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Product Code: HZM07Libras have special ability to weigh and reason matters, needing balance and cooperation in relationships. DESCRIPTION: The Stiftsbibliothek at Zeitz in Germany possesses a large folio manuscript atlas of Ptolemaic maps, with accompanying commentary, dated 1470. The orientation of the mappa mundi towards the South is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to North-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned a€?upside down,a€? thus losing their familiar shapes.
At the first glance, the map reminds us of Andreas Walspergera€™s circular map of 1448 (#245), which also has the sea in green and lacks the compass lines. The complete divergence from the portolan charts is noteworthy in other respects also, as is the renunciation of their geographical advances, i.e. In the light of this increase of topographical data it is surprising to note the negligent treatment of the North, especially in the Zeitz map, considering that the atlas also contains the much more detailed map of the North by Nicolaus Germanus. While the anonymous author of the Zeitz map drew the geographical outlines exactly as Walsperger did, he follows his own path as regards the number and wording of the legends.
The Zeitz map has a much smaller number of cities in Europe than Walsperger, only about 70, and moreover, its selection is different. Moreover, names have been added which are not found even in the most detailed portolan maps such as Dalorto, Dulcert, Pizigani; thus kempem (Kampen on the Zuidersee), and kamen (Caumont near the mouth of the Rhone?). There are far fewer city pictures and other illustrations in the Zeitz map than in Walsperger. One cannot consider so late a Ptolemaic document without remembering the substantial inroads made by the a€?modernizationa€? of Ptolemy, which originally consisted in the adding of newer maps (for the first time in 1427, the map of the North by Claudius Clavus in the Nancy Codex) and which left traces in almost all later editions. The Zeitz manuscript still retains the old rectangular form for the land maps, including the map of the North. The map of the North shows Greenland erroneously as belonging to Europe or Asia, but otherwise it is placed correctly long beyond and to the southwest of Iceland.
Quite unusual is the Ptolemaic world map which is pasted in two parts on the inner sides of the covers where there is scarcely sufficient space for it, suggesting that it had originally been larger.
As shown by the reproduction, the Ptolemaic world map in Zeitz is drawn on the conical projection which Ptolemy described as the easier one and had primarily discussed.
Another innovation which appears together with the trapezoidal form as used by Nicholas Germanus is the shape of the Jutland peninsula. The written text includes, in addition to the explanations pertaining to each map and discussed above, the a€?Ptouincie seu Satrapiea€?, always placed after the last map (Taprobana).
The words octauus et ultimus liber suggest the question whether the whole is only a fragment and whether the eighth Book, short in itself, or even the complete work had existed.
18.A  Here is said to be close to the sea a statue of Pallax, which has nine heads, three human heads and six heads of serpents. 22.A  The Gulf of Arabia in which many islands and innumerable red cliffs for which reason it is called the Red Sea. 28.A  Island on which lived the Brahmans?, naked, black and devout people [from the Alexander legend]. 43.A  The wicked people of the Scythians who are always on the move because of the severe cold. There are far fewer city pictures and other illustrations in the Zeitz map than in Walsperger.A  We see only the crescent on the Mountains of the Moon in South Africa, the monastery of St.
Quite unusual is the Ptolemaic world map which is pasted in two parts on the inner sides of the covers where there is scarcely sufficient space for it, suggesting that it had originally been larger.A  It does not comprise, as usual, the 180 degrees of the Ptolemaic Orbis terrarum, but only 90 degrees up to the middle of the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Persia. In addition to the Ptolemaic world map on the conical projection, there is as the fourth TabulA¦ modernA¦ a circular map in the manner of the portolan [nautical] charts, but without the network of rhumb lines typical of the latter. Most of the diagrammatic manuscript mappae mundi of the period 1150-1500 are oriented to the East. We must recall however that other atlases also often give different forms to a specific area.
It is true that he takes over almost all the legends, about 30 in number, but he gives them in shorter or more detailed form and adds to them at least 18 new ones, and in some of the legends taken over from Walsperger he also shows that he is using his own knowledge.
There are in this desert innumerable lions, tigers, centaurs and various large unnamed animals.
Island of Jupiter or Immortal Island where nobody dies but in old age is expelled and deprived of life. Here are black naked forest people who live on the fruit of a (certain) tree and therefore worship that tree.
In the river Nile and its lakes there is plenty of purest gold, but there are many serpents and great crocodiles.
Here the people are so obedient to their masters that they hang themselves quickly rather than provoke their mastera€™s wrath. On the coast of Scotland are trees on which grow geese suspended like pears, and as soon as they fall down they swim to the water and live.


In England he stresses Winchelsea which at that time was in fact the most important of the Cinqueports, and Canterbury, giving a Germanized spelling to both, i.e. The atlas contains the usual 27 maps and, as Tabulae modernae, Spain, Italy, the Northern areas, and the circular world map. Ptolemya€™s land maps were rectangular with equidistant meridians and parallels of latitudes, or as Fischer put it: a€?on a modified Marinus-projectiona€?. Italy, as in numerous manuscripts and the Ulm editions, still has the old Ptolemaic sloping position, while Berlinghieri gives the peninsula its correct southeastern direction as all portolan maps had done long before. It thus represents the so-called Zamoiski-type, referred to by Fischer as the second version, while the Wolfegg MSS by Nicolaus Germanus and the Ulm editions which are close to it constitute the third version according to which Greenland is mistakenly placed north of Norway.
It is true that the printed Ulm and Berlinghieri editions are the only ones known whose world maps logically show at the equator square meshes of the five-degree network, while others, as far as can be judged from the reproductions by Fisher, have transverse oblongs (approxi-mately 4:5). The more difficult one, which was nevertheless recommended by Ptolemy, described by Fischer as a a€?modifieda€? conical projection with circular meridians, latitude parallels and borders is known to us from some printed editions (Berlinghieri, Ulm, etc.). In Ptolemy it was an almost rectilinear lozenge, strongly bent eastwards, with a head placed on it. It is another enumeration of the most important provinces, 94 in number mostly identical with the chapter titles, and of their longitudes and latitudes.
Fischer expresses the opinion that it comes from Italy since the former owner, the Naumburg Bishop Joh. Catherine on Mount Sinai, the Iron Tower as the passage to India (Legend 37), Noaha€™s Ark on Mount Ararat. The atlas contains the usual 27 maps and, as Tabulae modernae, Spain, Italy, the Northern areas, and the circular world map.A  Here too the maps usually extend over two pages, but do not, as in later editions, consist of one piece, being drawn in two halves.
It thus represents the so-called Zamoiski-type, referred to by Fischer as the second version, while the Wolfegg MSS by Nicolaus Germanus and the Ulm editions which are close to it constitute the third version according to which Greenland is mistakenly placed north of Norway.A  Fischer discussed the dating of the map of the North and held that it could not be dated before 1474 since Holstein became a duchy only in that year.
The 57th longitude degree is drawn in red like the climate lines and thus is especially marked in the series (every five degrees). It is true that the printed Ulm and BerlinghieriA  editions are the only ones known whose world maps logically show at the equator square meshes of the five-degree network, while others, as far as can be judged from the reproductions by Fisher,A  have transverse oblongs (approxi-mately 4:5).A  In the Zeitz map the mesh, if the meridian is prolonged to reach the equator, has a height of five degrees of latitude equal to eight degrees of longitude! It has also occurred that the text and the maps were separated.A  In such a case it would seem in no wise impossible that these words were included without special thought, in other words that the Zeitz manuscript also originally contained only the maps. The circular world map has a diameter of 45.7 cm (44 cm wide and 57 cm high), there are minor cuts on the sides, but originally it must have been complete as indicated by the fact that on the left side, where the sheet has been enlarged by pasting on a narrow strip of paper, parts of the legend have been lost. But among the maps contemporary with that of the Zeitz mappa mundi is the 1448 world map of Andreas Walsperger (#245), the so-called Borgia world map (#237) of the first half of the 15th century, the Benedetto Cotruglia€™s De navigatione world map of 1465 (#250) and the Fra Mauro mappa mundi (#249) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South. Likewise, the limits of the terrestrial disc as determined by the circle are the same, the only difference being that in Walsperger this circle is drawn eccentrically and does not define the limits of the map, and, moreover, it is not complete, being interrupted by the seas. Thus, to the legend according to which the wife is buried alive on her husbanda€™s death, he adds the critical remark that Strabo had stated that the wife was burnt (Legend 35).
In their stead Donnus Nicolaus Germanus, who worked in Florence, introduced from 1466, not only for the Tabulae modernae but also for the actual Ptolemaic maps, the trapezoid form with slanting meridians, retaining however the horizontal latitudes (the so-called Donis projection). Although in this case, as in the case of the modern maps of Spain and Italy, the portolan maps had smoothed the road to truth, Germanus gives Jutland the form of a prancing caterpillar with an open mouth (the eastern mouth of the Lim Fjord?), which is familiar to us especially from the Ulm editions. While Walsperger lists kA¶ppenhan in Denmark, Zeitz considers the southern outer port of DragA¶r? Winkelse and Candelburg.A  This divergence from the portolan maps is striking, as Canterbury was called a€?sco pomas da€™conturbaa€? in the Pisan map and Winchelsea is spelled Ginalexo almost without any variation from the Luxor Atlas to at least FreducciA  in 1538 (London). It is the only map to show Jews, with their pointed hats, confined in the mountains by Gog and Magog (Legend 40). In addition to the outer frame with degrees there are also two inner frames, also with indication of degrees, as was the case in the Nancy codex of 1427 and the Brussels Lat.
The map of Europe VIII (the area between the Baltic Sea and the Balkans) thus shows, despite the previous existence of the map of the North, only the island Scandia, while in the maps referred to above the entire southeast of Sweden with Bornholm and Gotland have been taken over from the map of the North. Also the Zeitz map says a€?ducatusa€? but writes correctly a€?olsaciea€?.A  Later, after the date October 4, 1468, had been established in the Wolfegg manuscript, Fischer arrived at the conclusion that this type had existed earlier as confirmed by the Zeitz map. FischerA  discusses the Zeitz manuscript and calls it only a€?a peculiar and, indeed, incomplete world map which, as regards structure and execution, depends on the outline maps of the second Greek version of Ptolemya€?.
Although in this case, as in the case of the modern maps of Spain and Italy, the portolan maps had smoothed the road to truth,A  Germanus gives JutlandA  the form of a prancing caterpillar with an open mouth (the eastern mouth of the Lim Fjord?), which is familiar to us especially from the Ulm editions.
The map was also formerly folded, as can be seen from a mark passing through Jerusalem, the center of the map. Thus it is not surprising that, around the mid-15th century, a mappa mundi was oriented to the South. In Walsperger, the circumference forming the northern limit, with an extensive stretch of sea beyond, makes Norway appear as a peninsula, although, as the Zeitz map shows, this was not the intention (in the Table, the southern part of Norway seems to be cut off by a sea inlet, while actually the separating feature is a mountain chain). In this connection, compare the Catalan-Estense map in Modena (#246), whose author, approximately contemporary with Walsperger (#245), used the old portolan chart as a basis and only enlarged it to east and south to about double the extent.


And in contradiction to Walspergera€™s statement that in Norway the trolls (goblins) appeared in concrete shapes (in figuris) and aided people, the Zeitz map says (Legend 45) that, instead, they beat them but had never yet been seen. According to NordenskiA¶ld, Berlinghieria€™s printed edition is the only one to retain the rectangular form, and the Bologna edition is the only one that uses the pure conical projection with slanting meridians and bent parallels of latitude. However, it appears already in the first version (which lacks the map of the North) in the Germania map and was then taken over into the map of the North.
This opinion is contradicted by the fact that the script is Gothic, while contemporaneous manuscripts that came from Italy already show the antique.
Also Truntbaym (elsewhere tronde = Trondhiem), rogel (Rochelle) and the frequent use of W instead of V (Wenecia, Wiena) must be cited as examples of Germanization. As regards also the shape of the mountains, the number of cities and other symbols, Zeitz differs considerably, and on the whole appears to be executed with less care. The sea, as in all other maps of this atlas, is green, the mountain ranges grayish-brown or yellow, while the cities are represented by small filled red circles. Some explanations also include the influence of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the maritime commercial focus of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the South. The author of the latter map has, consequently, used either that of Walsperger or a source common to both. But unlike this Modena map, which shows even fewer cities than most portolan charts, we find in the same area on both charts almost the same wealth of topographical data which is surprising (since the portolan charts never suggested anything of the kind) in the first Tabulae modernae of Spain and Italy appended by Donnus (Donis) Nicolaus Germanus. And the legend concerning trees that give birth to birds (Legend 46), which all other maps, including Walsperger, place near Ireland, is in Zeitz linked to Scotland. However the Zeitz Germania map retains the Ptolemaic rectangular shape of the land map and Jutlanda€™s old shape, although it shows the new form in the map of the North. Much more weight attaches to the germanization of city names, referred to above, which we find also in Walsperger who worked in Constance. Directly outside the gate holding them in are the characteristic legends a€?here the pygmies fight with the cranesa€? (a reference to the ancient tale of the pygmies and the cranes) and a€?here men eat the flesh of mena€?. This usage presumably had its origin in the difficulty of obtaining large sheets of vellum of double size for the often used format of a€?fol. As he had renounced Walspergera€™s scientific additions (celestial spheres, climates, polar legends, etc.), which partly fill the seas, he could also do without the now empty ocean space and close the two circles. Especially in the German region we find names of quite insignificant places like Ragnit, the only town of the district of the same name in the former East Prussia. The author of the Zeitz map gives the islands of the Indian Ocean names different from Walsperger in part (Insula Jabadum, Orgia, Insula preciossissima); he also shows Imaus mons, the Magnus sinus and other details absent from Walsperger, and places the Amazons not on the continent but on one of these islands.
Finally, the correction of a€?olfaciea€? into a€?olsaciea€?, as stated above, speaks for a German rather than an Italian author.
The author of the ZeitzA  map gives the islands of the Indian Ocean names different from Walsperger in part (Insula Jabadum, Orgia, Insula preciossissima); he also shows Imaus mons, the Magnus sinus and other details absent from Walsperger, and places the Amazons not on the continent but on one of these islands. Within the enclosure is a crowd of people, the only ones depicted on the entire map, wearing pointed hats - a clear though exaggerated reference to the a€?Jewa€™s hata€? of medieval custom.
Like Walsperger, he represents Europe as having a a€?cata€™s backa€? in the north, Jutland with the same pronounced contraction, Sweden as an island, and finally, the Baltic Sea in the same form, different from that in the portolan charts.
Finally it is also very remarkable that he re-establishes the island of Meroe in the Nile, common to all old maps from Ptolemy, but replaced in Walsperger by a lacus Meroys. The confusion of Gog and Magog with the Ten Lost Tribes is not surprising unless contrasted with the careful scholarship of a Fra Mauro (#249). Some maps or half-maps as well as explanations are lacking, and others have been mis-bound.
Although this map derives, along with Walspergera€™s 1448 map, from a common original, circular in form, made around 1425 at the abbey of Klosterneuburg, and therefore is not Ptolemaic in origin, some Ptolemaic maps adopted the legend of the enclosed Jews, which, along with Gog and Magog, was passed down well into the 16th century. If, as is the case with the Ptolemaic Ulm editions of 1482 and 1486, the explanations (contents, length of the day, and the distance in hours from Alexandria) for each map are on the recto of the specific double-map-sheet, such mis-binding would be immaterial.
The former is called the Nile in some cases only, while the one flowing in the northeasterly direction is always called the Nile.A  The use of affrorum being presumably explained by a legend on Africa in some portolan maps. This longevity may have been based on a sense of Biblical authorization, the extreme distance at which these peoples were placed a€“ a€?orientalizeda€? and a€?septentrion-ateda€? to the far end of Asia - or a popularity exceeding that of other medieval legends. However, as stated above, we have here individual sheets pasted on a guard, and the explanation to each map is on the back of the preceding map.A  As a result of such mis-binding, for instance, not only is the explanation to Tab. The Ptolemaic text reads: Beginning from here an island, meroe regio, is formed by the Nile in the west and by the Astabora River which flows from the east.



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