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Social psychology programs reveal how social perception, social influence, and social interaction affect people’s behavior.
A bachelor’s degree in psychology can serve as a stepping-stone for graduate study or prepare students for entry-level jobs in the mental health and social services fields. Social psychology students obtain a solid base of knowledge by learning about the core theories, concepts, principles, findings, and methods of social psychology while pursuing their specialized interests. Students are often encouraged to undertake their own research under the guidance of faculty. Social psychologists are trained to combine their knowledge of human behavior with scientific research methods. For the most part, it is more difficult for social psychologists to find jobs inside of academia than outside of it, because there are very few academic positions available in social psychology. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, psychologists earned a median annual salary of $90,020 per year, while psychology professors earned $68,020. Social psychologists study how and why people think, feel, and do the things they do depending on the situations they are in. Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology Psychology explores the science of the human mind and human behavior. Attitudes and Social Cognition addresses those domains of social behavior in which cognition plays a major role, including the interface of cognition with overt behavior, affect, and motivation.
Among topics covered are the formation, change, and utilization of attitudes, attributions, and stereotypes, person memory, self-regulation, and the origins and consequences of moods and emotions insofar as these interact with cognition. Of interest also is the influence of cognition and its various interfaces on significant social phenomena such as persuasion, communication, prejudice, social development, and cultural trends. Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes focuses on psychological and structural features of interaction in dyads and groups.
Appropriate to this section are papers on the nature and dynamics of interactions and social relationships, including interpersonal attraction, communication, emotion, and relationship development, and on group and organizational processes such as social influence, group decision making and task performance, intergroup relations and aggression, prosocial behavior and other types of social behavior. Personality Processes and Individual Differences publishes research on all aspects of personality psychology. Articles in areas such as personality structure, personality development, and personality assessment are also appropriate to this section of the journal, as are studies of the interplay of culture and personality and manifestations of personality in everyday behavior. Prior to submission, please carefully read and follow the submission guidelines detailed below.
All three sections of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology are now using a software system to screen submitted content for similarity with other published content. General correspondence may be directed to the eval(unescape('%76%61%72%20%73%3d%27%6d%61%69%6c%74%6f%3a%65%73%6d%69%74%68%34%40%69%6e%64%69%61%6e%61%2e%65%64%75%27%3b%64%6f%63%75%6d%65%6e%74%2e%77%72%69%74%65%28%27%3c%61%20%74%69%74%6c%65%3d%22%41%74%74%69%74%75%64%65%73%20%61%6e%64%20%53%6f%63%69%61%6c%20%43%6f%67%6e%69%74%69%6f%6e%20%65%64%69%74%6f%72%5c%27%73%20%6f%66%66%69%63%65%20%65%6d%61%69%6c%22%20%68%72%65%66%3d%22%27%2b%73%2b%27%22%20%3e%27%29%3b'))Editor's Office.
Submit manuscripts electronically to the Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes section. General correspondence may be directed to the eval(unescape('%76%61%72%20%73%3d%27%6d%61%69%6c%74%6f%3a%6b%61%77%61%6b%61%6d%69%40%79%6f%72%6b%75%2e%63%61%27%3b%64%6f%63%75%6d%65%6e%74%2e%77%72%69%74%65%28%27%3c%61%20%74%69%74%6c%65%3d%22%49%6e%74%65%72%70%65%72%73%6f%6e%61%6c%20%52%65%6c%61%74%69%6f%6e%73%20%61%6e%64%20%47%72%6f%75%70%20%50%72%6f%63%65%73%73%65%73%20%65%64%69%74%6f%72%5c%27%73%20%6f%66%66%69%63%65%20%65%6d%61%69%6c%22%20%68%72%65%66%3d%22%27%2b%73%2b%27%22%20%3e%27%29%3b'))Editor's Office. Submit manuscripts electronically to the Personality Processes and Individual Differences section. General correspondence may be directed to the eval(unescape('%76%61%72%20%73%3d%27%6d%61%69%6c%74%6f%3a%6d%75%61%73%70%73%79%63%68%63%6f%6f%70%65%72%5f%6a%70%73%70%40%6d%69%73%73%6f%75%72%69%2e%65%64%75%27%3b%64%6f%63%75%6d%65%6e%74%2e%77%72%69%74%65%28%27%3c%61%20%74%69%74%6c%65%3d%22%50%65%72%73%6f%6e%61%6c%69%74%79%20%50%72%6f%63%65%73%73%65%73%20%61%6e%64%20%49%6e%64%69%76%69%64%75%61%6c%20%44%69%66%66%65%72%65%6e%63%65%73%20%65%64%69%74%6f%72%5c%27%73%20%6f%66%66%69%63%65%20%65%6d%61%69%6c%22%20%68%72%65%66%3d%22%27%2b%73%2b%27%22%20%3e%27%29%3b'))Editor's Office. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Personality Processes and Individual Differences now requires that a cover letter be submitted with all new submissions. Although not a central part of its mission, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology values replications and encourages submissions that attempt to replicate important findings previously published in social and personality psychology. Novelty of theoretical or empirical contribution is not a major criterion, although evidence of moderators of a finding would be a positive factor. Preference will be given to submissions by researchers other than the authors of the original finding, that present direct rather than conceptual replications, and that include attempts to replicate more than one study of a multi-study original publication. Submit through the Manuscript Submission Portal [to the appropriate section editor as noted above] and please note that the submission is a replication article.
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Psychologists have long sought insights into how we perceive the world and what motivates our behavior, and they've made enormous strides in lifting that veil of mystery. Arguably the most famous experiment in the history of psychology, the 1971 Stanford prison study put a microscope on how social situations can affect human behavior. The experiment, which was scheduled to last for two weeks, had to be cut short after just six days due to the guards' abusive behavior -- in some cases they even inflicted psychological torture -- and the extreme emotional stress and anxiety exhibited by the prisoners. The experiment was one of the first to illustrate the phenomenon of "change blindness," which shows just how selective we are about what we take in from any given visual scene -- and it seems that we rely on memory and pattern-recognition significantly more than we might think.
A famous Stanford experiment from the late 1960s tested preschool children's ability to resist the lure of instant gratification -- and it yielded some powerful insights about willpower and self-discipline.
While most of the children said they'd wait, they often struggled to resist and then gave in, eating the treat before the researcher returned, TIME reports. A famous 1961 study by Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram tested (rather alarmingly) how far people would go to obey authority figures when asked to harm others, and the intense internal conflict between personal morals and the obligation to obey authority figures.
Milgram wanted to conduct the experiment to provide insight into how Nazi war criminals could have perpetuated unspeakable acts during the Holocaust. While the study has commonly been seen as a warning of blind obedience to authority, Scientific American recently revisited it, arguing that the results were more suggestive of deep moral conflict. Recently, some commenters have called Milgram's methodology into question, and one critic noted that records of the experiment performed at Yale suggested that 60 percent of participants actually disobeyed orders to administer the highest-dosage shock.
There's a psychological reason behind the fact that those in power sometimes act towards others with a sense of entitlement and disrespect. This classic 1950s social psychology experiment shined a light on the possible psychological basis of why social groups and countries find themselves embroiled in conflict with one another -- and how they can learn to cooperate again.
Study leader Muzafer Sherif took two groups of 11 boys (all age 11) to Robbers Cave State Park in Oklahoma for "summer camp." The groups (named the "Eagles" and the "Rattlers") spent a week apart, having fun together and bonding, with no knowledge of the existence of the other group. The 75-year Harvard Grant study --one of the most comprehensive longitudinal studies ever conducted -- followed 268 male Harvard undergraduates from the classes of 1938-1940 (now well into their 90s) for 75 years, regularly collecting data on various aspects of their lives. The study's longtime director, psychiatrist George Vaillant, told The Huffington Post that there are two pillars of happiness: "One is love. Achieving fame and success isn't just an ego boost -- it could also be a key to longevity, according to the notorious Oscar winners study. Anyone who's taken a freshman Psych 101 class is familiar with cognitive dissonance, a theory which dictates that human beings have a natural propensity to avoid psychological conflict based on disharmonious or mutually exclusive beliefs.
Stereotyping various groups of people based on social group, ethnicity or class is something nearly all of us do, even if we make an effort not to -- and it can lead us to draw unfair and potentially damaging conclusions about entire populations. Being curious is the best way to become more insightful, says Klein, and a lack of insight often comes from being in a passive and disinterested state of mind. Those clever folks over at TabJuice have put together an excellent infographic summarizing the psychological factors influencing social marketing. Companies leveraging social media to make you buy something are taking advantage of well-known cognitive biases – the mental rules of thumb that speed the decision-making process, though not always in your best interest. Social psychologists work in a variety of settings, including universities, government agencies, corporations, and hospitals. However, most jobs require you to have at least a master’s degree in the field, though a doctoral degree is generally preferred if you want to work in academia or become a psychologist.
Online social psychology courses are available, but degree programs with a specific focus on social psychology are generally only offered on traditional campuses.
The career opportunities for social psychologists are diverse, ranging from hiring and training employees in business settings to conducting research and teaching classes at colleges and universities. However, social psychology applies to many different fields, so graduates generally have opportunities to find jobs related to their research interests. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that the overall employment of psychologists is expected to grow 22% from 2010 to 2020, which is faster than average for all occupations. Unlike sociology, which focuses on group factors like socioeconomic class and race, social psychology focuses on the individual.
It includes studies of individual differences and basic processes in behavior, emotions, coping, health, motivation, and other phenomena that reflect personality. Manuscripts that do not conform to the submission guidelines may be returned without review. When papers are judged as better suited for another section, editors ordinarily will return papers to authors and suggest resubmission to the more appropriate section. The system compares the initial version of each submitted manuscript against a database of 40+ million scholarly documents, as well as content appearing on the open web. Manuscripts may be copyedited for bias-free language (see Chapter 3 of the Publication Manual).
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Specifically, APA expects authors to have their data available throughout the editorial review process and for at least 5 years after the date of publication. You may also request a copy by eval(unescape('%76%61%72%20%73%3d%27%6d%61%69%6c%74%6f%3a%65%74%68%69%63%73%40%61%70%61%2e%6f%72%67%27%3b%64%6f%63%75%6d%65%6e%74%2e%77%72%69%74%65%28%27%3c%61%20%74%69%74%6c%65%3d%22%45%6d%61%69%6c%20%66%6f%72%20%74%68%65%20%41%50%41%20%45%74%68%69%63%73%20%4f%66%66%69%63%65%22%20%68%72%65%66%3d%22%27%2b%73%2b%27%22%20%3e%27%29%3b'))emailing or calling the APA Ethics Office (202-336-5930). Despite our best attempts to "know thyself," the truth is that we often know astonishingly little about our own minds, and even less about the way others think. Aside from providing fodder for stimulating cocktail-party conversations, some of the most famous psychological experiments of the past century reveal universal and often surprising truths about human nature. The researchers, led by psychologist Philip Zimbardo, set up a mock prison in the basement of the Stanford psych building and selected 24 undergraduates (who had no criminal record and were deemed psychologically healthy) to act as prisoners and guards.
In the experiment, four-year-olds were put in a room by themselves with a marshmallow on a plate in front of them, and told that they could either eat the treat now, or if they waited until the researcher returned 15 minutes later, they could have two marshmallows. The children who did manage to hold off for the full 15 minutes generally used avoidance tactics, like turning away or covering their eyes.
To do so, he tested a pair of participants, one deemed the "teacher" and the other deemed the "learner." The teacher was instructed to administer electric shocks to the learner (who was supposedly sitting in another room, but in reality was not being shocked) each time they got questions wrong.
A 2003 study published in the journal Psychological Review put students into groups of three to write a short paper together. When the two groups finally integrated, the boys started calling each other names, and when they started competing in various games, more conflict ensued and eventually the groups refused to eat together. The other is finding a way of coping with life that does not push love away." For example, one participant began the study with the lowest rating for future stability of all the subjects and he had previously attempted suicide.
Researchers from Toronto's Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre found that Academy Award-winning actors and directors tend to live longer than those who were nominated but lost, with winning actors and actresses outliving their losing peers by nearly four years.
In an often-cited 1959 experiment, psychologist Leon Festinger asked participants to perform a series of dull tasks, like turning pegs in a wooden knob, for an hour.
NYU psychologist John Bargh's experiments on "automaticity of social behavior" revealed that we often judge people based on unconscious stereotypes -- and we can't help but act on them. If you would like to comprehend the behavior of individuals and groups in social and organizational contexts, learn what it takes to become a social psychologist and pursue a rewarding career in this field. A bachelor’s degree takes four years to complete, a master’s degree takes two to three years to complete, and a doctoral degree takes five to seven years to complete.
Job prospects will likely be the best for people who have a doctoral degree in social psychology. To learn more about this fascinating psychology discipline, browse through the social psychology programs on our site today.
Rejection by one section editor is considered rejection by all; therefore a manuscript rejected by one section editor should not be submitted to another.
The first page of text should omit this information but should include the title of the manuscript and the date it is submitted.
Mechanisms of intentional binding and sensory attenuation: The role of temporal prediction, temporal control, identity prediction, and motor prediction.
Researchers then observed the prisoners (who had to stay in the cells 24 hours a day) and guards (who shared eight-hour shifts) using hidden cameras.
In 1998, researchers from Harvard and Kent State University targeted pedestrians on a college campus to determine how much people notice about their immediate environments. The implications of the children's behavior were significant: Those who were able to delay gratification were much less likely to be obese, or to have drug addiction or behavioral problems by the time they were teenagers, and were more successful later in life. Milgram instead played recordings which made it sound like the learner was in pain, and if the "teacher" subject expressed a desire to stop, the experimenter prodded him to go on.
Two students were instructed to write the paper, while the other was told to evaluate the paper and determine how much each student would be paid. In the next phase of the research, Sherif designed experiments to try to reconcile the boys by having them enjoy leisure activities together (which was unsuccessful) and then having them solve a problem together, which finally began to ease the conflict.
Love really is all that matters, at least when it comes to determining long-term happiness and life satisfaction. They were then paid either $1 or $20 to tell a "waiting participant" (aka a researcher) that the task was very interesting. We also tend to buy into stereotypes for social groups that we see ourselves being a part of.
Every effort should be made to see that the manuscript itself contains no clues to the authors' identity.
During the first experiment, 65 percent of participants administered a painful, final 450-volt shock (labeled "XXX"), although many were visibly stressed and uncomfortable about doing so.
Those who were paid $1 to lie rated the tasks as more enjoyable than those who were paid $20. In one study, Bargh found that a group of participants who were asked to unscramble words related to old age -- "Florida," "helpless" and "wrinkled" -- walked significantly slower down the hallway after the experiment than the group who unscrambled words unrelated to age.
While the pedestrian was giving the directions, two men carrying a large wooden door walked between the actor and the pedestrian, completely blocking their view of each other for several seconds. Although generally the last cookie was never eaten, the "boss" almost always ate the fourth cookie -- and ate it sloppily, mouth open.
Bargh repeated the findings in two other comparable studies that enforced stereotypes based on race and politeness. During that time, the actor was replaced by another actor, one of a different height and build, and with a different outfit, haircut and voice. Those who were paid more felt that they had sufficient justification for having performed the rote task for an hour, but those who were only paid $1 felt the need to justify the time spent (and reduce the level of dissonance between their beliefs and their behavior) by saying that the activity was fun. In other words, we commonly tell ourselves lies to make the world appear a more logical, harmonious place.

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