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Here you have a list of opinions about Philosophical realism and you can also give us your opinion about it.
You will see other people's opinions about Philosophical realism and you will find out what the others say about it. Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief that some aspect of our reality is ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, perceptions, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc.
Realists tend to believe that whatever we believe now is only an approximation of reality and that every new observation brings us closer to understanding reality. In the image below, you can see a graph with the evolution of the times that people look for Philosophical realism. Thanks to this graph, we can see the interest Philosophical realism has and the evolution of its popularity. You can leave your opinion about Philosophical realism here as well as read the comments and opinions from other people about the topic. Clearing Up the Mass Confusion About the Political SpectrumConservatives often confess to being totally dumfounded by leftist ideas or behavior, whether it concerns a specific event or the whole body of their thoughts and deeds. The fundamental problem is that conservatives and leftists see the world from different and, in many cases, directly opposed points of view.
When two groups of people look upon the same realities but see different things, it creates a profound failure to communicate. From the conservative point of view, this problem is getting much worse because many conservatives have inadvertently adopted some of the left’s categorizations of things. On the most basic level, it is necessary to clarify the terms that are used to categorize the two groups. The original understanding of the term ‘liberal’ persisted through the 19th century but it gradually became less commonly used as the novelty of the concept wore off. In the early decades of the 20th century, various forms of socialism gained many adherents and detractors in America while the use of the term liberal was rapidly declining.
To help stifle the stigma of being called socialists and communists the Roosevelt New Dealers began calling themselves liberals.
All of this is necessary background for making the case of why the people who are now called liberals should properly be called leftists.
The first use of the term “left” in terms of a political group was to describe the people who sat on the left in assemblies during the French Revolution.
Historically, there have been several varieties of conservatives or rightists but none of them have tried to appropriate a false identity as did the leftists when they misappropriated the term liberal. This diagram shows the proper location of various political groups relative to each other in terms of the important philosophical oppositions of political ideas.
Another very important instance of miss categorization, corrected on this diagram, is the proper placement of NAZIs and fascists in the leftist camp.
Conceptually, NAZIs and fascists are slightly to the right of communists because while communism is a universal ideology, the other two are highly nationalistic. There is another reason that socialists and communists have to act like they are completely different from the NAZIs and that the NAZIs are the worst monsters in history. Islamists or Islamofascists are the direct political descendants of people who sided with and were widely influenced by NAZIs and fascists during World War II. It is also important to note for clarification the proper location of theocrats on the left of the political spectrum. Historically, the period of the history of the Catholic Church, when it sought to impose itself on Europeans and others through violent means, can properly be called theocratic and hence leftist. The American left is constantly trying to portray fascists, NAZIs and theocrats as right-wing extremists. Some people say that the political spectrum is in fact a loop rather than a continuum because the extreme left and right curl back to meet each other in similar points of view about the negative value of government.
Though there were ancient Greek, Roman, Jewish and other sparks of freedom and liberty in the past, the first country founded on the principles of conservatism and properly called right-wing was the United States of America. That is why you will wait until hell freezes over to hear a modern leftist of any stripe praise those documents or call America by its correct political categorization as a constitutional republic or simply, the American Republic. Simply having a correct model of the political spectrum in mind is strongly empowering as the truth always is. You devote the first four sentences of your comment to telling me how wrong I am but you offer not refutation of my argument. I never called Locke a Neo-con and never used the word in the article so it is irrational to say that I hijacked him to something I never mentioned.
I agree with your statement about Enlightenment thinkers but you seem to be implying that expanding participation in government is a leftist and not a rightist or conservative idea. You conclude that my, “entire argument is based on a false premise and an egregious failure to understand the historical development of political thought.” What was my false premise? Leftism has traditionally been about opposing social hierarchy and inequality, which usually happens to be the status quo. Your whole article is essentially you attempting to reinvent the political concepts of left and right, assigning anything you do not like to the left, and what you do to the right. Evidently, you also lack any understanding of what anarchism is beyond the common error made by the uninformed that it is merely lack of governance, and I advise you to read up on it! Tobias, you would do much better in your arguments if you actually read what you are commenting on. You are correct that at the time of the French revolution the right was for the preservation of aristocracy, monarchy and religious values.
You comment about leftism traditionally opposing hierarchy and inequality is true in terms of leftist rhetoric but not in terms of actual leftist government outcomes. In fact, Islamic Fundamentalism is actually politically very similar to Secular Progressivism. You say that the Islamic Fundamentalists and Secular Progressives are the opposite on virtually every singles issue. Republics were created by the radicals and reformers of old, against conservatives who sought to preserve the monarchic rule. I don’t think I should have to explain any of this, given the academic consensus on what left wing and right wing generally refers to. I don’t understand why you are attempting to re-define what left and right is, other than to straw man your political opponents into being similar to every oppressive regime from history. That said, both Democrats and Republicans are FOR a hybrid system of socialism and capitalism. If Obama is a socialist, explain why public spending is increasing at the slowest rate, far slower than even your beloved Reagan. If Democrats are authoritarian, then why are they in favor of legaization of marijuana and an end to the drug war? I’d actually like to know what aspect of the Democrats, and or leftists, is more authoritarian than conservatives. With your comments about conservatives of old seeking to preserve the monarchic rule you are using a European conception of the word conservative which I have already said at least twice is not my conception. Call the American Founders radical and reformers if you like but the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution are profoundly conservative documents. Unlike liberalism, Marxism, and fascism, conservatism is basically similar to the military ethic.
You say that, “It is the differences in these three areas [wealth, power and status] which societies must seek to reduce according to leftist thought.” Yes, leftists say that and avow it as their intention but they invariably achieve the opposite results. If the Democrats do not believe in dictatorship, they certainly have admired it for a very long time. The fact that Obama has not yet been fully dictatorial is no argument against him having those desires or tendencies. You say my political spectrum is false and contradictory to maps devised by political scientists. I am not going to respond to the spending graphic because it does not provide enough information. Democrats are “in favor of legaization of marijuana and an end to the drug war” because they believe it helps them build a bigger political constituency.
Conservatives are generally in favor of increasing military spending because they prefer to live in peace while not being dominated or abused by foreign powers. The main issue with most conservatives on contraception and abortion is that they do not think that the government should be either promoting them or using their tax dollars to finance them. Realism may be spoken of with respect to other minds, the past, the future, universals, mathematical entities (such as natural numbers), moral categories, the material world, and thought.

And below it, you can see how many pieces of news have been created about Philosophical realism in the last years. This failure of communication leads to the groups continued diversion in understanding of each other and the world around them. Due to the success of the left’s “long march through the institutions of Western civilization” conservatives are exposed to a continuous barrage of leftist ideas from all quarters. The majority of conservatives habitually but incorrectly refer to leftists as “liberals.” The term liberal refers to liberty and was first applied in the 18th century to men like John Locke. Though the origin of modern leftism can be traced to the Jacobins of the French Revolution, it was not until near the middle of the 19th century that various forms of socialism became all the rage and fashion.
By the time FDR came to power, many people in America were beginning to fear socialism in general, and particularly one of its most virulent forms, communism.
The term stuck because few people thought it worth correcting the error, or those who thought it was important were too polite to insist on accuracy.
People with their kind of political thoughts were the modern intellectual ancestors of the groups we now call liberals but should correctly still call leftists. Adding insult and confusion to intellectual injury, the fact is that a traditional 17th and 18th century liberal is clearly in the conservative or right-wing line of political categorization. Before World War II, the deep involvement and leadership roles of Hitler and Mussolini in socialist organizations was widely recognized. The NAZIs and fascists believed in applying their collective ideology to their people and killing or subjugating the others. They come by the fascist name honestly and are leftists in the extreme sense because they openly and notoriously advocate the imposition of their beliefs on all mankind by any means necessary.
American socialists and Democrat leftists cannot get enough of warning about the vast dangers of America becoming a right-wing theocracy.
The modern Catholic Church is now well past that period and has moved ever toward the right side of the continuum. This is for the purpose of smearing conservatives and right-wingers with a horrible rhetorical brush. While anarchists want no government, and Libertarians want little or no government, the key distinction remains that Libertarians are for individual freedom and liberty while anarchists are all for violently imposing their nihilistic ideas on all mankind. The United States Declaration of Independence and Constitution are profoundly right-wing documents and America is a traditional 18th century or Lockean liberal nation.
Leftist love the word “democracy” which appears in none of our founding documents because a pure democracy is three wolves and two sheep deciding, “What’s for dinner?” Leftist politicians want to be the wolves and are happy for you to occupy the position of sheep.
Confusion about the true distribution of political camps and beliefs is, like all confusion, debilitating. I get it that you do not agree with me but if you want a discussion you have to provide specifics of why I am wrong. In fact, modern leftists (post French Revolution) tend to use participatory rhetoric (the general will, social justice, justice) while actually moving in the direction of oligarchy and oppression.
Just a few examples include: opposition to the freedoms contained in the First and Second Amendments, greatly expanding presidential powers beyond anything contained in law, national level dictation, without benefit of law, of requirements all the way down to the content of school lunches, leftist governed cities directing the acceptable size of drinks and proscribing the sale of single cigarettes, and leftist individuals calling for the imprisonment and death of conservatives who want to live without being required by their government to commit what they view as mortal sins. If you think my false premise was placing the Democrats on the far left, please provide some actual evidence for your assertion that you believe is at least as good as the evidence I have provided in my article and diagram. You started with a completely false premise that left = big government and right = small government.
In this instance, it was the leftists who were generally in opposition to monarchy, and in favour of secularisation, revolution and republic whilst the rightists were traditionalists for preservation of the aristocracy, monarchy and religious values. Republicanism during the French Revolution is a perfect example of leftism, as much as you might attempt to redefine it to suit your own goals. Yes, the left was against the monarchy because they wanted to seize power from the monarchy.
They were to the right of the hard left revolutionaries but not right conservatives in any modern sense because aristocracy and monarchy are inherently leftist. Leftist governments always produce great hierarchy in favor of the leftist elites and the largest degradation and slaughter of the masses in history. There is far, far more nuance in what the Democrat Party, and indeed the Republican party is, than simply left or right.
I’m not going to criticize it based on the fact that it is contradictory virtually every other political map, including those devised by political scientists.
No Democrat politician or supporter wants everything to be nationalized and the elimination of capitalism. Why are conservatives in favor of controlling what substances people use, even if, say Alcohol is proven to be far more dangerous than marijuana? Leftists often try to define conservatism as holding to the status quo or conserving the old order.
Indeed, it was found appropriate to designate the military ethic as one of conservative realism. The American Constitution, on the other hand, is fundamentally conservative, the product of men who feared concentrated political power and who provided for the widespread dispersion of that power among numerous governmental units.
You have quite literally made the non-debatable, debatable.” I think that is a misunderstanding on your part. Democrats have expressed admiration and love for Hitler, Lenin, Stalin, Mao, Castro, Hugo Chavez and many other dictators. Actually, it is an extension and modernization of the political map used by the American Founders. As with other leftist regimes, they will use authoritarian means to suppress such activities once they think they have consolidated total control.
Mankind has over ten thousand years of experience with alcohol but we really do not know all the effects of marijuana–especially long-term. The only time peace has ever endured any significant periods in history is when some political organization, such as Rome, had sufficient military power to make it inadvisable for enemies to attack.
Do you think it is a good thing to keep evil people alive at government expense or to release them back into society to horribly abuse and kill more innocents? That doesn’t sound like freedom to me.” That is not now, under ObamaCare, nor ever has been true. Realism can also be promoted in an unqualified sense, in which case it asserts the mind-independent existence of a visible world, as opposed to skepticism and solipsism. In a contemporary sense, realism is contrasted with anti-realism, primarily in the philosophy of science. Fortunately, I have had more success in fathoming leftist thought and behavior than Bill Clinton did in looking for the middle class tax cut he had promised the American people in his first election campaign. The inevitable result of each group moving on a path that is broadly divergent from the other is that they will physically separate, one group will fail on its own, or the two groups will resolve the conflict through violence. To the extent that leftist ideas are accepted by conservatives, it weakens the conservative position and makes them especially vulnerable to more leftist ideas. By their nature, true liberals were perfectly willing to consider the relative merits and problems of the various forms of socialism.
Many members of FDR’s administration were considered to be socialists, fascist or communist sympathizers, some were open communists. We will see this pattern of changing the name of something for political purposes and conservatives being too polite to correct the error many times as we go forward.
They are the Jacobins, socialists, communists, fascists, NAZIS, Islamists or Islamofascists, tribalists, secular progressives, and Theocrats. After Hitler turned against Stalin, and especially after the horrors of the NAZI slaughters were revealed to the world, it became necessary for the remaining leftists to distance themselves politically from the NAZIs and fascists. Communists believed in converting all the people of the world to communism and killing or subjugating those who got in the way.
The combined death count for the various forms of communism is over 200 million while the NAZIs only managed to kill about 50 million.
John Paul II was a famous enemy of communism and supporter of freedom and liberty for all mankind. As can be seen in the chart, a right-wing extremist who believes in government at all is a Libertarian. Though their belief in no government technically places them on the right, their strong desire to force their views on others through violence if necessary is leftist. Leftist leaders want to keep you confused so that you do not realize that they are the wolves leading you to the slaughter while dressed like Little Red Riding Hood.
This assessment of the political spectrum lacks any credibility and is nothing more than a right-wing rant intent on linking 20th century liberalism with political extremism. In recent times, it was Republicans who freed slaves, expanded the voting franchise, and voted in civil rights.

If my failure to understand the historical development of political thought was so egregious, I am anxiously awaiting your provision of facts and evidence that will correct my thinking.
This is not the correct definition of left and right within the political sphere, and is a common and deliberate misunderstanding among, in particular, American Republicans.
Those who were for preservation of autocratic rule, throughout Europe, were always monarchists and conservatives, terms which usually go hand in hand. Any honest comparison, and you would find that they are the opposite on virtually every single issue, although Christian Conseravtives and Islamic Fundamentalists do have a great deal of similarities.
Yes, they were for secularization because the Church was another great power they wanted to put down in favor of their own assumption of total power over the people. Surely, this should go with out saying but again you have made something like this into a debate. Citizens can still choose to take out private health insurance if they wish to, as is the case in European countries. That is certainly not what, the conception of the American Founders or, my conception of modern conservatism, amounts to. In its theories of man, society, and history, its recognition of the role of power in human relations, its acceptance of existing institutions, its limited goals, and its distrust of grand designs, conservatism is at one with the military ethic. If you do not believe this to be true, please provide examples of leftist governments that have actually provided what they say they seek.
There may well be such a consensus in the academic left and right but in my view, the leftist corruption of many whom the leftists call right wing is a large part of the problem.
Perhaps it is the fact that Americans are overwhelmingly the best armed population in history that has given him pause? I would say they have been orders of magnitude more successful using it than any leftist political scientist or theorist who used their own.
Do you think it is a good thing that the overwhelmingly disproportionate number of babies aborted are black? In a democracy, the masses are free to vote any kind of tyranny to include death that they wish upon minorities. Philosophers who profess realism state that truth consists in the mind's correspondence to reality. One of the main reasons each group sees the world in its own special way is that they do not have a common understanding of how to categorize objects in the world. In their view the use of human reason in the pursuit of life, liberty, and happiness, was the greatest good for mankind. Losing control of the definitions of words has been one of the major errors of conservatives and has handed a tremendous advantage to leftists.
As a practical matter, the hundreds of millions killed by any of these leftist ideologies are just as dead regardless of the relative ideological purity of their murders.
Significantly, there are no historical instances of modern conservatives or right-wingers slaughtering large numbers of innocent members of their own population. Any group that wants to use the power of government on all the people is by definition leftist. Pope Benedict has continued that trend politically but has lately backslidden into some leftist economic and social sympathies.
Meanwhile the Democrats were opposing all of that, founded the KKK, lynched blacks across the South, ran the Jim Crow governments of the South, and now maintain the Leftist Plantation that keeps blacks across America enthrall to their Democrat masters for votes. I have already pointed out that the right in the French revolution was very left in my modern American conservative sense of the term. For example, if you say that Islamic Fundamentalists kill homosexuals while Secular Progressives laud them, you are missing the larger point.
It is the differences in these three areas which societies must seek to reduce according to leftist thought. Western Europe is another example of capitalism and socialism side by side, with state provided healthcare, education, and other public goods, but the majority of GDP made up of private goods. In the USA at present, you are forced to take out private health insurance plans, or else, should you fall ill, you will not get an acceptable standard of medical treatment. To me conservatism is a philosophy or world view that looks upon the universe and human nature as it really is and strives to provide each individual with the greatest opportunity possible to have a flourishing life. Most importantly, conservatism, unlike the other three ideologies, is not monistic and universalistic.
My article and the accompanying diagram is merely and exercise in Aristotelian and Linnaeusian categorization. Many American Democrats express great joy in Obama promulgating unconstitutional executive orders which is clearly a dictatorial trait. He has clearly stated many times that he would like to reduce that offensive individualism.
With the pathetic exception of Webb, the Democrat Debate sounded like the nationalization and hate capitalism chorus.
In a constitutional republic such a vote can be made illegal and thus the rights of a minority preserved. It is as though the very languages of the two groups have lost vital common understanding of important words for categories of things they need to talk about. In some cases, a liberal who had become a socialist would still tend to identify himself as a liberal. Conservatives were already known by the time of the French Revolution and they are definitely opposed to anything socialistic. The desire to control people as a single collective or an assemblage of collective groups using the power of the state is what it means at the most fundamental level to be a leftist. Libertarians are such extreme individualist freedom advocates that they do not even believe in defending America against enemies except those who are actively in the process of attacking America. They are a strange political hybrid and small minority who serve only as additional “useful idiots” for leftists.
Both strongly advocate the suppression and punishment of those who do not agree with their point of view.
The creation of a Republic helps to do this – you can no longer be born into an aristocratic class with more rights under the law, for example, in addition to the democratic process which gives everyone an equal say over who governs them.
I looked at the characteristics that each political system had in common and then placed them accordingly. Most of the Democrats and other leftists who are mad at Obama are upset because he has not, in their view, been dictatorial enough. It is socialism and nowhere on earth ever has it provided as high a standard of living for all as in our American Constitutional Republic. In a democracy, the people are free to vote in a Hitler, as they did, but then find it impossible to get rid of him. A logical condition of being a believer in reason was that one was open to understanding and evaluating any new idea. Thus they can properly be called rightists since they are the political opposite of leftists.
This is raw advocacy and frequently implementation of their will to power and total control. Again, as long as socialized medicine were to be installed by a democratically-elected government, it would be a non-authoritarian policy.
Just as with Linnaeus, I make no apologies to the vultures who object to being lumped with the buzzards or the leftist mind parasites who object to being lumped with the liver flukes. Conversely, Christian Conservatives believe that homosexuals are sinners but they neither advocate nor support any abuse of homosexuals or the leftists who favor homosexuals.
Consequently, conservatism alone of the four ideologies is not driven by its own logic to an inevitable conflict with the military values which stem from the demands of the military function. Conservatives are all about being left alone or helping others to see the superiority of their philosophy of life. While inherent contrast and conflict exist between the military ethic and liberalism, fascism, and Marxism, inherent similarity and compatibility exist between the military ethic and conservatism.
A republic is an inherently conservative form of government–the rule of law over the rule of men.

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