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The American colonies were in the middle of a war when they declared themselves independent from Great Britain. The colonists who wrote these constitutions thought it was very important that they have written documents. Approved in 1777, the Articles established a Confederation government, which was a fancy way of saying that the central government didn't have a whole lot of power. The Articles of Confederation established the first national government for the United States of America.
1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography.
PAINTING OF THE WEEK - Ruins of the Holyrood Chapel by Moonlight, oil on canvas, 1824, Louis Daguerre.
G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. Articles of Confederation and Shays’s RebellionThe Articles of Confederation were written during the American Revolution.
Federalists and Anti-FederalistsWriting the Constitution was just the first step in creating the new government. The Great CompromiseOne great issue facing the delegates to the Constitutional Convention was how differentsizedstates could have equal representation in the new government. Presidency of George WashingtonGeorge Washington was elected the first president of the United States. Tip: To turn text into a link, highlight the text, then click on a page or file from the list above. The British constitution wasn't written down, so British laws could be interpreted any way the judges wanted to.
Fearful of another king, the American colonists wanted a government that would serve them, not the other way around.
In light of the terrible treatment the American people had received so very recently, this new government was a welcome sight indeed. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light.
Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop.
States with largepopulations supported a plan to create a legislative branch in which representatives wereassigned based on each state’s population. An executive is one person who is in charge and makes major decisions, like a president or a governor.
Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.c.
As a result, the Articlescreated a government that had no executive branch and that lacked the power to tax,regulate commerce, or establish a national currency. States with smaller populations supported aplan to create a legislative branch in which all states were equally represented.Delegates to the Constitutional Convention settled the issue of representation in Congressby approving the Great Compromise. Most state constitutions included a bill of rights to protect these natural and individual rights. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers (influence of Montesquieu), limited government, and the issue of slavery.d. The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
As a result, conflicts among the statesthreatened the existence of the nation.The political weakness of the United States and its potential for collapse left it vulnerableto attack by foreign countries and convinced many influential Americans to support aConstitutional Convention.
Washingtonfavored nonintervention in Europe and avoided siding with France against Great Britain.Instead, the United States persuaded Britain to forgive many pre-Revolutionary debts andto drop certain restrictions on American trade with British colonies in the Americas.

It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride.
It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced.
Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams; include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of political parties (Alexander Hamilton).
Though slavery existed in all the states, southern statesdepended on slave labor because their economies were based on producing cash crops.When it became clear that states with large populations might have more representativesin the new national government, states with large slave populations demanded to beallowed to count their slaves as a part of their population.
These articles were known as The Federalist papers, so supporters of the Constitution were known as Federalists.
The tax hit the small whiskey-makers inwestern settlements particularly hard because they made liquor using excess crops ofgrain in order to make it easier to transport. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. Bothsides compromised by allowing the states to count three-fifths of their slaves whencalculating their entire population. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. It was eventually ratified and became the basis for all law, rights, and governmental power in the United States.
The Whiskey Rebellion resulted when, up and down areas west of theAppalachians, armed violence broke out as farmers frightened and attacked federal taxcollectors.
Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In May 1787, he was elected president of the ConstitutionalConvention in Philadelphia, where he and the Founding Fathers created a federalist formof government for the United States. To reassure people that the new government wouldnot be too powerful, the framers of the Constitution created a limited government withdivided powers. George Washington led a large militia force into the western counties and putdown the rebellion. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
The framers were greatly influenced by the ideas of the famed Frenchpolitical thinker Charles de Montesquieu. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. Heincreased the prestige of his administration by making Thomas Jefferson his secretary ofstate and Alexander Hamilton his secretary of treasury.
In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened.
Despite their talents andreputations, Jefferson and Hamilton had significant differences of opinion about thelegitimate power of the United States government.
More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype).
Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.
Jefferson believed that the nationalgovernment must limit its power to those areas described by the Constitution, whileHamilton wanted to expand the power of the government to stabilize the nation and itseconomy.When Washington announced he would not seek a third term as president, the two menand their supporters attacked one another and competed to replace him. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide.
The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance.
Second, the power of the executive branch wasweakened because it was shared with the legislative and judicial branches.
Things got so badthat, in his farewell address, Washington warned about the dangers of political parties(factions).Presidency of John AdamsThe election of 1796 was a bitter contest between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson,with Adams winning by a small margin. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it.
For example,the legislature can override a presidential veto of a bill, and the Supreme Court can rulethat a bill signed by the president is unconstitutional.
Like Washington, Adams set examples thatinfluenced future presidents as well as the course of American history.
To further safeguard against anabuse of power, the Constitution gave each branch of government a way to check andbalance the power of the other branches. However, hisadministration was plagued by conflicts with France and Great Britain that crippled thenation’s economy, and he received harsh political criticism from supporters of VicePresident Jefferson.

An example of these checks and balanceswould be the president’s power to veto laws passed by Congress.
Jefferson and Madison then argued that states could refuse toenforce federal laws they did not agree with. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide.
On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing.
The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated.
Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning.
Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs.
Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable.
Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made.
A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image.
Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory.
The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.

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