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In Chinaa??s Shanxi Province around 500km (300 miles) south west of Beijing is located The Hanging Temple (named Xuan Kong Si). Djurdjevi Stupovi Monastery in Ras ,Republic of Serbia,near Novi Pazar was founded by the first Serbian ruler Stefan Nemanja in 1170-1171 according to the incarved inscription from the main church portail. Petra is a historic and archaeological city in the Jordanian governorate of Ma’an that has rock cut architecture and water conduits system. High up above the town of Locarno, there is a sanctuary located on a forested cliff; Madonna del Sasso.
Rising majestically out of the plains of central Burma, 2,417 feet up in the air atop an ancient, sheer-sided volcanic plug, the Buddhist monastery of Popa Taungkalat surveys the surrounding scene.
According to the legend, the monastery was built in the 13th century (1224), when Ukrainian knyaz Georgi Glozh settled in the area with Ivan Asen II’s approval. Mont-St-Michel (also written Mont Saint Michel) is a small rocky island about 1 km from the north coast of France at the mouth of the Couesnon River in Normandy. DESCRIPTION: With the develop-ment of Portuguese seafaring in the 15th century and the subsequent widening if the southern horizon, the problem of a€?harmonizinga€™ or reconciling the traditional world views laid down by Pliny, Ptolemy, Aristotle and Ambrose with that of the new discoveries became increasingly acute. Beyond the equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius [Mela] and many others as well raise a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India; [nevertheless] they say that many have passed through these parts from India to Spain . This rather refreshing disposition towards agnosticism is exemplified again in the configuration of South Africa.
Also typical of maps of the period, the anonymously compiled Genoese map is covered with legends in Latin, castellated towns representing major population centers, princes on their thrones, and loxodromes from the portolan tradition. This map is now the property of the Italian Government, and is to be found in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, being catalogued Sezione Palatina No. The Genoese map became the center of controversy in the 1940s when the Italian scholar Sebastiano Crino, suggested that this was a copy of the map that Paolo Toscanelli sent to the Portuguese court in 1474 and later but less certainly to Columbus, was a copy of it, touting the possibility of a sea route to India via the Atlantic. A Genoese flag in the upper northwest corner of the map establishes this mapa€™s origin, along with the coat of arms of the Spinolas, a prominent Genoese mercantile family.
The map is elliptical in shape, having a major axis measuring 81 cm and a minor axis measuring 42 cm. Ptolemy is cited by name in several inscriptions, and there is evidence of his influence in the representation of Africa (Ethiopia, the source of the Nile), an enclosed Caspian Sea (Mar de Sara), the southern coast of Asia, and the Golden Chersonese, not named but identified by a legend noting that it is particularly rich in gold and precious stones. Paradise does not appear on the map, and an inscription in southeastern Africa tells us why: a€?In this region some depict the earthly paradise.
Of course, the cosmographers had no objection to monsters - even Ptolemy mentions a few, although he did not put them on his maps. Although its cartographer explicitly disapproved of fantastic narratives in a legend in the Atlantic (frivolis narracionibus rejectis), Chet Van Duzer points out that the richly decorated map contains a number of fantastic illustrations, and the legends, many of which come from the travel narrative of Niccole dea€™ Conti (c.1395-1469), do not shy away from fantastic subjects. In the eastern Indian Ocean there is an imposing creature with a humanoid head and upper body, but with large horns and ears and wing-like red membranes joining its outstretched arms to its torso, and a fish-like tail. Turning first to Europe for a consideration of the details of the map, it will be noted that the contour of this continent is drawn with a nearer approach to accuracy than is true of the other continents, our cartographera€™s greatest errors appearing in the regions which were beyond those recorded by Ptolemy and the portolan chartmakers.
The only mountains indicated in Europe are the Alps, which are made to sweep in a somewhat irregular curve around the north of Italy and the head of the Adriatic. In the northern part of Europe we find sketched a polar bear Forma ursorum alborum, and an ermine or sable, animals whose valuable pelts were obtained by the Hansa of Novgorod and sold by them in Bruges to the Italians.
Many regional names appear and many cities are made prominent in each of the continents through the sketch of a building, which building sometimes is a castle, sometimes is a church or cathedral, sometimes is a monastery. England, Scotland, and Ireland are represented as on the portolan charts of the period, over each of which flies a pennant. In France appear the names Gascona, Lengadoc, Normania, Baiona, Bordeaux, Tolosa, Nar-bona, Montpellier, Arguesmortes, Avenio, Massillia, Lion, Dijon, Bourges, Renes, and a few undecipherable names. In Italy we find Italia, Masca, Calabria, Si-cilia, Sardinia, Corsica, Niza, and Venezia, which last our author has made especially prominent, while Genoa itself has been omitted altogether. In central and eastern Europe we find Bavaria, Boemia, Prutenia, Bruges, Dancic, Famosura [Frankenburg?], Poana, Praja, Ratisbon, Inbrunch, Vienna, Pruna, Potavia, Ungaria with Juanin (Raab), Burgaria, Polonia, Carcovia, Rossia, and near this last the classic names Sormatia prima and S. We also find the region Zichia designated on the north and northwest slope of the Caucasus, and, on the Black Sea, Savastopoli, Kaffa, Pidea, Flordelis, Turlo and Moncastro. On the Hellenic-Slavic peninsula we find the names Sclavonia and Albania, which had but recently withstood an attack of the Turks; here also are Macedonia, Grecia and Morea.
But it is perhaps in respect to the islands of the southeast that the map is of greatest interest.
It is not easy to determine the significance of a gulf that extends far into the east coast of Asia north of Borneo and Java.
The name Sine, or Sina, which was never used in the middle ages, and which in all probability the Genoese map-maker took from Ptolemy, suggests that the gulf is likewise from Ptolemy, and in order to find space for the new discovery it has been placed farther north. The northeast coast of Asia is in part determined by the form of the map, and in part is arbitrarily drawn, as are also the numerous islands, not one of which we are able to identify. The Genoese map abandons the northeastern quarter of Asia to the apocalyptic peoples: surrounded by impassible mountains and in the north and east by the ocean is a large territory in which are placed trees and fortresses. In addition to the usual medieval depiction of the mythical Gog and Magog the Genoese map also contains a large number of drawings of zoological interest. The main African interest lies in the fact that, as a departure from Ptolemya€™s conception, the Indian Ocean, as is also shown on the Vesconte, Bianco, the Catalan-Estense, Leardo and Fra Mauroa€™s maps (#228, #241, #246, #242, and #249), is not landlocked, and, significantly, the southern extremity of Africa does not run away eastwards, as on the Catalan-Estense map. The southern coast of the continent, from Arabia and the Persian Gulf to Further India, exhibits the Ptolemaic influence in particular, though our Genoese gives evidence of possessing a good knowledge of some of the most recent reports of travelers.
The peninsula Guzerat is better drawn than by Ptolemy, and the Bay of Cambay appears as a deep inlet of the ocean into which a broad rivera€”perhaps the Mahia€”empties. In the interior of Ceylon a lake appears which may owe its origin to a statement made by Pliny or maybe an attempt to represent some one or more of the numerous artificial reservoirs or tanks for which the island is famous. In their outlines there is a certain similarity between the islands Ceylon and Sumatra as represented by our Genoese mapmaker and the same islands as they appear on the maps of Ptolemy. The name Sumatra, which our cosmographer, together with Conti, considers to be the native name, seems first to have become a more or less familiar one in Europe in the 14th century. The long southern coast which, according to Ptolemy, makes of the Indian Ocean an enclosed sea, and which in part appears in the Idrisi and the Sanudo maps (#219, Book II, #228), has been omitted here, and the great gulf of Ptolemy on the east of the peninsula becomes in the Genoese map an open sea, corresponding to the account of Conti and other travelers, which sea had been found difficult of navigation because of continually unfavorable wind. Concerning the two large islands lying off the east coast of Asia, a legend gives the following information: These islands are called Java, of which the greater in circumference is three, and the other two thousand miles. Marvelous beings are represented in parts of the Indian Ocean, such as an animal with the body of a fish and the head of a woman, that is, a siren; also a fish with a humanlike head and large fins with sharp spikes thereon. Of particular importance are the other legends in the Indian Ocean apparently derived from Conti.
We find on other world maps similar information concerning the construction of ships which sailed the Indian Ocean, as well as information concerning trade routes, such as the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235). Ibn Batuta also describes them minutely, making mention of ships that could carry a thousand mena€”six hundred seamen and four hundred soldiers.
A river taking its rise on the east side of this mountain quadrangle, and emptying through two mouths into the Indian Ocean, cannot be identified, as the chart here contains numerous errors.
It is of special interest that in a region so significant by reason of its physical features, where the Pamir Highlands, the Hindu Kush, the Himalaya and the Quen Lun unite, our cosmographer represents a second Iron gate where Alexander imprisoned the Tartars, or a wall with a strong gateway. In the interior of Southeast Asia there is a large lake with the legend: The waters of this lake are very pleasant and sweet for drinking. Marco Polo relates a similar story, but adds, as does Conti, the simple facts that he himself observed, that is, that diamonds are obtained in India through mining and through the washing and the sifting of the sands. No rivers are represented by the Genoese cosmographer in Northeast Asia, but we find twice inscribed the legend Inaccessible mountains. On their appearance, the Mongols were thought to be the descendants of the Ten Tribes who had departed from the Mosaic law; and even in the Mohammedan world their coming was regarded as a sign of the approaching end of the world.
As a characteristic representation of the animal world, we find sketched in Southeast Asia a snake with a human head.
The geographical nomenclature in the interior of Asia is very numerous, including the names of cities, countries and topographical features. The cities represented on the frontier of Asia Minor are probably Angora, Burssa and Philadelphia. In Arabia Arabia Deserta is distinguished from Arabia Felix, and the extreme southeast part of the peninsula, that is, Oman, is called Fenicea et Sabba, suggesting that the Phoenicians once occupied the basin of the Persian Gulf. On the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkestan, there are only two cities represented, Testango and Organzin. Conti, as before stated, divided India into three parts, but the Genoese cartographer, following the ancients, refers to two only, representing therein numerous cities and legends, most of which apparently he has taken from Conti.
Of the several regions only Maabar is especially designated in a legend reading: This province is called Mahabaria.
Among the cities, Cambay is especially distinguished, which at that time was the most important commercial city of India, and which the Genoese cartographer calls combayta, making use of the Spanish term instead of the Italian Camcaia or the Latin Combahita. West of the Ganges delta, on a mountain, lies the large city Bizungalia, which Conti called Bizenegalia, and which seems to have remained a city of importance well into the 16th century. The land north of the Ava River (Irawadi) as far as a great parallel mountain range, including apparently the entire Irawadi region, the Genoese cosmographer calls Macina, inscribing the legend: This province of Macina produces elephants.
Turning to the continent of Africa, we find its Mediterranean coast, as on the portolan charts, well represented; likewise the Atlantic coast as far as Cape Bojador, which had recently been reached by the Portuguese. On the west coast, in about the position where one should look for the Gulf of Guinea, a gulf having one large and two small islands extends into the mainland, as is represented by Sanudo, Leardo and Fra Mauro. In about the latitude of this gulf on the west coast we also find one indicated on the east coast which appears to be the Bay of Zanzibar. In the representation of mountains of Africa we find the Atlas range, which stretches along the north coast eastward to the Great Syrtus, a second range west of Egypt, stretching in a southerly direction.
The hydrography of Africa is likewise Ptolemaic, especially that which pertains to the Nile. A monastery, or a city, with numerous towers over which a cross is drawn, is located in the lake and bears the name Maria of Nazareth. That the Christian Abyssinians made use of the elephant in war during the middle ages, Marco Polo relates, who, in his travels, had gathered considerable information concerning that region of Africa. On the Catalan world map of 1375 (#235) a war elephant is also represented in Nubia, and the same picture appears again in India with the addition of a driver.
Not only does there appear to be some confusion relative to the representation of the Nile River, but the hydrography of other parts of Africa is very confusing. The reference to the character of the land in Africa and its different products is very full, attention being drawn particularly to the animals. The extreme southeastern part of Africa has the following legend: In this region certain ones have depicted the paradise of delights. A sea monster illustrating a passage from Bracciolini's Facetiaea€”the ultimate source of the demon-like sea monster on the Genoese world map of 1457a€”in Sebastian Branta€™s 1501 edition of Aesopa€™s Fables.
Does the Genoese World Map represent an intermediate step between a heterogeneous medieval conception of space and a more modern homogeneous one? He shows a critical approach in dealing with his sources, backing up his decisions or listing information, which is a very innovative feature. As shown above, social customs and spatial perceptions are connected, and the mapmakera€™s intent to provide a near-natural depiction of the world might be related to the Christian faith.62 It is problematic to presume a homogenous conception of space is operative in the later Middle Ages or the Early Modern period, just because a mapmaker painted a mappa mundi using coastlines drawn from portolan charts, since geography is but one dimension of a mapa€™s content. These continuities could perhaps explain why, as Evelyn Edson and Emilie Savage-Smith write, [the medieval cosmological modela€™s] a€?overthrow in the 17th century caused a profound spiritual and psychological disorientation from which we have yet to recover.a€?63 Studying conceptions of space in mappae mundi reveals how these conceptions change over time. Goh Jin Wei plays a return during the women’s singles match against Mette Poulsen of Denmark.
KUNSHAN, China: Malaysia’s third singles Chong Wei Feng can walk tall after displaying a smashing performance to deliver the winning point for the Thomas Cup team against South Korea yesterday. In Uber action, the women’s squad failed to stir a similar performance against Denmark, allowing the Danes to clinch a spot in the quarters after a closely contested battle.
Wei Feng, who is currently ranked world 68, performed brilliantly to sweep aside higher ranked opponent Jeon Hyeok Jin 21-16, 21-16.
Malaysia topped Group C by edging South Korea 3-2 and managed to avoid seeded teams like China in the quarterfinals. Malaysia registered three straight wins, 4-1 against England and 5-0 over Germany en route to topping Group C. Apart from Malaysia, the other countries that advanced to the quarterfinals are defending champions Japan, hosts China from Group A, Indonesia, Thailand (Group B), Denmark, Taiwan (Group D) and South Korea as the runners-up in Group C.
Second singles player Iskandar Zulkarnain came on court to upset world ranked 16th, Lee Dong Keun 21-17, 21-15 and put Malaysia back on the winning track. Team captain Chong Wei said that as the first singles player, it was important to deliver the first point as an encouragement to the other players. Meanwhile, Malaysia’s hopes of making it to the Uber Cup quarterfinals were blown out after losing 2-3 to Denmark.
It was the squad’s second straight defeat in Group A since they had also lost 0-5 to China on Sunday.
Tee Jing Yi who came in as the first singles failed to deliver the first point after losing 11-21, 9-21 to Line Kjaersfeldt in straight sets.
Malaysia, trailing 0-2, brought on 16-year-old Goh Jin Wei who excelled to snatch a point from the Danish side when she disposed Mette Poulsen 21-18, 21-13 in straight sets to make it 1-2. Unfortunately, the third singles Ho Yen Mei who won the first set 24-22, failed to maintain her rhythm and lost the second and third sets 13-21, 13-21 to end Malaysia’s quarterfinal hopes in the Uber Cup competition. Badminton Association of Malaysia technical director Morten Frost Hansen said he was disappointed with Jing Yi’s performance since she did not live up to expectation. Credit should be given to national second singles and doubles pair who registered two points to level the tie at 2-2 which revived Malaysia’s hopes. MIRI: Sarawak look set for a good outing in the coming Sukma in weightlifting when three lifters from the state struck gold in the Sarawak Open and Pre-Sukma championship held at UiTM Kuching yesterday. The trio are Sylvia Buda who snatched 55kg and lifted 73kg in the clean and jerk in the 63kg category, Johnathan Patrick who lifted a total of 260kg through 120kg in the snatch and 140 kg in the clean and jerk medal in 105kg and above category and Filicia Muyat with a snatch of 65kg and 85 kg in the clean and Jerk in the 69 kg category. However, three gold medals in the pre-Sukma championship is no guarantee of three top podium finishes in the games proper which will be held in the state next month. Of the three Felicia looks the most likely to win the Sukma gold, as she was the champion in the 63kg category in 2012.
SIBU: The eight new squash courts in Petra Jaya, Kuching will be used for the first time for matches of the Sarawak Open Squash Championship, May 27 to 29. Squash Racquets Association of Sarawak (SRAS) president Robert Lau Hui Yew said about 100 players from throughout the state were expected to take part in the championship. Top players from Sibu, Miri and Kuching are expected to take part in the championship which is similar to the CMS Circuit Squash Championship held last year. Lau said the CMS Circuit, which was into its 10th year in 2015, could be scrapped this year due to lack of sponsors. State Sukma players Marcus Sim, Jeff Tay and Ma Si Yi will be competing in the championship. Thumb’s Up Badminton Academy owner Martin Tio said the aim was to upgrade and uplift the standard of the sport which saw its popularity here dropping in recent years. The Sarawak Lawn Bowls Stadium is the third covered lawn bowls stadium in the country and national coach Zuraidi Puteh (inset) is confident that Sarawak lawn bowls can attain greater heights with the sports facility at Petra Jaya.
KUCHING: The new lawn bowls stadium at the Sarawak Stadium Complex in Petra Jaya is set to spur Sarawak to powerhouse status in the sport.
This confidence oozed from national coach Zuraidi Puteh who is very impressed with Sarawak’s commitment to bring the sport to greater heights. According to Zuraidi, lawn bowls is lucky to have Awang Mahyan Awang Mohamed as the Sarawak Lawn Bowls Association (Salba) president, thanks to his proven ability to develop the sport and ensure that Sarawak continue to excel in lawn bowls. The former state coach was also confident that the stadium will become a happy hunting ground for the state lawn bowlers in Sukma XVIII from July 22-31.
Under his guidance from 2004 to 2009, Sarawak were crowned overall champions in Terengganu Sukma in 2008 with two gold and three bronze medals. Meanwhile, on the preparations of the national team for the SEA Games and Commonwealth Games, Zuraidi said they were now busy training overseas under the “Podium” and “We are Champions” programme. For the SEA Games in Kuala Lumpur next year, Malaysia will be facing stiff competition from Brunei and the Philippines. The country’s best performance at the SEA Games was capturing five gold medals in 2001 in Kuala Lumpur. TOKYO: Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on Monday vowed cooperation with French investigators probing payments allegedly made to help Tokyo secure the 2020 Olympics.
French prosecutors on Thursday said they were investigating $2 million in payments, suspecting they were aimed at winning support for Tokyo’s successful bid to host the 2020 Games. On Friday, Japan’s Olympic chief insisted that the payments were “legitimate” and were for consulting work. The payments to a bank account in Singapore were first revealed by Britain’s Guardian newspaper. Sources told AFP that French investigators suspected the money was aimed at helping Tokyo secure the 2020 Games. Diack was an International Olympic Committee member in 2013 when Tokyo beat Istanbul and Madrid in the race to host the 2020 Games. But Tsunekazu Takeda, the Japanese Olympic Committee president who led Tokyo’s bid, said the money was for “professional services” for consultation work, adding, “the amounts paid were in our opinion proper and adequate for the services provided and gave no cause for suspicion at the time”. The latest controversy follows earlier ones surrounding the Tokyo Olympics, which had to scrap its original main stadium design due to its eye-watering price tag, and had to weather plagiarism accusations over the Games logo. Two payments were made in 2013 to Black Tidings, a Singapore-based company linked to Diack’s son Papa Massata Diack, who was employed by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) as a consultant, French prosecutors said. The alleged payments were discovered as part of an inquiry into allegations that the Diacks organised bribes to cover up failed dope tests by Russian athletes, French prosecutors said. Prosecutors said the money was “labelled as ‘Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games Bid’, coming from an account opened at a Japanese bank, for the profit of the ‘Black Tidings’ company in Singapore”.
Separately, Papa Massata Diack denied in an interview over the weekend that he received money to help Tokyo win the race to host the 2020 Games. Australia’s Olympians will be issued with free super-strength condoms in Rio to minimise any infection from the Zika virus.
Brazil has been the epicentre of the outbreak of the mosquito-borne disease, which is blamed for birth defects in babies born to women infected with the virus.
There has been widespread anxiety globally surrounding the threat of Zika, which is rampant in Brazil.
As well as causing the birth defect microcephaly in babies born to women infected with the virus, it has also been linked to the rare but serious neurological disorder Guillain-Barre Syndrome.
Last week, the World Health Organisation advised pregnant women not to travel to Rio and urged athletes and visitors to take precautions to avoid infection by Zika.
Police officers stand outside Old Trafford stadium in Manchester, England, on May 15, 2016, following a bomb scare. The suspect package that saw Manchester United’s Premier League game with Bournemouth at Old Trafford abandoned on Sunday was in fact a dummy device left behind following a training exercise held at the ground four days earlier, police announced.
But the postponement of the original game raises a number of embarrassing questions for United and their security procedures — not least the fact that the device remained in place for four days.
The vast expense and inconvenience suffered by a capacity crowd of over 75,000 will also leave the English club red-faced. In addition to numerous supporters who travelled from overseas for the fixture, around 3,500 Bournemouth supporters made a round trip of 500-miles (800 kilometres) from the south coast. The state teams posing with their medals after winning both the men’s and women’s titles in the Pre-Sukma Volleyball Championship at the Sibu Volleyball Stadium yesterday.
KUCHING: It was double joy for Sarawak as the state Sukma XVIII men’s and women’s teams emerged victorious in the Pre-Sukma Volleyball Championships at the Sibu Volleyball Stadium in Rajang Park yesterday.
In the women’s final, Sukma defending champions Sarawak outclassed University Malaya 3-0 (25-21, 25-19, 25-13 for the second time in the competition to lift the crown.
Sarawak, who registered three wins in the preliminary rounds, had beaten University Malaya and entered the final after blanking Terengganu 3-0 (25-16, 25-11, 25-20) on Saturday. The men’s competition saw Sarawak A completing their campaign with four wins – over Terengganu, Sarikei, Sarawak B and Johor to be crowned champions.
Sarawak Volleyball Association (Sava) head coach Moh Ung Ming was pleased with the state players and said the victories have certainly given them a morale booster in facing Sukma XVIII come July 22-31. Malaysian Volleyball Association (Mava) president Prof Gregory Hii closed the event and gave away the prizes.
The event, co-organised by the Ministry of Youth and Sports, Mava, Sava and the Sarawak State Sports Council, saw the participation of nine teams. JDT celebrating their victory after defeating PKNS FC 2-1 to win the 2016 FA Cup title at Shah Alam Stadium. SHAH ALAM, Selangor: Johor Darul Ta’zim (JDT) rose to the occasion to beat PKNS FC 2-1 in the FA Cup final at the Shah Alam Stadium on Saturday night, said the Southern Tigers head coach Mario Gomez. He noted his players’ endless efforts despite playing in a heavy downpour especially in the second half that proved vital for the victory from behind. He acknowledged that the players conceded a mistake by allowing PKNS FC to strike an early goal for a 1-0 lead but was glad that they managed to put it behind them. In the match, PKNS FC took an early lead through Gabriel Miguel Guerra’s penalty strike in the sixth minute before JDT equalised through skipper Safiq Rahim’s spot kick — before Man-of-the-Match, Jorge Pereyra Diaz netted the winning goal in 35th minute. He said his lads failed to check the relentless onslaught of the JDT attacking machinery which enabled the Southern Tigers to rise to record victory. KUNSHAN, China: Malaysia’s women went down 5-0 to top seeded China in a Group A match of the Uber Cup finals held at Kunshan Sports Centre, here yesterday. Malaysia first singles, Tee Jing Yi went down tamely to Li Xuerui 21-13, 21-11 in 32 minutes. World junior champion Goh Jin Wei,16, put up some resistance to world number four player Wang Yihan but finally went down 16-21, 14-21.
The young shuttler admitted there was a big gap between Malaysian women’s shuttlers and China’s who are ranked in the world top five players. Malaysia’s third single, Soniia Cheah also failed to deliver any point when she went down tamely to Sun Yu 9-21, 10-21. Malaysia will next take Denmark in their quest to at least reach the quarter-finals of the Uber Cup Finals tournament. Thailand’s girls, boosted by their men’s counterparts who whipped India 3-2 earlier, scored a 4-1 victory over Hong Kong in a Group C match. Morshidi flanked by the Sarawak hornbill mascots bowls as symbolic to soft-open the new Megalanes Emart Batu Kawah.
KUCHING: The region’s largest bowling centre, Megalanes Emart Batu Kawah, featuring 42-glossy lanes side by side is up and ready to host tenpin bowling events in the coming 18th Sukma. State secretary Tan Sri Datuk Amar Morshidi Abdul Ghani, who is also Sukma organising committee chairman, graced the soft-launching of the just completed facility located at the roof-top of Emart Batu Kawah on Friday. Among those present were Amateur Tenpin Bowling Association of Sarawak (Abas) president Sunny Si, Sukma secretariat coordinator Affandi Keli, the Ministry of Social Development permanent secretary Kameri Affandi, Sarawak Sports Corporation chief executive officer Dr Ong Kong Swee and Sukma XVIII bowling head coach Jackson Ting. Morshidi revealed that the project was collaboration between the state government and the private sector.
11 gold medals at stake in the games by practising harder and getting familiar with the new facility. Morshidi urged the Sarawak bowling team to give all they can to exceed Abas’ target of five gold medals and assured they will have the support.
The volunteer team shouted their battle cry to cheer for the Sarawak team throughout the ceremony before Moshidi bowled as symbolic to soft-open the Megalanes Emart Batu Kawah. MEXICO CITY: FIFA named an African woman with no previous experience in football administration as its second-most powerful official on Friday, part of moves by global soccer’s ruling body to move on from a major corruption scandal. Fatma Samba Diouf Samoura, currently the United Nations Development Programme Resident Representative in Nigeria, was named as secretary general and will be responsible for the day-to-day running of the federation. Samoura’s appointment was announced by FIFA president Gianni Infantino, hosting his first Congress since he was elected in February to lead the scandal-plagued federation out of crisis. The Congress was the first since FIFA passed a raft of reforms aimed at avoiding a repeat of the corruption scandal that has seen 42 soccer officials and entities indicted in the United States. Infantino told the Congress FIFA would show “no mercy” to any federation that misused money allocated to it for football development. Samoura, who is 52 and from Senegal, replaces Frenchman Jerome Valcke, who was fired in January and has since been banned for 12 years for ethics violations which included using FIFA expenses for sightseeing trips and destruction of evidence. Samoura began her United Nations career with the World Food Programme in Rome in 1995 and has served as country representative or director in six African countries.
Infantino said the FIFA Council had agreed to end Indonesia’s nearly one-year-long suspension from international football, imposed because of government interference in the country’s football federation. The Congress voted to continue the suspensions of Kuwait and Benin over the same principle. FIFA’s statutes demand that national football associations are completely independent of their country’s governments.
GEORGE TOWN, Cayman Islands: World’s fastest man Usain Bolt says he still dreams of playing for Manchester United – as long as Louis Van Gaal is not the manager. The Jamaican superstar has long been critical of Van Gaal’s stewardship of Manchester United, saying he has not used players in the proper positions and that has led to disappointing performances by the English Premier League club. Fatimah (third left) with Jamilah (centre) launching the official logo and theme song for the 18th National Paralympics. KUCHING: Sarawak launched its official logo and theme song for the 18th National Paralympics Games, which it is hosting from Aug 5-12.
The logo was jointly launched by the Chief Minister’s wife, Datin Patinggi Datuk Jamilah Anu, together with Minister of Welfare, Women and Community Wellbeing Datuk Fatimah Abdullah at Le’ Park here yesterday. Fatimah said the state contingent aims to bag a total of 80 gold medals at the Paralympics while retaining the championship title for the 12 conservative time as well as becoming the best host for the games.
Fatimah said the state contingent comprises 280 athletes, including officials, for the Paralympics.
She added that any Paralympic medallist will receive similar incentive as Sukma winners: RM5,000 for a gold medal, RM750 for silver and and RM500 for bronze. Fatimah also noted that the state still requires 60 volunteers; those interested can obtain forms at the ministry’s office or department.
Also present was permanent secretary for Minister of Welfare, Women and Community Wellbeing, Megir Gumbek.
File photo shows PKNS FC’s J Gabriel Miguel Guerra (centre) celebrating with teammates after scoring a goal during a Premier League match. SHAH ALAM: Premier League team PKNS FC aims to spring a shock win over Johor Darul Ta’zim (JDT) in the FA Cup final at Shah Alam Stadium tonight. PKNS FC upset several Super League teams including Terengganu, Felda United and Perak enroute to the final.
Meanwhile, JDT head coach Mario Gomez said he is vying for a win despite missing influental midfielder Muhammad Fazly Mazlan who sustained an injury and will be replaced by Jasazrin Jamaluddin. For the record, JDT was the FA Cup runners-up in 2013 after losing 0-1 to Kelantan in the final at National Stadium in Bukit Jalil.
Diana (centre) with Solid Gym owners Lau (third right) and Lee (third left), giving the thumbs-up with others to the inaugural Mr Giant Bodybuilding Contest. SIBU: The inaugural Mr Giant Bodybuilding contest will be held tomorrow at Giant Hypermarket (first floor of concourse) in Ling Kai Cheng Road here, beginning at 2pm. Diana said the champion of each category would win RM500, while the first runner-up gets RM300 and the second runner-up, RM200.
She said the champions of all three categories stand to win RM300 plus a trophy in the Champion of Champions contest.
Kelantan FA president Tan Sri Annuar Musa (centre) receives FC Bari jersey from the club president Gianluca Paparesta (left) and owner Datuk Dr Noordin Ahmad. Paparesta and Malaysian businessman Datuk Dr Noordin Ahmad, who recently made international headlines after purchasing a huge stake in the Italian football club, met Kafa president Tan Sri Anuar Musa at the Mara Building on Thursday. He noted that the collaboration with Kafa was their first step before spreading its wing to other Malaysian clubs and national team.
According to him, the academy would be set up to train young players and prepare them for a career in international football leagues.
Paparesta also said through the collaboration, FC Bari would plan a number of friendly matches with Malaysian teams here and in Italy. KUCHING: The organising committee of the ‘Sarawak Volunteers, Walk of Love’ made their final preparations and rehearsal yesterday, as around 7,000 people are expected to turn up for the one-day programme at the Le Park, Civic Centre here today. A visit to the venue yesterday saw the technical team in final touch-ups for the stage and sound system, workers decorating the stage, organising committee checking for defects and performers were also present, to ensure smooth progress. A member of the organising committee said there were around 100 people involved in the final preparations.
The programme is held by the Ministry of Welfare, Women and Family Development to support the 18th Malaysian Paralympics. Various activities today include Zumba, launch of logo and introducing the state contingent icon, lucky draws, colouring competition, and exhibition booths. The Chief Minister’s wife Datin Patinggi Datuk Jamilah Anu is the guest of honour at the event.
The state team is also taking part in all nine categories of the Paralympics, namely athletics, badminton, weight-lifting, swimming, ping pong, archery, lawn balls, bowling and chess. Morariu (second right) speaking to Alvin Teng (left) and Rohaizat Achop Borhan Janang during a training session. KUCHING: The tennis skills and physical fitness of state Sukma XVIII potential medallists Alvin Teng Wee Jie and Rohaizat Achop Borhan Janang have improved after three months of training under Romanian coach Doru Morariu.
According to Morariu, the duo underwent a test before they started their overseas exposure training stint where several weaknesses were observed. Morariu also did an analysis on the players’ footwork, serve, return, baseline game, net game, mentality, and physical fitness. Morariu added that the players’ net game had also improved in three aspects which were consistency of the volley, choosing the right momentum to come to the net and Alvin and Rohaizat were better at the net when playing doubles and in the last tournament in Germany, they had won a lot of points at the net. The duo are now also feeling very confident in competing, enjoying playing in tournaments and also being successful. Morariu has set the goals for the next period which are increasing power and speed of game, form weapons out of the serve and forehand, to get mentally to the next level where they should be and be able to use their full potential efficiently.
KUCHING: Organisers of the Sarawak Marathon Miri have postponed the event to July 31 as a mark of respect for the May 5 helicopter crash in which six persons including a Deputy Minister and a Member of Parliament were killed. Through a press statement released yesterday, the organiser said the event which is scheduled for May 15 has to be postponed as a mark of respect over the demise of the six persons. The other reason for deferment of the event was relevant government agencies were still trying to search for the wreckage of the main body of the ill-fated helicopter, although all six bodies has been recovered.
The Online sign-up site of the 2nd Sarawak Marathon Miri 2016 was launched since November 26, 2015 while online sign-up site of Miri City Day Half Marathon 2016 was only launched on Jan 13.
Lee (back row, third right), Fong (third left) and Law (second right) with the state MSSM representatives from Riam Road Secondary School during a ceremony. MIRI: Riam Road Secondary School honoured three of its gold medallists of the recent Malaysia Schools Sports Council (MSSM) track and field championship with cash incentives and certificate of recognition.
Topping the list were record-breaking Low How Sieng who created a new boys’ U-15 discus record with a throw of 54.49 metres. The school also presented RM300 to boys’ U-18 javelin champion Lee Say King who struck gold medal with a winning distance of 52.35 metres. Voon Wu Jung, who struck gold with a throw of 15.91 metres in the boys’ U-15 discus, received RM300 cash incentive from the school management. The incentives were handed out to the champions in front of the 2,700 students and teachers during the presentation of RM2 million cheque by Lee on behalf of Sarawak Chief Minister Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Adenan Satem for the school building fund.
Also present were RRSS board executive chairman Dato Sri Law Kiu Kiong and CEO Datuk Dr Fong Onn Min. Sarawak finished second behind Selangor in the track and field meet which was held in Terengganu from May 3 to 7.
Mohamad Razi Sitam the Saribas Assemblyman (right) hands a plaque to Saiful as a mark of appreciation for organising the competition. DEBAK: The third Saribas Assemblyman Futsal Challenge Trophy tournament will be held at the end this month. The event will be organised by Kelab Sukan dan Rekreasi Laser Light (KSRLL) Debak together with Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB) Saribas and it is open to all teams in the state.
The scheduled date for the tournament will be May 21-22 and May 28-29 at Gelanggang Futsal 1 Malaysia Debak. He said the winner will get RM2,000 plus medal, trophy and the Challenge Trophy while first runner-up will get RM1,200, medals and trophy while the third and fourth placed teams shall bring back RM700, medals and trophy.
Saiful said this is the best way to scout for young talents in football in the Saribas district. For more details, call Saiful Hanizam Suhaini (013-5781440), Amirul (011-16087475) or Nazri (012-7255537).
MIRI: 2012 Sukma weightlifting champion Filicia Muyat is calling on the state government to do more for talented weightlifters in the rural areas.
She said these athletes are left largely to their own devices as they live far from urban centres.
Like all promising athletes, she added, talented weightlifters need better facilities to train and exposure through more and higher-level competitions to improve further.
According to her, there are many talented weighlifters in Tinjar and Bakong areas who are hardly exposed to any major championship outside Sarawak.
She believes that, with better training equipment and greater exposure for such athletes, weightlifting can be one of Sarawak’s strongest sports in Sukma. Filicia, a Berawan who hails from Long Lapok, said it is high time for the relevant authorities and agencies to take the initative to further promote weighlifting.
Her ambition is to compete in the SEA Games and the Olympic Games eventually to prove that those from the rural areas can also excel in weightlifting.
She and two of her athletes will be competing in the pre-Sukma competition and Sarawak Open to be held in Kuching from May 13-17.


Rahman presenting a certificate to a student at the end of the boxing clinic at SMK Hajah Laila Taib in Asajaya yesterday. KUCHING: The Sarawak Boxing Association (Saba) has taken another step forward in the development of the sport when they secured cooperation with the Samarahan District Education Office and SMK Hajah Laila Taib. Through this cooperation, SMK Hajah Laila Taib has been appointed as a boxing development centre in Samarahan. Saba president Dato Rahman Lariwoo said the latest development was aimed at not only furthering promoting boxing but also unearthing more talents among the students who will be roped into the state squad for higher level competitions. Saba shall assist in providing training to the students as it has stationed a coach at the school.
It was conducted in conjunction with a talent identification programme by National Sports Institute Sarawak Satellite Centre officials. KUCHING: Youth members of Che Hui Khor Moral Uplifting Society, Kuching and Samarahan Division and Sarawak Chai Clan Association are organising a badminton competition for Chinese primary schools at Stapok badminton court on June 25 and 26. The objectives of the competition are to unearth young talents and promote sports among the young.
The competition is open to pupils and teachers of Chinese primary schools in Kuching and Samarahan divisions.
The organisers have also invited teachers from five independent Chinese schools here to join the tournament. More information can be obtained by calling 016-8679299, 016-8998819, 019-8894451 or 016-8931132. Mohd Hairol (left wearing cap) watching closely as the students take aim during the demonstration and try-out.
KAPIT: Kapit Division Archery Association has finally managed to spread its wings to students.
The SMK Selirik Archery Club was launched with a demonstration by members of the association at the school’s multi-purpose hall recently.
He presented a dozen new arrows to the school’s senior assistant for co-curricular activities Lau Yoke Huck. The demonstration started with an introduction by association vice secretary Mohd Hairol Hafifi Bin who was assisted by vice president Kong Shin Shin and coaches Kong Shin Hou and Kong Sing Ngie. SMK Selirik Archery Club advisors are Catherine Ting, Mok Ming, Noor Najia Bt Lodz and Teo Ai Choo.
SIBU: Malaysia is aiming for a top five finish in the Asia Volleyball Men’s Championship to be held in Shah Alam Volleyball Court, Kuala Lumpur in May 2017.
Malaysian Volleyball Association (Mava) president Dr Gregory Hii revealed that an organising committee has been tasked to look into the preparatory work. The Asia Volleyball Men’s Championship, he said further, will be a prelude to the volleyball competition at the 2017 SEA Games to be hosted by Malaysia. It will be tough for Malaysian players as the Asia tournament will see world-class teams from the likes of China, Korea and Japan. It would also serve as a platform for the SEA Games players to test themselves and determine where they stand in the international arena. JAKARTA: Preparation for the 2018 Asian Games in Jakarta is on track and all construction work will be completed on time, an Indonesian government minister said on Tuesday.
Hidden in the mountains, so close to the sky, they are quiet shelters far far away from secular society.
It flourished in the sixth century but was destroyed by the Persians in 614 and thereafter was abandoned. The conglomerate rock at Meteora, Greece, has eroded into fantastic peaks upon which medieval monks built monasteries, several of which are still active. It was built on a hilltop near old Ras and its location is a significant point in the area at his new just established state with the tour of Ras as a capital.
Established sometime around the 6th century BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans, it is a symbol of Jordan as well as its most visited tourism attraction. Sasso means rock, so hopefully I wona??t be struck down for translating it as Madonna on the Rocks.
An amazing example of a human construction merged organically with its natural setting, Taung Kalat also draws thousands of pilgrims each year because of its great spiritual significance.
The knyaz founded a monastery carrying the name of St George, whose icon he had brought with himself. The mount is best known for the medieval Benedictine Abbey and steepled church that occupies most of the 1km-diameter clump of rocks jutting out of the waters of the English Channel.
The evidence is purely circumstantial, though the map would have been more encouraging to anyone hoping to circumnavigate Africa, and Crinoa€™s thesis has had no other advocates.
Oddly, there is no city view of Genoa [Janua], while Venice is represented by an impressive set of buildings.
Much scholarly ink has been spilled over the meaning of this caption, particularly cum Marino.
It therefore indicates the longitude of the habitable world as about twice that of the latitude. Hugh of Saint Victor had described the world as being the shape of Noaha€™s Ark, and Ranulf Higden world maps were oval (#232). It is interesting that the maker of the Genoese map mentions peculiar customs (cannibalism, people who have no names) but no a€?monstrous races,a€? that is, people with aberrant physical characteristics, other than the pygmies. Gog and Magog are enclosed in northeast Asia, Noaha€™s Ark rests on a mountain range in Armenia, and the Red Sea is red, though there is no text about the passage of the Israelites through its waters. There are four prominent sea monsters in the Indian Ocean, which ocean thus remains a venue for exotic wonders. The legend says that the creature sprang out of the water and attacked some cows pasturing on the shore, and then was captured and mounted and exhibited in Venice and elsewhere.
By reason of the limited space, the geographical details inserted in this section of the map are not numerous; indeed, of no part of the map can it be said that the author has crowded it with details.
The Rhone, the Rhine, the Po and the Danubea€”the latter with an extensive deltaa€”have been inscribed in a manner which leaves no doubt as to their identity, while into the Black Sea, which with the Sea of Azov is well drawn, flow the rivers Don and Dnieper, and into the Caspian Sea flows the Volga, though no names are affixed. Here we also find the representation of a ruler, Lordo Rex with genuine Mongol features, the chief of the Golden Horde. To the south of Ireland, in the ocean, we find the following legend: Concerning Ireland two [stories] are told. The names of nine cities in addition are given in northern Italy: Florentia, Ravenna, Ancerra, Borletta, Bor[i], Rana, Galta, and Napoli, with one illegible. After the Alexandrian, the second main authority for the eastern portion is Nicolo Conti, the Venetian traveler, who reached the East Indian islands and perhaps southern China, returned to Italy in 1439 and whose narrative was written down by Poggio Bracciolini shortly after 1447. In the extreme east are two large islands, Java major and Java minor, and to the southeast two smaller islands Sanday et Bandam.
In this enormous prison, labeled Scythia ultra Ymaum montem [Scythia beyond Mount Ymaus], is the word MAGOG in large letters (perhaps in Ezekiela€™s sense as a country?). The remarkably strong ebb and flow of the waters in the Persian Gulf at the mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, observed by Conti, is thought by the Genoese cartographer worthy of mention: Sinus persicus in quo mare fluit et refluit velut oceanus [The Persian Gulf, in which the sea ebbs and flows as in the ocean]. This section of the coast could not well remain unknown to travelers coming from the mouth of the Indus River.
The legend on the Genoese map relates in part to the Chinese junks, in part to the trade with India, which in the 15th century was in the hands of the Arabians, from whom the Portuguese seized it. Near the Persian Gulf in Arabia a mountain is represented, out of which flows a river, emptying north of Mecca, which doubtless is the Betius of Ptolemy. This is doubtless one of the passes lying somewhat to the west, where Scythia on the north joins with the highlands of Iran, and is probably the Khyber. This lake, mentioned in the fabulous stories concerning India in the middle ages, is, again, derived from Conti. In the extreme northwest, in genuine medieval fashion, a leopard and a griffin have been sketched.
In this part of Asia the cosmographer places the land of Magog, whence Jews, Mohammedans, and also Christians of the middle ages, expected the coming of the destructive races at the last day.
In Armenia appears Azerum, and to the southeast of this, in an incorrect position, Sauasto. In the interior, Jerusalem, Damascus, placed far to the north; Antioch and, less accurately placed, Tiberias.
Among the cities Media Arabie appears most conspicuous, and the tower decorated with a flag, and lying on the coast, is undoubtedly Dschidda, Contia€™s Zidem. In the interior are Tauria, a center of trade with remote Asia and India; and Ragis, the ancient Rhagas, a residence of Mohammedan princes, and, since the destruction by the Mongolians, a vast ruin, out of which in part the neighboring Teheran is built. Testango, which Pizigani calls Trestago, is Tysch-kandy on the Mertwyi-Kultuk Bay, whence the commercial highway led from the Caspian Sea over the Ust-Urt plateau to Organzin, the ancient capital city Chowaresmiens on the Darjalyk.
By this we are to understand Coromandel, lying on the east coast, since it appears evident the legend refers to Meliapur.
Meliapur is distinguished by a Christian church with a cross and the legend, Here lies the body of the apostle Saint Thomas.
The Genoese cartographer appears to have known the trend of the coast even to Cape Verde, although his representation of the coast southward of Cape Bojador is far from correct in its details.
These last-named cartographers call this gulf Sinus Aethiopicus, while the Genoese cartographer, the name being repeated many times, designates the mainland as Ethiopia, and his legend here reads: Contrary to the tradition of Ptolemy, this is a gulf, but Pomponius speaks of it with its islands. Before this bay, that is, in the open waters of the Indian Ocean, is represented a fish with a swinea€™s head. In the extreme south of the continent the Mountains of the Moon are represented as snow-covered, with the following explanatory legend: These are the Mountains of the Moon, which, in the Egyptian language, are called Gebelcan, in which mountains the river Nile rises, and from which, in the summer-time, when the snows melt, a very large stream flows. It was the Abyssinian Christians whom the cosmographers, at the close of the 14th century, had to thank for information concerning their country. Marco Polo ascribes the use of war elephants to the inhabitants of Zanzibar, while Masa€™udi expressly states that their land was rich in elephants, which, however, were neither tamed, nor were they used in any manner.
A river empties in the Syrtus west of Masrata, which comes from a lake in the neighborhood of Wadam, and which is called by Idrisi Palmenoase, a river five daysa€™ journey south of the Great Syrtus. In addition to the elephant and the crocodile, a camel is represented in the southwest, and near it a mythical animal, which may be a dragon or a basilisk, and which, according to tradition, inhabited Africa in antiquity and in the middle ages. For instance, the name Ethiopia appears six times, and in addition, in Western Europe, Ethiopia interior, and in the east, Ethiopia Egypti. To tackle this question, it is necessary to hypothesize on the mapmakera€™s intentions and study the way he handles the space on his map. Just as important are the various dimensions of meaning on the Genoese World Map relating to faith and social life. Today, in character with the preferences of our own culture, we are persuaded to live our everyday life in a homogeneous, absolute space, neatly separated from time, notwithstanding that Albert Einstein disproved this notion.
Compare, for instance, this Catalan-Estense map (#246), the Walsperger world map (#245) and this Genoese world map, all of approximately the same date, ca. See the list below for descriptions on a wide array of places to visit and experience during your visit to the Central Texas area. It’s not the fact that we lost it because we feel that it is a 50-50 match but that’s the way we lost it. It’s for sure that the state will become force to be reckoned with in lawn bowls in time to come,” he said last Saturday.
The national bowlers will also take part in some exposure tournaments and they are now competing in the Australian Open lawn bowls championship. However, we must not be complacent and instead should put in 100 per cent effort and be fully prepared to face the challenge ahead of us,” he added. Also present were Sava president William Ting and Sukma XVIII competition director Andrew Ting.
For me, sometimes we can score, sometimes we can’t, it all depends on the situation,” the Argentinian said in a post- match press conference. Elavarasan conceded that the error of his players who often roughed up the JDT players, was the cause of their loss in the final.
However, in the excitement to win the game, we made mistakes and let China’s pair to collect points.
It has previously said that both could be allowed into the 2018 World Cup qualifying competition. I would still love to play for them, but if Louis Van Gaal is the coach, not so much,” Bolt said. As such, by repeating the success to be crowned champion for the 12th time will also be an attribution towards the achievement of our Chief Minister Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Adenan Satem who has contributed a great deal not just financialy but also in the form of morale. The 18th edition of the National Paralympics Games will be participated by teams from 15 states and federal territories.
Elavarasan said that nothing is impossible for the Red Ants squad although they will take to the field as the underdog.
In the last couple of tournaments, they have been playing very aggressively from the baseline and both secured great wins over higher ranked players. Low received RM400 on Wednesday at the school from caretaker Assistant Minister of Sports Datuk Lee Kim Shin who is also adviser to the school board of directors. No matter the religion, these isolated wonders remain an expression of pure faith and peace beyond time and space. Long wooden beams extend from the outer edge of the temple buildings down to holes chiseled into the massive rock face. The isolated monasteries of Meteora helped keep alive Greek Orthodox religious traditions and Hellenic culture during the turbulent Middle Ages and Ottoman Turk occupation of Greece (1453-1829). It lies on the slope of Mount Hor in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba.
The church was consecrated in the 19th century when a local monk, Brother Bartholomeo, claimed that the Madonna had appeared before him whilst walking in the woods.
The icon then disappeared numerous times only to be found on a hill not far from the village of Glozhene, which was interpreted by the monks as a divine sign to move the monastery there. However, the map is not well preserved, a fact due in part to careless handling, in part to its peculiar mounting which evidently is very old. The map was made not for practical use but for display, probably in the library of the Spinola family. It has been read to refer to Marino Sanudoa€™s map, to the knowledge of sailors (though ungrammatically), and to Marinos of Tyre. It is, however, but mere conjecture to assert that our draughtsman had a Marinus map before him while working out his sketch, though it conforms to the geographical notion of that ancient cartographer. A standard way of describing the earth, from Bede to the Catalan Atlas (#235), was to compare it to an egg. But since this is a description of the cosmographers, who make no mention of it, it is omitted from this narration.a€? Who are the cosmographers, who also appeared in the caption cited above but in a more negative context? Angelo Cattaneo has identified the source of this legend as Chapter 18 of Pero Tafura€™s Andancas e viajes de Pero Tafur por diversas partes del mundo avidos, written c.
Between the Dniester, at that time the western boundary of the Mongol empire, and the Dnieper is the city Lordo, a name that often appears in references to treaty relations established between the Mongols and the people of the Occident. Here we also find Lisbona, Sibilla, Taragona, Barcelona, Saragosa, and a few other names which are illegible. From the names given which so frequently appear in the history of the period that of Constantinople is omitted. All these are taken from the Conti narrative: Java major is thought to be Borneo, and Java minor the island now known by that name.
West of the Golden Chersonese is an animal with the tail of a fish, a humanlike head and large horns and ears, with outstretched arms so attached to the body as to make them serviceable in flying or swimming.
Heinrich Wuttke (Karten der seefahrenden Volker) provides a transcription of the captions in the margins and in the figure. In the place of Ptolemya€™s Taprobana two islands are represented, the larger of which, though appearing in outline to be Taprobana, is rather to be taken as a representation of Sumatra, while the smaller bears the name Ceylon. The inhabitants of this Taprobana, which in their language is called Ciamutera, are barbarians, having large ears in which they wear ornaments, and they dress in linen clothes. According to a conjecture of Yule, the name Sumara, which appears in a manuscript of Marco Polo as the name of one of the kingdoms of the island, is only a corruption of Sumatra. The other legend, near the picture of a three-masted ship, reads: The Indian Sea is filled with many islands, rocks and sand-banks. Chinese junks, after an interval of five hundred years, again sailed the Indian Ocean at the end of the 13th century.
In addition to the sails, which were made of bamboo matting and attached to four or more masts, these Indian ships had rudders, which were handled by from ten to thirty men. Marco Polo called it the Sea of Ghel, or Ghelan, since Gilan, the city whence silks came, was to the Italians the best-known city on its shores.
A mountain range farther eastward, and stretching in a northeast-southwest direction, is the east Iranian mountain range, along which flows the Indus. Here was a national highway over which, immediately preceding this period, the wild people of central Asia so frequently came into southern Asia. In these rather remarkable sketches we probably have a reference to the lakes of Udaipur and Dbar on the southern highlands of Mewar, which lakes in fact lie between the Indus and the Ganges.
Yule refers to it as one known in the fourth century of the Christian era, in which allusion is made to the hyacinth or jacinth. In Turkestan is the legend King Cambellannas, son of the great Khan, by which legend is probably meant Timur, who reunited the numerous small kingdoms into which, about 1350, Dschagati had fallen.
On most of the early maps of the middle ages this land of Gog and Magog is represented, but with the advance of knowledge of Asia the names were given to lands further northward.
Of the cities which are here most distinguished there may be named Sinope, which is adorned with a Genoese banner.
Of the cities of Parthia only the name Yier appears, by which perhaps Dschordschan is meant. Maabar, it should be noted, is not to be confounded with Malabar, or Melibar of Marco Polo. There was scarcely a Christian traveler from the time of Montecorvino and Marco Polo, returning with information concerning the so-called Thomas Christians, who had failed to visit Meliapur near Madras, since the place of Saint Thomasa€™ burial was a sacred spot not only to Christians but also to Mohammedan pilgrims. The Arnona Civitas of the Genoese cartographer seems to lie in about the position of Contia€™s Cernove, reached by him in a fifteen daysa€™ journey from the mouth of the river. The southern coast of Africa is made to extend in a flattened curve toward the east, which representation is similar to that on the world maps of Sanudo, of Leardo, and of Fra Mauro (#228, #242, #249). A legend here reads: This animal, called the sea hog, gathers its food with its snout like the land hog.
This legend gives us the Arabic name for the Mountains of the Moon as Gebelcan, which is doubtless the same as Gebel Camr.
The Blue Nile, however, is represented according to most recent information from Abyssinia; this river, uniting with the Atbara, forms one river which flows out of a large lake, in which an island is represented.
It may be noted that even today the banks of this lake, as well as its islands, are the site of numerous churches and monasteries. There can be no doubt that in the lands on the west side of the Red Sea elephants were captured by the Ptolemies in great numbers, tamed and made use of in war, as Ptolemy Euergetes testifies in the inscription from Adulis that he employed Troglodytic and Ethiopian elephants against those from India. It is difficult to determine whether by this Wadi Schegea or Wadi um el Cheil is to be understood.
One here recalls the description which Idrisi gives of a dragon living on an oasis to the east of Sahara, so enormous in size that it was often mistaken for a mountain.
But since that is a representation of cosmographers who have given no description of it, therefore an account of it is here omitted.
What is clear is the mapmakera€™s declaration of intent, his striving for accuracy and a near-natural depiction of the world, all of which make his map look rather modern.
Using these histories, he concentrated his attention on certain regions, emphasizing especially Asia, distinguishing certain locations through different forms of depiction, thereby creating a hierarchical space. Perhaps in answering certain questions one should not look too hard for historical transitions or changes in cartography, as this tempts one to privilege current representational conventions.
Therefore, although this study focuses on maps that are centuries old, it just might enhance our understanding of the current conflict between our daily experience and our theoretical knowledge of space and time. Please give us a call for more information on any place you in which you would like to know more.
The church dedicated to the Mother of God has fine icons and wall paintings; the church of St John and St George preserves a sixth century mosaic pavement. To prevent the crinkling of the parchment, as would appear, it has been mounted on four boards of suitable width and of about half an inch in thickness, which boards have been adjusted to fold.
In support of the last idea, it is noteworthy that the map appears to extend 225A° by 87A°, the extent of the habitable world, according to him.
This abandonment of the more common circular form enabled the cartographer to show features that were increasingly squeezed on 15th century mappaemundi. The main purpose of the analogy seems to have been to describe the various spheres surrounding the earth (egg white, shell), but the idea of an egg shape could have been derived from these works. In the Indian Ocean are shown a mermaid and a fish with a devila€™s head, while on land nearby is a snake with a human head.
Prester John is represented behind a wall, protecting him from the future rampages of Gog and Magog.
This monster is said to attack the ships of the Indians, usually breaking them immediately, but its crest can get stuck in the ship's wood and as a result the creature, unable to escape, kills itself. Sara was the capital of the Kipchak, and in the 14th century was a city of great importance, but in 1395 was destroyed by Timur. Though the names Sanday and Bandam have not been satisfactorily explained, the reference in the legend to spices and cloves makes it fairly certain that they are islands of the Moluccas group. If we have here an attempt at a representation of the Gulf of Siam, the city Pauconia is probably Bangkok.
A legend gives the following information: This species of fish, recently [caught?] in Candia, feeds upon the meadows of the shore like cows. A legend near this reads: The island of Ceylon, having a circumference of three thousand miles, is rich in rubies, sapphires, and cata€™s-eyes, and produces cinnamon from trees similar to our willow tree. Marco Polo, the first traveler from the west who seems to have brought definite word from Sumatra, called it Java the Less, under which name, however, according to the Genoese cartographer, we are to understand Java or Borneo.
Their ships, therefore, are constructed with many compartments, to the end that if they are broken in any part, the remaining parts may be sufficiently strong to complete the course.
Marco Polo, who, on his homeward journey, sailed in one of them as far as Malabar, gives us a detailed picture of these boats.
The larger vessels also carried small boats, which were used, as Marco Polo states, a€?to lay out the anchors, catch fish, bring supplies aboard, and the like. Mons Synai, near the northern border of the Red Sea, is represented, on the summit of which is the Convent of St. Aside from the Volga and the Ural, two other rivers are here represented, rising in a range of mountains that extends in an east-west direction. This river forms through its four outlets a conspicuous delta, and receives from the neighboring mountain range two tributaries.
Indeed, from the most ancient times this important highway was the connecting link between northern and southern Asia, and its architectural ruins a€”the fortifications erected by the different peoples at different timesa€”point to its significance.
It was one known to the Byzantines, to the Arabs, and to the Chinese, but it seems to owe its origin to India.
King Cambalech, that is, the Great Khan, is represented in a picture as ruling Cathay, and the King of India is represented on horseback with sword in hand.
Here the cosmographer seems to rely in the main on Arabic sources, and especially on Idrisi. On the Persian Gulf lies Ragan, by which Arragan is probably to be understood, whose ruins are found in the vicinity of the present Babahan, with Fars on the Ab Ergum. Destroyed first by Genghis Khan in 1221, and again by Timur, this great Asiatic frontier commercial city in the time of Conti was in ruins.
The tradition that the holy Thomas preached Christianity in India, suffered martyrdom, and was buried in a mountain had its origin in very early times.
Conti gives a vivid description of this part of the Ganges River, up which river, as he states, he sailed for the space of three months; and from his description one might conclude that he had passed entirely through Hindustan, and that after he had made the desired commercial observations he turned about to make a long sojourn in Maharatia, perhaps one of the four important cities to which he refers.
The southern continental boundary of the Indian Ocean appearing on Ptolemya€™s world maps, reduced to a long and narrow peninsula by Sanudo and Fra Mauro, is still further reduced by the Genoese cartographer. The name Djihal-alqamar, Mountains of the Moon, according to a conjecture of Kiepert, was derived in Ptolemya€™s time erroneously from Djibal-qomr, Blue Mountains. Meroe, however, does not, as with Ptolemy, lie on a river island, but on a river peninsula.
The large island Dek, or the Holy Daga Island, dedicated to Saint Stephen, is now inhabited by hermit monks, and to it the outside world is not admitted. In Tunis a river is made to empty into the Mediterranean, which is probably the Medscherda, with one branch emptying on the north side of the Gulf of Tunis, and with another into the Gulf of Hammamet.
It had the form of a snake in that it crawled on the ground, but had large ears extending forward.
Professor Fischer thinks this is to be understood as signifying that the Genoese cosmographer based his information on pre-Christian authors, that is, Pliny and Ptolemy, while omitting his own view concerning the position of the earthly paradise. The mapmaker saw apparently no inconsistency in depicting different times simultaneously or one element in multiple locations, melding time and space seems to be effected unconsciously.
In studying cosmological models of the Middle Ages, it would be more constructive to look for continuities that might even expose our modern understanding of homogeneous space as an illusion.
In a cave are the remains of the monks who were killed during the Persian advance on Jerusalem. In certain parts the colors are yet brilliant, though softened with age; in other parts they have almost disappeared, and nothing has contributed more to this destruction than the nibbing of part-on-part. Without an expert and minute palaeographical investigation, it is impossible either to accept or reject the attribution to Toscanelli, but Crino presented a case which requires further examination. What we now know about Marinos is mostly from Ptolemya€™s criticism of him, but the Arab geographer al-Maa€™sudi reported in the 10th century that he had seen Marinusa€™ geographical treatise.
Jerusalem does not appear in the center of the map but is considerably to the west of a center located south of the Caspian Sea. Another possibility is that the oval form represents the mandorla, or nimbus, which surrounded Christ in many medieval works of art. The title of Ptolemya€™s work, as it circulated through Italy in the 15th century, was usually given as Cosmographia rather than Geography, a less familiar Greek term. As we might expect from a Genoese map, good use has been made of the nautical chart as well. Van Duzer adds that Tafura€™s account derives from Poggio Bracciolinia€™s Facetiae, written between 1438 and 1452, which describes a very similar monster that attacked some women by the seashore, and was killed and exhibited in Ferrara. Between the Dnieper and the Don the author has made a suggestive reference to the custom of that migratory folk of transporting their houses about with them on wagons drawn by oxen, a custom also attributed to the early Teutons and the Huns. Saratellis, if this is a correct reading of the name, is probably the Saracanco of Balducci Pigolotti. We may have in this gulf one of the earliest cartographical representations of the Yellow Sea and the Gulf of Petchili. In this island there is a lake, in the middle of which is a noble city whose inhabitants, given over to astrology, predict all future events. Conti gives to the island a circumference of about two thousand miles, as does Marco Polo, which is very nearly correct. These, moreover, are supplied with several masts, from three to ten, and having sails made of reeds and palm-leaves joined together, they pursue their courses with great rapidity.
When the ship is under sail, she carries these boats slung to her side.a€? Many of the vessels had as many as four decks, and even the smaller ones, fifty or sixty cabins. Catherine; and we also find here the highlands of Armenia, out of which flow the Euphrates and Tigris, these highlands being especially distinguished by a representation of Noaha€™s Ark.
From the mountain range on the northern border of Parthia, a great range stretches diagonally across the entire Asiatic continent, to the gulf indicated on the east, to which gulf reference has been made.
Very properly, the name of Alexander is associated with it, since through his founding of Alexandria ad Caucasum the southern region was secured against the attack of the northern barbarians, the Scythians, who, in the language of the middle ages, were called Tartars. They owe their origin in part to artificial dams, and serve the purpose of reservoirs for artificial irrigation. Northern Asia is properly made to appear as a region covered with pine forests, a representation which is to be found on no other early world map, and which seems to suggest that the Genoese mapmaker was in possession of somewhat detailed information concerning the character of the region. He places Magog north of the mountain range stretching entirely across Asia, Gog south of the same, and on the border range several towers are indicated. In the highlands of Iran appear the names Media, Zilan, Parthia, Aria, Aracosa, Gedrosia, Cormania and Persis. This place, incorrectly located on the coast, is not referred to by Conti, nor is it to be found on any other map.
The name Machin seems clearly to be a modification of the Sanskrit Maha Chin, that is, Great China, a name which the Persian and the Arabic writers frequently used for Manzi, the southern part of China. Legends are here inscribed on either side of a broad scroll, wherein the author refers to his work and gives the date of its composition, which legends are almost illegible. This seems to refer to the snow-peaks of the Kilimanjaro and Kenya, as seen from a great distance, which mountains send their waters toward the interior of the continent. Even the irrigation canals, which lead out from the Nile in Nubia and Egypt, are represented by the Genoese cartographer. About the time that the Genoese cartographer produced his map he could well have received excellent information concerning Abyssinia.
A similar river, dividing into two branches near its source, empties into the sea in Algeria east and west of Algiers, and a smaller one east of Ceuta.
Medieval cosmographers place this now in East Africa, now in East Asia, but more frequently in the latter.
Taking his stated aim for truth seriously would imply that all of these features were part of his truth. Started in Austin in 1984 as PC's Limited by Michael Dell, the company has grown into one of the largest publicly-traded companies in the world and a leader in the personal computer and computer services industry. On the question, of main interest here, as to the correspondence between the letter of 1474 and the map of 1457, it is possible, however, to form some opinion.
The highly pictorial character of this well-preserved map leads us to think of it as more traditional than it actually is.
In the 14th century didactic poem, a€?Il Dittamondoa€? Fazio degli Uberti, described the inhabited world as long and narrow (a€?lungo e strettoa€?) like an almond (mandorla), with no apparent religious significance. Certainly, neither Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela, nor Pliny had given a location for Paradise, save for fantasies about the Fortunate Islands, and the Genoese mapmaker appears to associate classical with scientific geography. These fantastic creatures join other wonderful but real animals, such as a giraffe, a leopard, a crocodile, two monkeys, and a swordfish.
Illustrations of the monster which are very similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map accompany excerpts from the Facetiae which are appended to various 15th and 16th century editions of Aesopa€™s fables.
Such a wagon with driver and oxen, rather crudely sketched, is represented moving eastward, near which appears the legend, Ubi lordo errat.
The other [story relates] that certain of their trees bear fruit which, decaying within, produces a worm which, as it subsequently develops, becomes hairy and feathered, and, provided with wings, flies like a bird. According to Pigolotti, Sara could be reached in a day by water from Astrakhan, Saracanco in eight days by water or by land. Longer legends take material from Conti on the funeral practice of wife burning (a€?if they refuse out of fear, they are forced to do ita€?), the cultivation of pepper, the collection of human heads in Sumatra, the sea-tight compartments of Chinese junks, the practice of tattooing, and the availability of spices and multicolored parrots. Sanday sends saffron, nuts, muscatas, and maces to the Javas, Bandan an abundance of cloves. Magog (Gog is missing), the Tatars, the Ten Lost Tribes, the Antichrist and the Alexander story are mixed as though they naturally belonged in the same place - as they by then did, at least in the literature and exegesis directed to the literate but not learned. The position of Ceylon was now well known, being here placed to the east of a peninsula that we can recognize as the southern point of India. In its outlines Further India, UltraIndia (Southeast Asia) is Ptolemaic, a fact which is especially noticeable in the very prominent peninsular character.
And these [ships], loaded in particular with spices and other aromatics, sailing rather often to Mecca in Arabia, trade with the Western merchants through an exchange of their goods.
South of the Caspian Sea we find a quadrangle framed by mountains that appears to be Parthia, according to the representation of Ptolemy.
The Genoese cosmographer must have had information concerning the numerous towers scattered here and there over this pass. They are remarkable for their natural surroundings, and for the palaces of the rulers of Mewar erected on their banks.
In the extreme north appears the figure of a man casting himself into the sea, whose act is explained in the following legend: It is the custom of these people, as old age comes on, to cast themselves from the steep precipices into the sea.
The people Gog appear as a group of dwarfs covered with a shield, who are attacked by two cranes. On the Sea of Marmora is Palolimen and Diascinolo which on English charts is represented as Eskel Bay, a semicircular harbor with a very good anchorage twelve kilometers east of the mouth of Susurulu Tschai.
Including in part Indo-China, the name Machin may also include Southeast Asia, for which there is support in certain 15th century references, as there are people of Southeast Asia among whom the custom of tattooing prevails; this being particularly true of the Laos and the Burmese. One of them seems to read: This sea is called the ocean which, according to cosmographers, stretches out infinitely in every direction, covering the earth except about a fourth part here laid down.
It was doubtless through Arabic merchantmen that the Alexandrian geographer derived his information, on a visit to the east coast of Africa.
On an island in a lake of Abyssinia there appears to be a floating house, and near it the legend: In this lake there is an island, Tana by name, which contains forests and groves and a great temple of Apollo. In 1439 Pope Eugenius IV named an apostolic delegate to that region, and sent a letter to Prester John, the ruler of Abyssinia; and we also learn that an Abyssinian ambassador appeared at the Council of Florence in the year 1441.
If the Genoese cosmographer, in the well known regions, represents somewhat arbitrarily his watercourses, we can certainly expect to find this in the less known regions.


Three human figures are introduced to represent the political and ethnographical situation, one a turbaned Mohammedan ruler of Egypt, with the inscription Dominus; the other a crowned head with black hair, carrying a banner, on which is a cross with the inscription, Presbyter Johannes Rex, denoting the Christian ruler of Abyssinia.
The north coast of Africa embraces Mauretania, to which Regnum fesse and, in part, Regnum Trenecen belong.
Calata is probably Idrisia€™s Al Cal, near Msila in the highlands of the Schotts, a significant city before the rise of Bougie, the capital city of the kingdom of the Hammaditen. The company employs almost 90,000 people worldwide, with over 14,000 local employees.Dell Diamond 3400 E. Kimble, there are at least three distinct influences, in addition to the portolan [nautical] chart tradition, that can be detected in these examples: Classical, Christian and Arab. Oversized crowned or turbaned kings, monstrous and simply exotic animals, an elephant bearing an elaborate howdah, and scary sea monsters associate with more scientific signs, such as flags and city symbols. Ptolemya€™s maps, while not exactly oval, were wider from east to west than they were high (north to south). A partially finished network of rhumb lines appears on the map, and on the right are two scale bars, though they are more a sign of intention than reality. One such edition is Sebastian Branta€™s Esopi appologi sive mythologi cum quibusdam carminum et fabularum additionibus (Basel: Jacobus de Phortzheim, 1501), in which Bracciolinia€™s text about the monster is cited and accompanied by an illustration of the monster quite similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map.
A good picture of a Mongol appears on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, and also one west of the Black Sea, being drawn about the time of the destruction of their rule.
The reference appears to be to a marine animal, perhaps the dugong, which, resembling a cow and accustomed to graze in the fields along the seashore, was captured in the East and brought to Venice.
In this as well as in other parts of extreme southern Asia the Geonoese cosmographer seems especially to exhibit an acquaintance with the record of the distinguished Italian traveler Nicolo di Conti who referred to Ceylon as Zeilan. Cannibals inhabit a part of this island, who, continually waging war with their neighbors, make a collection of human heads as treasures, and he who has the most heads is the richest. It stretches toward the south, terminating in a prominent Golden Chersonese, a name which the legend suggests: Here gold is found in abundance with jewels and precious stones. In the Gulf of Iskanderun a river empties, flowing out of the northeast, recognizable as the Dschihan, on which lies the city Antioch.
These mountains clearly are the Taurus, Paropamisus and the Emodas of Ptolemy, the continental axis of Asia, that is, the Hindu Kush, the Quen Lun, the Nan Schan, and the other border mountains of eastern central Asia today, which in their spurs reach almost to the Gulf of Petchili.
As in questions relating to the Nile, Ptolemy showed himself to be better informed than were geographers of later date, even to very recent times, so it also appears that his representation of the mountain systems of Asia, though somewhat altered by our author, was remarkably well done in the larger general features. This statement concerning the lakes as represented on our map is supported by the fact that a mountain appears to the southwest, from which a river flows to the south, at the mouth of which lies Cambay. A legend gives the following explanation: These are of the generation of Gog, who do not exceed the height of a cubit, who do not attain the age of nine years, and who are continually molested by cranes. On the same strait, but farther to the southeast, lies a second city, Caila, near which is the legend, Caila, where they use the leaves of trees instead of papyrus.
The Genoese cartographer clearly considers Burma a part of Machin, which since the 13th century had belonged to China.
This sea, disturbed by the force of the moon, ebbs and flows around the earth every lunar day, as Albertus says in his Natural History. In support of the statement that the Genoese cosmographer was well informed concerning Abyssinia may be found the representation of a war elephant carrying a tower filled with armed men.
A third figure, unmistakably a negro, in the southwest, holds a ball (?) in his hand, and is described in the following legend: These are the people who live degenerate lives, among whom there is no distinguishing name, who behold the rising and the setting sun with direful imprecations.
Inscriptions on the map, as well as recently discovered geographical features, however, proclaim the map to be a document of cartographic thinking similar, if not as large and ambitious, to that of Fra Mauro (#249).
For a 15th century mapmaker, this form made convenient room for discoveries in the Atlantic and in Asia. The Genoese mapa€™s sea monsters reflect the cartographera€™s interest in exotic wonders, which is everywhere in evidence on the map, and typical of the scientific outlook of the early modern period, which was driven by curiosity and took a great interest in marvels.
The Italians were then in close relations with the Golden Horde from Moncastro, Kaffa, Sudak, and Tana as centers, and were, therefore, in a position to know intimately their customs and manner of life.
Bandan, moreover, has parrots of three kinds: red ones, those of variegated color with yellow beaks, and white ones the size of hens. That rare animals at the time of the construction of our map were brought to Italy, where they were viewed with astonishment by the natives, certain observations of Benedetto Dei bear witness.
This description of Taprobana appears clearly to have been taken from Conti, and it is very interesting to observe that our cartographer, not in a very successful manner, has attempted to bring the report of Conti into accord with Ptolemy. The Caucasus stretches across the isthmus between the Black and the Caspian seas, and as numerous rivers rising in the Caucasus empty into the former, the mountain range had to be drawn nearer the Caspian Sea in order that there might be sufficient space for the range and the representation of the Iron Gate near Derbent.
The Ptolemaic Imaus, which divides Scythia into Hither and Further Scythiaa€”Scithia citra ymaum montem and Scithia ultra ymaum montesa€”is very prominently represented on our map. Herein in particular does the value of the Genoese map appear in a comparison with the larger map by Fra Mauro (#249), although the latter is richer in details. Even today in northeast Asia, there may be found a people among whom suicide is common, the result of a belief that should one depart this life before the feebleness of old age comes on, a life of happiness in the hereafter is secured. Idrisi also represents the people Gog as dwarfs, and our cosmographer identifies them as the pygmies of Pliny, who placed them in the mountains of the north of India, exactly as does the Genoese cosmographer, in a beautiful valley protected from the cold winds, where they are molested only by the attacks of the cranes. On the west coast only the name Altoluogo appears, which name one finds on almost all sea charts. The city Calacia, lying in the interior, seems more difficult to distinguish, which city is referred to by Conti, but is not definitely located. Caila is Contia€™s Cahila on the Gulf of Manaar, Marco Poloa€™s Cail, and Ptolemya€™s Colchi.
It appears from this that Albertus Magnus was one of the Genoese cartographera€™s authorities. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. Home of the Triple AAA Pacific Coast League Minor League, Round Rock Express baseball team.
Crone, is that the letter definitely refers to a chart for navigation, while the 1457 map is primarily a world map drawn by a cosmographer. By the end of the century, the circular form was becoming impractical, and once the Americas were added to world maps, it was gone almost completely. The demon-like monster in particular is evidence of the cartographera€™s research in recent travel literature to find sea monsters for his map. If this is so, this is the first time that the much sought after spice islands appear clearly on a map.
Mention may be made of the peacock which he brought from Alexandria for Cosimo de Medici; also of a chameleon, and, more important than all, of a big serpent with 100 teeth which he seems to have brought to Florence from Beirut (possibly a reference to the crocodile). This city is distinguished by a strong tower and the legend: This is Derbent, which in their language [means] a gate of iron. It branches in diagonal directions westward of the sources of the Indus, that is, nearly twenty degrees farther westward from the continental axis than it is represented by Ptolemy. In the representation of the Indus, for example, with its five branches, our author follows Ptolemy. The river Ava, as well as the southern parallel tributary of the Ganges, and the two Chinese rivers, the one flowing to the southeast and the other to the northeast, come from a mountain which is further explained by the legend: In this mountain carbuncles are found.
Two legends are here inscribed, the one relating to the medieval geographical myth concerning the ten lost tribes of Israel, and the other to Antichrist. This identification of Gog with the pygmies of classical antiquity is peculiar to this map.
There may have been a Persian maritime city by this name on the coast of Oman, since by reason of favorable winds and gulf currents the two coasts of the Persian Gulf stood in such close relations that again and again in their history Persian rule controlled the Arabic coast, and Arabic rule the Persian coast. For centuries, even into the 16th, Caila was the central point of commerce between China, Further India, and the archipelago of the east and the trade centers of the Mediterranean.
Though the geography of India as here laid down presents difficulties, there are difficulties which are equally great along the east coast.
The other legend for which Professor Fischer failed to get an intelligible reading asserts that: Beyond this equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius, and in addition many others, raising a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India [the Indians], say that many have passed through these parts from India to the Spains, and . With some degree of certainty we may identify the Wadi Draa, represented as flowing through many lakes and emptying south of Cape Bojador. On the Mediterranean, from east to west, we find Larissa, Alexandria, Senara (in the Medicean atlas, Zunara, and Vesconte also gives Zunara). Enjoy Americas favorite national pasttime in an affordable, exciting, fun, family-friendly atmosphere in a modern, top-of-the-line stadium located in Eastern Round Rock.Historic Chisolm Trail and Round Rock - In 1851 a small community was formed on the banks of Brushy Creek, near a large round rock located in the middle of the creek. Further, the Toscanelli chart presumably depicted the ocean intervening between the west coast of Europe and the a€?beginning of the Easta€™.
Conti describes them as lying on the extreme edge of the known world: beyond them navigation was difficult or impossible owing to contrary winds.
The Iron Gate, usually associated with Alexander the Great and the apocalyptic people, Gog and Magog, has an important place on the world maps of the middle ages. In the region at the foot of the mountain between the Indus and the Ganges we find the Indian desert represented. Judging from the rivers that spring there from, and from this legend, we are led to conclude that the mountain-land is eastern Tibet. The one to the east of Inaccessible mountains, designated here as Ymaus mons, reads: From this race, that is, from the tribe of Dan, Antichrist is to be born, who, opening these mountains by magic art, will come to overthrow the worshipers of Christ. The towers referred to above are explained in the following legend: King Prester John built these towers in order that those shut therein might not have access to him.
In the account of his voyage Vasco da Gama gives information concerning the city and kingdom of Cael. Whether the rivers emptying still further southward represent the numerous rivers which empty south of Senegal and Cape Verde, it is not possible to determine.
On the portolan charts there is always represented a large bay in the southeast corner of the Great Syrtus, which must have been an important harbor. On the map of 1457, this ocean is split into two, and falls on the eastern and western margins.
In the southern sea there is a note: In this sea, they navigate by the southern pole (star), the northern having disappeared. Doubtless it was the medieval wall stretching from the mountains to the sea near Derbent, closing the road along the Caspian Sea to the peoples of the steppes on the north, that called forth the legend of the Iron Door. In contrast, the Ganges is represented according to recent information, that is apparently from the record of Conti.
The representations of our cosmographer are here very erroneous, and the errors may perhaps be attributed to Conti and Poggio, since one is led to conclude by a careful study of the Conti narrative that it is not simply the story of a practical merchant traveler, but a story often adorned by the additions of a learned copyist. The other reads: Here dwell the ten lost tribes of the Hebrew race with the half tribe of Benjamin, who, unrestrained by their law and being degenerates, pass an epicurean existence. These towers stretch along the crest of the mountains, as if intended to protect the more highly civilized parts of China from the wild people of north and central Asia. Farther southward, Antioceta, a fortification on the coast often referred to in the 15th century; also corocho, the ancient Corycus, northeast of the mouth of the Selefke. The tree whose leaves, it is stated, are used for paper is not the paper-mulberry tree, but the fan-palm.
It owes its origin as a harbor to a high, rocky headland, perhaps formerly an island, which extends from the southwest to the northeast and continues in a long chain of rocks. The first postmaster called the community Brushy Creek, but in 1854 the small settlement was renamed Round Rock in honor of this now famous rock. Though Crino raised many points of interest, he did not establish his case beyond reasonable doubt.
The Carbuncle Mountains and the art of obtaining these valuable stones play an important role in the records of all cosmographers of the middle ages. It seems probable that we have here an early reference to the Great Wall of China, which appears on no other medieval map. This is Straboa€™s Cape Korykos with the Koryken Cave, where in Greek, in Roman, in Byzantine, and also in Armenian times stood a fortification. Calacia, or Calacatia, according to Batuta, is Kalahat, Kalhat, Kilat or Kilhat, in Oman southeast of Muskat, where its ruins may yet be seen near a small fishing village of the same name. The fanlike leaves, about two hundred square feet in size, the Singhalese are said to use in the place of paper. Biasutti argued that the horizontal and vertical lines on the map are parallels and meridians taken from the world map of Ptolemy, and that the longitudinal extent of the old world approximately corresponds to his figure of 180 degrees.
However, Conti did not himself visit these islands, though he gives their position as fifteen daysa€™ journey east of Java major and minor, to which their products were brought for transportation to the west. Two of these tributaries on the left seem to be the Brahmaputra and the Barak, though the larger one on the north may be intended as the Irawadi, since on this lies Ava, and above it is a legend taken from Conti: Rather the Ganges which otherwise is called the Dava. On the Catalan world map of 1375 appears a legend with an interesting pictorial representation. Abulfeda and Raschiduddin, his contemporary, refer to the great wall as the Wall of Gog and Magog. Here we find Tarsso and Layazo, which in the middle ages was a harbor of Lesser Armenia, and an important terminal on the commercial route to India. The ancient Pusk olay manuscripts in the Buddhist monasteries were all written with an iron stylus on such paper, that is, on the leaves of the talipot palm, prepared by cooking and drying. After the Civil War, Jesse Chisholm began to move cattle from South Texas through Round Rock, on the way to Abilene, Kansas.
It is difficult to see, therefore, if this map of 1457 was similar to that sent to Portugal, where its importance lay, for this information was accessible to all inquirers. Cloves at that time came only from the small islands of the Moluccas lying west of Halmahera, which perhaps the Genoese author has attempted here to represent.
The word is Persian, signifying gate or narrow pass, and is a name often met with in Persia. Though our cosmographer makes certain mistakes in relation to the chief stream of India, yet his representation of the hydrography of Asia is near the truth, and, as stated, is much better than that given by Fra Mauro. A mountain is indicated with a deep valley out of which a bird flies, having a piece of meat in its beak, and out of the same valley a river flows which in its course forms the boundary between India and China. As the builder of this wall, our cosmographer in his legend names Prester John who appeared on the Catalan map of 1375 in the Nubian and the Abyssinian regions, and from that time on the name seems to have been connected with the last-named region, though, as the Genoese map shows, it did not completely disappear from central Asia.
Kalhat, from the time of Idrisi to the arrival of the Portuguese, was the most important harbor and port of departure from Oman and the entire Persian Gulf to India, as was earlier Sohar and later Muskat.
The route he established, which crossed Brushy Creek at the round rock became known as the Chisholm Trail. The interest of the cartographer seems more probably to have lain in Contia€™s description of the oriental spice islands and the possibility of reaching them by circumnavigating Africa. The name Sanday is unknown, and Bandan is only a corruption, and should not be confounded with Banda, as cloves do not come from that island.
As the Indus and its delta received special consideration, so also did the Ganges, the mouth of which is marked by the following legend: The mouth of the Ganges River, the width of which is fifteen miles, on whose banks grow canes so large that they exceed [the size of] the arm, and the islands grow nuts which we call Indian.
There is support for the belief that in the letter of Alexander III, the ruler of Abyssinia is to be understood, although the great majority of the allusions to him seem to support the idea that the original Prester John was a central Asiatic ruler. It appears that at the time the Genoese map was drawn the shipping from the Persian Gulf and from Ormuz followed the coast from Oman almost to Ras-el-Hadd, and from that point with the monsoons direct to India. His work is clearly related, though not closely, to the great map of Far Mauro, his contemporary. The wall stretching landward along the mountain ridge is yet, in part, well preserved, and one can follow its ruins for a distance of many miles. According to popular tradition, it extends along the entire ridge of the Caucasus, and so it appears on this map extending from the second iron door, or pass, across Asia.
From Maharatia, Conti states that he made a thirteen daysa€™ journey eastward to the Carbuncle Mountains, that is, to the border mountains of Burma, which the Genoese mapmaker attempts to represent. Grimes were both mortally wounded during a shootout that is re-enacted each year as part of the Frontier Days Celebration in July, have been preserved and remodeled and now house fine dining restaurants, art galleries, offices, etc.Old Settlers Park 2800 E. The first European who actually visited the Moluccas was the Italian Varthena, about seventy years after Contia€™s expedition to the East. A legend on the map of the Pizigani makes it clear that the wall from Derbent was originally constructed to protect the Persian territory from the people of the steppe region.
Palm Valley Blvd., Round Rock, Texas 78664 Huge 570 acre sportsplex complete with 3 miles of walking-jogging trails, 20 baseball fields, 5 softball fields, 12 tennis courts, 7 soccer fields, 2 volleyball courts, professionally designed disc-golf course, 7 playgrounds, picnic areas with BBQ grills, aquatic center, and a lake with paddleboat rentals and designated fishing areas. The islands were considered as lying on the boundary of the habitable and known world, and as marking the limit of navigation.
This safe, family-friendly park further enhances Round Rocks reputation as the Sports Capital of the World.Premium Outlet Mall 4401 N. More than 50 top stores and restaurants, all conveniently located to your home or office at La Frontera.
Contour farming, planting cover crops, building stock tanks, rotating crops and planting new seed varieties reduced wind and water erosion and kept the soil intact during periods of drought. The mission of the Pflugerville Pfarmer's Market is to bring fresh, locally grown and prepared foods to the Pflugerville community.Vendors sell locally grown produce including tomatoes, cucumbers, beans, squash, okra, garlic, melons, peaches and grapes, artisan baked goods,honey, flowers,eggs, free-range meats, jarred salsas, pickles and jams,fruits and plants. IH-35, Georgetown, Texas 78628 - Hidden for 10,000 years, this fascinating underground discovery in 1963 is one of the best preserved caves in Texas and one of the few places where remains of prehistoric animals were unearthed. Explore this limestone cavern and discover beautiful examples of natures perfect artwork such as The Flowing Stone of Time, the mysterious Lake of the Moon and the intricate Soda Straw Balcony. Among the amazing variety of formations found within the cavern you will see beautiful helictites, ancient flowstones, and giant columns. With the assistance of the Texas Historical Commission and the dedication of preservation-minded county citizens and officials, the fifth courthouse of Williamson County has been returned to its original 1911 splendor, once again becoming a focal point of the county. The architecture of the downtown square buildings surrounding the old courthouse have been restored to its period beauty. As you walk aroundthe town square, you can view the beautiful gingerbread features that takes us back to yesteryear.San Gabriel Park 445 E. Morrow St., Georgetown, Texas 78628 - Meandering right through the very heart of Georgetown is the San Gabriel River. San Gabriel Park is graced with Pecan trees and 200 year-old oak trees that offer the shade of their branches to family picnics, games of touch football or Frisbee, concerts, festivals, canoeing, swimming and fishing. For those with a little more energetic spirit, theres a new wooded 1-mile hike and bike trail that wanders along the North Fork of the San Gabriel River from San Gabriel Park to the new Rivery Park west of I-35. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! Resembling Bourbon Street in New Orleans, this older section of Sixth Street offers rows of shot bars, piano bars, biker bars, pubs, dance clubs, tattoo parlors, art galleries, and restaurants on both sides of the street in downtown Austin. Great live music of every type from well-known performers and up and coming bands alike, along with a very lively atmosphere make visiting downtown Austin a unique experience and keep .
Popular events like the Austin Mardi Gras celebration, SXSW (South By Southwest Music Festival), ROT Rally (The Republic of Texas Bikers Rally), the Old Pecan Street Festival and Sixth's Street infamous Halloween celebration all make for great times with great people. With a wide range of newer, hip, chic restaurants, and more upscale clubs with rooftop decks and outdoor seating, West Sixth Street provides for a little more relaxed, yet still lively nightclub atmosphere.Esthers Follies on 6th Street - 525 E.
6th St., Austin, Texas 78701 Esther's Follies began as a by-product of a pool parlor, called Esther's Pool, on East Sixth Street April Fool's Day, 1977.
For more than a quarter-century, the folks at Esthers Pool have kept Austin rolling with laughter. Part magic show, part vaudeville review, part satire tour-de-force, Esthers Follies takes no prisoners, offering biting, hilarious satire on all the newsmakers and events fit to parody.
The stage's huge windows look out over Sixth Street, so passersby unwittingly become part of the show. Go Thursday through Saturday, or book the theatre for a private party.Alamo Drafthouse Cinema Downtown Ritz - 320 E.
6th St., Austin, Texas 78701 Although there are numerous locations now, the Alamo Drafthouse Cinema is an innovative Austin original and still Austins only independently owned and operated movie theater, offering a unique setting for dinner and a movie all in one.
Located on Sixth Street in the newly remodeled former Ritz Theater, The Alamo Drafthouse Downtown offers two theaters seating 75, and 175 and is a hip combination of restaurant, bar, movie theatre, and events venue. Movies include first-runs, as well as classics, and the dinner is chef-prepared and the drinks are reasonably priced. Also check out the Rolling Roadshow (giant inflatable screen that goes on the road throughout the U.S. It is a pretty cool concept and has created quite a huge following.Warehouse District - Downtown area bordered by Cesar Chavez St. A bit trendier and certainly more pricey, it caters to a slightly older crowd than the other downtown entertainment areas. True to its name, the formerly old, abandoned warehouses throughout this downtown section of Austin have been renovated into concert halls, high-end retail stores, art galleries, salons, trendy steakhouses, seafood eateries, and other chic restaurants and bars such as Qua (a dance club with a live shark tank under the see-through dance floor) and Cedar Street Bar (with outdoor patios and courtyards for live music, dancing and dining). In the 1970s, Stubbs Restaurant became the heart of an explosive music scene and was ground zero for musicians like Joe Ely and Stevie Ray Vaughn. Other musicians who would play for their supper in those days included Muddy Waters, John Lee Hooker, Willie Nelson, Johnny Cash, Robert Cray, George Thorogood, Clarence Gatemouth Brown, Linda Ronstadt, and the Fabulous Thunderbirds.
The Lubbock location closed years ago, but the legend continues in Austin with great Texas Bar-B-Que, ice cold beer, and an indoor and outdoor concert venue featuring some of the most popular bands in music today. The 30-acre garden is free and open to the public most days year-round and is enjoyed by over 400,000 visitors each year, including thousands of school children from Austin and the surrounding communities. Theme gardens such as rose, herb and Japanese garden are interconnected with streams, waterfalls and Koi-filled ponds. Three acres in size, Barton Springs Pool is fed from under ground springs and is on average 68 degrees year round. Over the years, Barton Springs Pool has drawn people from all walks of life, from legislators who have concocted state laws there to free-spirited topless sunbathers who turned heads in the seventies. Even Robert Redford learned to swim at the pool when he was five years old while visiting his mother's relative in Austin.
The pool began as a swimming hole in the Colorado River, became a resort in the 1920s, and is today a popular swimming pool operated by the City of Austin.Elizabet Ney Museum - 304 E.
In this studio, Ney sculpted the great men of frontier Texas, among them, life-sized figures of Stephen F. Ney also assembled in this studio her earlier sculptures of European notables, among them, King Ludwig II of Bavaria, King George V of Hanover, Otto von Bismarck, Giuseppi Garibaldi, Justus von Liebig, Arthur Schopenhauer and Jacob Grimm, all cherished portraits Ney rendered from life as a as a young artist. By the turn of the century, Elisabet Ney's Hyde Park studio had become a gathering place for influential Texans drawn to the colorful character of "Miss Ney" and to the stimulating discussions of politics and ideas that took place there. Inspired by Ney's "revolutionary" idea that art and beauty have been and can be powerful forces in the shaping of a nation as well as in individuals, these early Texans went on to found the University of Texas Art Department, the Texas Commission on the Arts, the Texas Fine Arts Association and museums and art schools throughout the state. See the rainwater harvesting system, meditate on the beauty of a Hill Country stream, visit Wild Ideas: The Store, and dine at the Wildflower Caf. Dont forget your walking shoes so you can take a short hike on one of four trails, and be sure to bring your camera to photograph the award-winning architecture and beautiful blooming displays.
Weekend activities include workshops and lectures on everything from gardening with natural plants to nature photography. Few locals realize it is only a short drive of 13 miles from the capitol building, making it one of Austin's best kept secrets.Wildlife to be observed and photographed includes white-tailed deer, raccoons, armadillos, squirrels, and numerous birds. Capital Of Texas Hwy., Austin, Texas 78746 - Wild Basin Wilderness Preserve was founded in 1974 to protect 227 acres of Texas Hill Country. Come and enjoy over 3 miles of hiking trails through woodland, grassland, and streamside habitats. Wild Basin also hosts a variety of family events, concerts, adult workshops, children's and school programs. Wild Basin's nature education programs are funded by special events, memberships, corporate donations and grants. Trail maps are available at the Environmental Education Center or at kiosks at either trailhead.
A Segway Tour is an exciting and unique approach to viewing historical landmarks, local businesses, and captivating attractions. Informative guides will lead you on an intriguing journey full of facts and entertainment through downtown Austin to the Texas State Capital.Lone Star Riverboat Cruises - Located on Lady Bird Lake (formally Town Lake) in downtown Austin, Texas. Experience the exhilaration of the outdoors, the abundant waterfowl, our ever changing city skyline and the natural beauty that is Austin.
Hewanted to share that beauty with the town he loved,so he openeda canoe rental business on the banks of the creek, just downstream from Barton Springs.
Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.
He and his wife, Dorothy,and their four-year-old daughter rented out theirnine canoes on weekends while Howard worked for the Texas Park and Wildlife Department. Together they built the business to the environmentally friendly and family oriented establishment that it is today.
With over100 canoes and kayaks and reasonable prices, Zilker Park Boat Rentals is the perfect place to bring friends and family to enjoy a relaxing outing on the water. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. But if you're looking for a pleasant, mostly flat, walk, jog, or bike ride with several excellent views of downtown Austin and Lady Bird Lake, then the Lady Bird Lake Hike and Bike Trail may fit the bill for you.The Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge - (formerly known simply as the Congress Avenue Bridge) crosses over Lady Bird Lake in Austin, Texas.
EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. The bridge was known as the Congress Avenue Bridge from the construction of the first span across the Colorado River at that location in the late 19th century until November 16, 2006, when the Austin City Council renamed the current bridge in honor of the late Ann W.
Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. The bridge is a concrete arch bridge, with three southbound and three northbound vehicle lanes and sidewalks on both sides of the bridge.
The bridge is currently home to the world's largest urban Mexican Free-Tailed Bat colony and hosts large crowds of Austinites gathered for bat watching at sunset throughout the Spring and Summer months.Long Center for the Performing Arts - 701 W.
Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. Palmer (Municipal) Auditorium, built in 1959 on the shores of Town Lake, was recently renovated into a multi-venue community performing arts center.
It is one of Austin's most vibrant and innovative arts organizations and Central Texas' oldest professional theatre.The Broken Spoke - 3201 S. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. Lamar Blvd., Austin, Texas 78704 - Texas' most definitive legendary dance hall built in 1964. If you're ever in Austin, stop by for an ice-cold Lone Star longneck and some traditional country music by some "real" country musicians.The Spoke has some of Austin's very best local talent such as Alvin Crow, Asleep at the Wheel, Gary P. Nunn, Sam and Son, better known as The Geezinslaw Brothers, Jerry Jeff Walker, The Derailers, Jimmie Dale Gilmore, Chris Wall, and Dale Watson just to name a few. Some of the old time country music legends that have played The Spoke include Ernest Tubb, Roy Acuff, Hank Thompson, Tex Ritter, Ray Price, Kitty Wells, Grandpa Jones, Willie Nelson and George Strait. While most of these stars are no longer around, Willie still stops in for chicken fried steak. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. When it was completed in 1888, it was claimed to be the seventh largest building in the world. Some 1,000 men (mostly convicts) worked every day for four years at the height of the project. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. It cost $3,744, 600 to build and was funded funded through an article in the state constitution, adopted February 15, 1876, which authorized the sale of public lands for the purpose. In one of the largest barter transactions in recorded history, the builders of the capitol were paid with over three-million acres of public land in the Texas panhandle.
This tract later became the largest cattle ranch in the world, the XIT Ranch, covering ten counties (The XIT brand stands for 10 in Texas).
The building has been renovated many times, with central air conditioning installed in 1955 and the most recent refurbishments completed in 1997. It was built in 1854, designed by prominent architect Abner Cook in Greek Revival style, and has been the home of every Texas governor since 1856. The mansion is the oldest continuously inhabited house in Texas and fourth oldest governor's mansion in the United States that has been continuously occupied by a chief executive. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, and further was declared a U.S. On June 8, 2008, while midway through a major renovation, the mansion was heavily damaged by a four-alarm fire believed to be arson. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant.
We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity.
However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results. One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility.
Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach. Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with. There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing.
In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime.
We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit.
The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months.
Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms.
Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.




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