologue support this claim. As the vicious fungus has taken hold of the majority of the population, the worldwide pandemic causes the total breakdown and destruction of society through widespread violence; the failure of martial law to contain the outbreak, the military's increasingly violent efforts to censor information, and the near-extinction of humankind.
The military at one point bombed areas outside the Quarantine Zones to kill the infected and executes anyone suspected of infection on sight. Over time, growths protrude out of the orifices of the human hosts and it changes their physical appearance. They then develop a primitive form of echolocation to locate prey, which results in them making a distinctive clicking sound.
A Runner, when not attacking survivors, will moan in pain due to the fungal growth deforming its body and Clickers will occasionally struggle while being shivved.
People who have been infected will enter this stage within 1-2 days, with increased irritability and hostility towards others being a key symptom. Also, moving Runners seem to be capable of spotting Joel when crouch-walking, indicating heightened awareness. In which case, one may consider attempting to escape their detection by sprinting away to a distance and diving behind cover.
The most notable physical traits that define the Stalkers are the distinct croaking noises they make, the beginning of fungal growths on the head and face with only one eye left, the development of pseudo-echolocation, and their discretion upon spotting a victim at distance.
They can be shivved and strangled like Runners, but the player must approach them with caution without being seen, otherwise the Stalker will charge at the player. Because of this, it is best for Ellie to rely on bricks in the area, throwing them directly at the Stalkers to stun them so she can stab them with her switchblade. They have had prolonged exposure to the fungus, and now possess strength that significantly surpasses the average human.
At this point, if a survivor has been "spotted" by a Clicker, the Clicker will attack head-on and will not flinch when shot, unless the player is using high-powered rounds. However, using an arrow to kill a Clicker requires a headshot - which has an 80% chance of breaking the arrow - or two chest shots, which will alert them, so unless done fast enough, the player will be detected.
The Cannibals realised this, fleeing from guaranteed defeat in close combat and attack with their guns from a distance, when they were safe.
If done correctly, as the Clicker is stunned by the Brick impact, the player can sprint towards them and finish them off with a running 2x4 hit (Running punch combo can also work, but is more risky), This method could be attempted approaching the Clicker from the front, though the back would most likely be the safer option. When they are stunned, use a shotgun, firing two or three shots, to kill the Bloater to save supplies and ammo.
Each Bloater has three: one on its lower right abdomen, one on its upper left chest, and one on its upper right back.
Running in different directions, stopping and then firing one shot is time consuming, but it will work after many shots.
It grows in to big fungal plants around the body so much as only a few inches but can cover large areas. However, in the scene where Joel, Ellie and Bill run away from a horde of infected and get inside a building, just before Joel and Bill close the door, a Clicker is seen running rapidly towards them.
They do not click or attack even when you are in front of them unless provoked while resting. This is likely an earlier stage of the fungal infection growing out of their hosts's bodies, before said growth engulfs the entire body as seen with the final Bloater stage of infection.
This supports the theory of being where the clicks come out, as their face plates are shaped like a megaphone, directing it straight ahead of them, but not all around. If he succeeded in escaping, he emitted a loud scream that alerted a horde, causing an attack - thus, foreshadowing the later Boomer bile concept, and additionally helping to establish early on in production that the Common Infected are driven to extreme aggression as a response to loud noises. At the time, the Boomer merely exploded when killed, causing damage to nearby Survivors, while the Screamer would attract hordes with his scream. Since the Screamer is bound in a straitjacket, it hints that the Screamer was formerly either a mental institution patient or an early on-set Infection victim restrained due to the disease's crazed symptoms. The fungus infects the human brain, growing mycelium inside the brain tissue and killing the brain's cells.
The Fireflies – a militia group formed in response to military oppression – have conducted a mostly futile war against the barely-functional government. This lifeless carcass serves as a breeding ground for the fungus to spread throughout the environment. This could be due to the infection not being able to grow in warmer, drier outdoor climates.
This becomes most prominent on stages 2, 3 and 4, with their human characteristics ceasing to exist entirely (e.g.
After some time, the fungus will kill the host if too damaged, usually in a closed-off space so the fungus can spread further. Sometimes infected that still have their entire faces intact look sad or worried as they attack, indicating that first and second stage infected are aware of what they are doing, but cannot control themselves.
Since the eyes are first targeted by the fungus, Runners have poor eyesight, but maintain some human characteristics.
The Runners can also grab Joel and will try to bite and infect him while doing so, but they are less likely to be successful due to the fact they can be shaken off, unlike Clickers. They will strafe and take cover, eventually closing in on the victim, hence the name "Stalker".
Because of this, it is best for Joel to keep his distance when trying to confront a group of Stalkers. This makes them deadlier, but at the price of being completely blind due to fungal infection taking over their face. Clickers are dangerous and much more aggressive than Runners, and like Stalkers; they no longer resist the fungus because their humanity has been completely eliminated.
It is possible to avoid or distract Clickers instead of fighting them directly by throwing bottles or bricks. This is risky, however, as the fungus around their face acts as a sort of armor, which significantly increases the chance of the arrows breaking. Upon hearing the sound of the bottle breaking, all Clickers will bee-line for the noise and in the process walk right into the flames, burning themselves to death. Due to this protective covering, they can withstand multiple hits from weapons such as the Shotgun and Hunting Rifle, and even hatchets and machetes making them extremely tough to eliminate.
However, a burning and thrashing Bloater can still grab Joel and kill him, so under no circumstances should one ever let a Bloater come within melee range.


Shooting any of these growths destroys them and reduces the damage required to kill the Bloater. By this point, the corpse becomes skeletal and brittle, and the fungus sticks the body to whatever surface it is on. Screamers were presented in-game as Infected humans bound in a restraining psychiatric-style straitjacket. It was therefore important for the players to kill the Screamer before he could escape and call a horde. Ultimately, the Screamer was cut from the game because he was deemed too difficult and confusing for the Survivors to spot and track down amongst a crowd of Common Infected. It could also be viewed as resembling the Lying Figures from Silent Hill 2, who run in straitjackets made of their own flesh and spit out bile acid.
This erases their memories and drives them insane, modifying their instincts to seek no goal other than spreading the spores to others.
The group is one of the few remaining organizations that believe they can create a vaccine through study of the fungus and its hosts. Gunshots are capable of startling an Runners and Stalkers, so it is likely they feel fear in the early stages of infection.
As with any other choke-able enemies, the player needs to be careful about being spotted by other nearby enemies while choking them out one by one. They seem to have enhanced strength capabilities, as they are shown to almost always overwhelm and kill Joel if grappled and always succeed if attacking other humans, like the group at the mountain plaza.
Shivs are also needed to unlock the special Shiv Doors, which contain special items that are needed if one wants to have the best chance of surviving. This makes them easy to avoid as you just simply have to crouch still behind cover roughly 10 feet (3 meters) away, as the echolocation only ranges a few feet, unless the player fires a gun.
Bloaters are extremely aggressive, but are rather slow-moving causing them to be more predictable than other infected.
Their armor will also be charred and brittle, making them vulnerable to low-powered weapons. To counter this, two shots from a fully upgraded El Diablo are enough to kill a Bloater instead.
Destroying all three will completely disable the Bloater's ranged attack, limiting it to charging at the player. This is also viable on the higher difficulties, as one is better off avoiding enemies altogether to conserve your ammunition or when they have run out of Molotov Cocktails and Nail Bombs. The fungus will begin to emit spores from the body which will infect anyone that breathes them. Since the Screamer was under physical restraint, he did not have the ability to mount any direct attack on Survivors. However, the idea of a Special Infected having an attack that attracts a horde was considered too good to go to waste, and the Boomer was then given its bile attack and its bile splash death effect. His screams attracted horde attacks, like the retail Boomer's bile attack, and he cackled maniacally, like the Jockey, who is also speculated to have been insane prior to infection. Eventually the fungus will kill its host, and will then grow out of the host's body to spread spores.
The fungus also seems to offer the host some protection against the elements, such as the cold.
They lapse into their primitive, animalistic instincts, attacking anyone or anything that disturbs them, almost as a way to protect their territory. Individual Runners are also very easy to melee even with bare fists, so using up any ammunition when fighting them can be wasteful when there are only a few of them. Clickers also possess what seems like very high intelligence, never leaving an area when they have heard prey run by them, and will constantly check every available nook and cranny to locate the source of the sound with little regard to give up on the task at hand. In the launch trailer for the game shown at the 2011 Spike Video Game Awards, Clickers had the ability to run as fast as Runners. Despite this weakness, fire-based weapons such as Flamethrowers or Molotov cocktails still require multiple uses before killing a Bloater.
This significantly increases the player's options for dealing with the Bloater, as it can no longer harm the player from a distance and is easily lured into traps. To combat this, most survivors carry gas masks, although if the person is immune to the infection they have no need for one. The Fallen Survivors run away from Survivors, much like the Screamer, in an attempt to escape.
The Last of Us game team has stated that the people in the Quarantine Zones are relatively safe because they are in places with significant airflow, where the spore concentration is low, which is why the only places with significant spore toxicity tend to be underground or abandoned buildings. At later stages, their body begins to bulge, and more fungal growths can be seen on their skin. Their body language is sluggish while they are passive, suggesting they are resisting the fungus's influence. There is little gained, but plenty lost if Joel uses a shiv on them, as shivs are best saved for Clickers, shiv doors, and possibly Stalkers to obtain an achievement. Because the fungus has completely deformed their face and blinded them, their echolocation is a lot less refined than the Clickers. Their other, less effective weakness is armor piercing rounds from an upgraded weapon, like the Hunting Rifle. If unable to destroy them, the Bloater will take a short amount of time to throw the sack of fungus; when they them raise their arms, run away from the direction the Bloater is throwing the sack. When the host is killed or dies from advanced fungal growth, the fungus continues to grow throughout the body, eventually emitting spores. Sometimes they do not attack at all, even when non-infected individuals are right in front of them. If a Bloater grabs a survivor, it will forcefully rip their jaw apart through brute strength, or grab the player's head and smash it, killing them instantly. These non-aggressive Runners will only attack if attacked first or when an object is thrown at or near them, thus losing control.
There is no way for the player to defend themselves if grabbed - the result is an instant kill. Considering the rate at which Cordyceps grows after its fruiting body has emerged from the hosts head, the infected is estimated to take from 10 to 15 years to reach stage 4. Much like sneezing, the urge to attack after such interactions happens involuntarily and unwillingly by the host. The Mycotoxin will hurt the player over time, so it is recommended to avoid these deadly clouds.




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