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Attributed to Homer and committed to writing in the mid-eighth century are the earliest extant Greek literary works, the Iliad and Odyssey.
In Homera€™s catalog, details regarding the spatial relationships between places are limited, restricted usually to neighboring bodies of Lilaia, for example, is beside the wellspring of the river Cephisus. According to Strabo (#115), the third-century scholar Eratosthenes (#112) rejected all attempts to map the sites to which Odysseus ventured in Homera€™s epic. According to the historian Georgia Irby it is unlikely that Homer used maps or knew of them. Despite Homera€™s geographic curiosity and awareness, only the vaguest of maps could be generated from his data, comprising little more than a set of cardinal points. Despite the literary form of the poem, it gives us a clear picture of the various processes in the creation of this great work with its manifestly cartographic symbolism. In light of the archaeological discoveries of cultures that certainly influenced Homera€™s poetry, the content of Achillesa€™ shield seems less extraordinary. At the same time, we should be clear that the map on Achillesa€™ shield was not intended to communicate a literal view of geographical knowledge of the world as known to the early Greeks.
So detailed is Homera€™s description that, though clearly an imaginary map, Achillesa€™ shield represents a useful glimpse of the early history of efforts to map the world.
But the description no doubt reflects elements present in real maps of the time, many of which were widely used later on. Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man.
The Homeric conception of the world represented as a flat, circular disc of land surrounded by a continuous ocean-stream remained a popular notion in the Greek world even after many philosophers and scientists had accepted the theory of the sphericity of the earth enunciated by the Pythagoreans and subjected to theoretical proof by Aristotle. They recount episodes from the Trojan War, and both reflect a strong geographic curiosity and awareness. Yet scholars contemporary with Eratosthenes proposed likely equivalents for several of the places featured there. Again, the a€?reconstructionsa€? of Homera€™s world concept by todaya€™s historians as shown herein are the result of attempts to graphically a€?interpreta€? or a€?translatea€? Homera€™s writings on the topic. Its context is the description of the shield of Achilles in the Iliad of Homer thought by modern scholars to have been written in the eighth century B.C. We are told how HephA¦stus forged a huge shield laminated with five layers of metal and with a three-layered metal rim. Homer was writing at a time not much earlier than the first manifestations of what is considered the beginning of Greek science. The scenes from rural and urban life are arranged on the surface of the shield in no apparent geographical order. In this interpretation the world is like a plateau on the top of a mountain; inside this, close to the surface of the earth, lies the House of Hades, the Realm of Death, and beneath it Tartarus, the Realm of Eternal Darkness. Homer was dearly engaged by the nature of the world, its origins, its shape, and the relationships between places. The suggestion that Ethiopia is a divided territorya€”some Ethiopians dwell in the east, some by the setting sun -- is unusual, as is the clarity of Circea€™s directions to the Underworld: a€?Let the blast of the north wind carry you. The truth is, however, that these cannot be identified conclusively; and modern scholars continue to dispute the geographic integrity of Odysseusa€™ journey.
The opulent artwork on Achillesa€™ shield, however, strongly suggests an early attempt at mapmaking. Nonetheless, early Greek sailors knew the nautical and geographic markers scattered along well-established shipping lanes.
The five places that made up the shield consisted of a gold one in the middle, a tin one on each side of this, and finally two of bronze. They simply present a generalized and metaphorical view of human activity and of the profound interdependence of human beings in spite of the variety and specialties of their pursuits. The plateau of the earth is surrounded by Oceanus, the world river, and from its periphery rises the fixed dome of the sky. In his lengthy catalog of Greek ships, he lists 29 contingents, 44 Greek leaders, and 175 towns and locales by name.
But when you have crossed with your ship the stream of Ocean, you will find there a thickly wooded shore, and the groves of Persephone, and tall black poplars growing, and fruit-perishing willows, then beach your ship on the shore of deep-eddying Ocean.a€? Circea€™s directions and her landmarks are vivid. Certainly, Homera€™s descriptions of Ithaca and surrounding islands are not corroborated by geographic facts, and his references to Egypt, Cyprus, and Phoenicia suggest the political geography of the eighth century, not of the Bronze Age Trojan War era.
Hephaestus, the Greek god of the forge, created a great shield with five layers of metallic laminate and a triple-layered metallic rim. On the front bronze plate we are told that he fashioned his designs in a concentric pattern; a possible arrangement is suggested in the reconstruction provided herein. HephA¦stus, the divine smith, chose to give a complete image of the cosmos - earth, sea, and sky together with scenes of human life. The ocean encircling the whole shield, rendering the world as an island, emphasizes this human unity. Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. The sun, the moon, and the stars rise from the waters at the edge of the dome, move in an arc above the earth, and then sink once again into the sea to complete their course beneath the Oceanus. The Underworld is a difficult destination only for its remoteness, and a map is hardly necessary. The shielda€™s face was decorated with a gold plate in the center, two plates of tin, and two of bronze. In fact, the paradigm presented on Achillesa€™ shield, the circular cosmos framed by Ocean, may have inspired early efforts in Miletus to produce a€?scientifica€? maps.
21) and the Stoics claimed Homer was the founder and father of a a€?geographical sciencea€?, generally understood as involving both maps and treatises, it is tempting to start a history of Greek theoretical cartography with Homera€™s description of this mythical shield.
The scenes of the earth and heavens in the center, two cities (one at peace and one at war), agricultural activity and pastoral life, and a€?the Ocean, that vast and might rivera€? around the edge of the hard shield denote his intention of presenting a synthesis of the inhabited world as an island surrounded by water.
The main constellations - Orion, the Hyades, the Pleiades, and the Great Bear - are described, suggesting that a tradition had already developed of using these groups of stars to identify different parts of the sky. The atmosphere above the mountain of the earth is thick with clouds and mist, but higher up is the clear A†ther with its starry ceiling. Furthermore, Homera€™s description of the journey suggests something about the accepted view of the shape of the earth. If this interpretation is valid, then it must also be accepted that Homer was describing a cosmological map. HephA¦stus depicted the universe in miniature on Achillesa€™ shield, and Homer, in his poetry, only provides a commentary on this pictorial representation. The shield includes a representation of the sun and moon shining simultaneously, again in an attempt to integrate a general knowledge of the sky into one depiction. He writes that at its limit a€?lie the community and city of the Cimmerian people, hidden in fog and cloud, nor does Helios, the radiant sun, ever break through the dark, to illuminate them with his shining, neither when he climbs up into the starry heaven, nor when he wheels to return again from heaven to earth, but always a glum night is spread over wretched mortalsa€?. In short, the shield is a synthesized microcosm of Homera€™s world, both terrestrial and celestial. Although from the Hellenistic Period onward the original meaning of the term geography was a description of the earth, ge, written or drawn (mapping and geographical descriptions were thus inseparable in the Greek world); it is equally clear that Greek mapmaking included not only the representation of the earth on a plane or globe, but also delineations of the whole universe.
As with the Thera fresco, which is roughly contemporaneous with the subject of Homera€™s poem, the juxtaposition on the shield of scenes and actions that in reality could not occur at the same time shows the artista€™s desire to portray a syncretism of human activity. Even in this poetic form we can glimpse the use of a map, almost as a heuristic device, to bring some order into concept and observation and to codify the early Greeksa€™ reflections on the nature and constitution of their world.
The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports.
This description implies a flat worldview and a sun whose path across the sky does not change regardless of the season. It was not intended to communicate a physical geography, but it rather served as a generalized and metaphorical depiction of human activity and the interdependence of humanity with surrounding environs, a powerful image of the cosmos.

The shield in Homera€™s poem, made for Achilles by HephA¦stus, god of fire and metallurgy, was evidently such a map of the universe as conceived by the early Greeks and articulated by the poet.
I brought him to Your disciples, but they couldn’t heal him.”  Jesus replied, “You unbelieving and rebellious generation! Thus, places are distinguished by landmarks: strong-founded citadels at Medeon, lower Thebes, and Mycena Tiryns of the huge walls. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. Bring him here to Me.” Then Jesus rebuked the demon, and it came out of him, and from that moment the boy was healed. Some peoplesa€™ physical characteristics and fighting skills are noted - the Abantes (of Euboea) a€?their hair grown long at the back,a€? who are a€?furious spearmena€?; the Arcadians fight at dose quarters.
Then the disciples approached Jesus privately and said, “Why couldn’t we drive it out?” “Because of your little faith,” He told them. Herodotus, Strabo and other geographic writers would later incorporate similar information into their own geographic accounts. However, this kind does not come out except by prayer and fasting.”This same story is repeated in Mark Chapter 9, vs. I was there for forty days and forty nights, all that time I ate no food and drank no water. The Lord gave me the two tablets on which God had written with his own finger all the words he had spoken to you from the heart of the fire when you were assembled at the mountain.
At the end of the forty days and nights, the Lord handed me the two stone tablets inscribed with the words of the covenant.Matthew Chapter 4, vs. 1-2 (NLT): Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted there by the devil.
16-18 (NLT): And when you fast, don’t make it obvious, as the hypocrites do, for they try to look miserable and disheveled so people will admire them for their fasting. Then no one will notice that you are fasting, except your Father, who knows what you do in private. Today’s Faith Sharing Moment Sermon:           These are just a few examples of fasting in the Bible. As you can see above: Demons are cast out, the Holy Spirit speaks, Moses received the Ten Commandments, and Jesus had the strength to overcome Satan’s temptations.
It can strengthen our faith and get difficult prayers answered.There are different types of fasting. We are trying this for 21 days to achieve some answers from God and help get some desperate and difficult prayers answered. Fasting, praying, and special giving during the first month of the year sets the tone for the rest of the year. Fasting should be done in combination with things that can increase your faith, wisdom, and hearing from the Lord. Read a good Christian book, read God’s Word in the Bible, listen with praise and worship to Christian music, and of course pray.
Thought for the week:  For more advice and understanding read – “Fasting” by Jentezen Franklin. 22-24: The Lord God used the rib of the man to make a woman, and then he brought the woman to the man.
And the man said, “Now, this is someone whose bones came from my bones, whose body came from my body.
13: If a man has sexual relations with another man as a man does with a woman, these two men have done a hateful sin. 10    (People have relations with those of the same sex)Today’s Faith Sharing Moment Sermon:                                     Is a practicing auto thief worthy of going to Heaven? Most are basically good people that give to charities, help with the homeless, do good deeds and are friendly and nice to people. There are gay celebrities on TV that do wonderful works of mercy and charity for other people.
However, if you are gay and don’t turn from your present life style and accept Jesus as your Lord and Savior you will go to the pool of fire (Hell). Yes, there is such a place and it is for eternity.  If you intend to do it ‘someday’, I hope you don’t get hit by a car and die before that happens.
He wrote the rule book (the Bible) and it is expressed in it several times that he feels the punishment for this is death.
We are all sinners in one way or another and must try hard to turn from our former self before we knew Jesus as our Lord. To the ones who say it is genetic or upbringing, I offer this: Alcoholism can be passed down through genes and wife-beating can be passed down through upbringing. God is the highest authority, how do you think he will judge according to the Ten Commandments and his Word in the Bible? Hook up with a good faith based organization like “Food for the Poor” or “World Vision” and help these people out.
God Bless.====================================================================Pastor Pop-Pop 1-21-2010.
We run the risk of becoming weaker when we stay at home, so gradually we won’t even notice. Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour.” Notice it says he is looking for someone, like a lion does. They need Christian friends and other Christian adults if they are to survive in this world.
Persevere in them, because if you do, you will save both yourself and your hearers.”7 Because we need the help of good people. Pastors cannot serve full-time, a building cannot be purchased, missionaries will not be sent out, ministries to the community won’t be fulfilled, and the lost won’t be saved. And how can they preach unless they are sent?”10 Because God says we should go to church regularly.
30-31: And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and all the tribes of the earth will morn, and they will see the Son of Man coming upon the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he will send out his angels with a trumpet blast, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other. 10: But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a mighty roar and the elements will be dissolved by fire, and the earth and every thing done on it will be found out. 36-43: But of that day and hour no one knows, neither the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone. In (those) days before the flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, up to the day that Noah entered the ark. Be sure of this: if the master of the house had known the hour of the night when the thief was coming, he would have stayed awake and not let his house be broken into.
So too you also must be prepared, for at an hour you do not expect, the Son of Man will come.
Pilots vanish, drivers vanish, wives vanish, neighbors vanish, and it is a world wide supernatural event that happens at the exact same time. There are no second chances of dropping to your knees and asking for forgiveness because it comes and goes in a blink of an eye. Wars, Nation against Nation, famines, earthquakes, natural disasters, and a sin loving generation. Some people know in advance when they will die and they, believe it or not, are the lucky ones.
Hint: It is hot, miserable, people are gnashing their teeth and screaming, and your caretaker has horns --------- hhmmmmmm.

However, if you have accepted Jesus as your Lord and Savior and turned your life around you will be going somewhere that is truly pure love. If I am wrong, then worms get me just like you but if I am right I live in love and you don’t. Also, it is also true that before Jesus came to the earth as a man, that all the pagan nations were defeated by God’s people the Israelites.
Why ---- because the Israelites worshiped the only God there is and the pagans worshiped false ones.
Any other god that you describe whether it is a religion or “in your own opinion” is a violation of the first commandment.                Well my point is this – be prepared. Love never gives up, never loses faith, is always hopeful, and endures through every circumstance.
Today’s Faith Sharing Moment Sermon:                          Yesterday I met with some friends whose daughter just died. I was impressed by the many many friends who came to offer condolences and said kind things about her.
To go through life with so many people that call themselves your family around you is a tribute to the love that is shown and radiates from you. Some are acquaintances, some good acquaintances, others are friends and still others are good friends.
Thought for the week:  Happy Valentines Day !!!!!=============================================================================Pastor Pop-Pop 2-22-2010. You see the fire trucks pull up and the fire men run from the trucks, get their ladders, hook up the hoses and then ------- sit down and take a coffee break. Your company is told that there is a mother and two children screaming for help from the third floor and they are close to being consumed by the flames. You and your men run over to see what instructions he has but he presents all of you with some Coffee and doughnuts. All of us know of people, friends, and family that have not accepted Jesus as their Lord and Savior and are not saved. They are like the family in the house.  Because of pride, fear, or some other human emotion, we either do not share the Word with them or are not persistent with it to get them saved. The people we know then end up dying either naturally or prematurely in an accident and end up burning in the ever lasting flames of Hell.
18-20: And Jesus came and said to them, “All authority on heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. Volume 2, # 7Subject:                 Sharing the Gospel Last week’s message was replied to with a sort of rebuttal suggestion.
There were actually two letters that I have combined and edited to eliminate the woman’s identity. It is offered here as another “building block” about evangelizing and spreading God’s will. I agree that we are all called to share the gospel with others and that we often fall short of that.
The Holy Spirit is the one who draws them, ("No one can come to me unless the Father who sent Me draws him" John 6:44) convicts them and makes them see that they are sinners. People are drawn to God in us when they see something about us that they don’t have and they are made thirsty for.
In the same way, let your light shine before men, that they may see your good deeds and praise your Father in heaven” Matthew 5:13-16)     We can preach the good news to someone until we are blue in the face (which we don’t want to do, because that turns people off), but unless the Holy Spirit is at work in that person’s life drawing them to Christ it will not bring them to a saving faith in Christ. But they all have heard the truth many times and they refuse to acknowledge that they are sinners in need of a rescue. My part is to pray for them, live my life for Jesus (let my light shine) and share the truths of the gospel when there is an opening to do so. It took many years, but I am at peace knowing that if they die without knowing Jesus therefore spending eternity in hell, that it was their choice. Another interesting fact is that we have different witnessing styles and people respond to different styles of witnessing.
But perfect love casts out fear" 1 John 4:18) To love others more than yourself and to know that without Christ they will spend all eternity separated from Him. When I go on mission trips, I pray for the hearts of the people that God is going to put onto my path and I pray that God would give me His eyes to see them as He sees them and His heart to love them as He loves them, and His words to speak to them.
It is an amazing thing to be used by our amazing God to pray with someone to receive His incredible gift!!     May God continue to bless you as you submit yourself to Him and allow Him to use you as His vessel to reach out to others!===========================================================================Pastor Pop-Pop 3-8-2010. Although it is debated if they are actually God speaking, they are recognized by most as books that are still good to teach from.
Still others like the book of Sirach which is used a lot by the Catholic church brings question into mind that it may have been eliminated by Martin Luther just as a statement to his rebellious nature within that church. He even wanted to eliminate other books including the book of Revelation but, as history records, -- cooler minds prevailed. 60: Then all the people shouted and praised God, who saves those who put their trust in Him. Volume 2, # 9 HAPPY EASTER ------- HAPPY RESURRECTION DAY Jesus died for our sins over two thousand years ago. Someone had a dream that as the soldier drew back to hit Christ that he grabbed the soldiers arm. As they talked and discussed, Jesus himself drew near and walked along with them;Mark 16, vs. Since Biblical times the tradition that the Roman Emperor Domitian ordered that the Apostle John be executed by throwing him into a cauldron of boiling oil has been widely held. You will not find this in the Bible but it is supported through other historically accurate writings. When John didn’t die but continued preaching from the cauldron, Domitian had him exiled to the island of Patmos , a prison colony off the coast of Turkey , where he couldn’t talk to anyone. The Apostle John was universally believed to have written the Revelation by the early Church, and still is.  In the 3rd Century an African Bishop named Dionysius first suggested that the author could have been a man named John the Presbyter. Since then a number of liberal theologians have taken this view as well based on supposed differences in writing style. While the Bible doesn’t offer proof that the Apostle John wrote the Revelation, external evidence overwhelmingly supports this view.The book of Revelation is a series of visions given to John by Jesus.
Although there are differences of opinion regarding the details of interpretation of the book, the central theme is clear: through Christ the Lord, God will finally and totally defeat all of his enemies, including Satan, and will reward His faithful people with the blessings of a new Heaven and a new earth when his victory is complete.
Remember, John did not live in the future and no one actually knows exactly what he saw in the visions. As an example only, when he describes in detail Locusts in Chapter 9, some people think this might be helicopters equipped for battle. I am not saying that is what they are but I am only using this as an example of how you must open up your mind when reading this book. For someone who had never seen war planes, helicopters, atomic explosions or huge meteorites crashing into earth ----- to explain visions of these things would have been extremely rough. Do not let me put interpretations into your mind but translate and interpret them yourself after asking the Holy Spirit to enlighten you.
Review what others have said on the book and keep and open mind.This writing was to the seven churches in Asia and the most likely time period was around 90 AD.

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