Author: admin | 03.03.2014

The material on this page is educational and does not constitute medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Detect HBV mutations associated with resistance to antiviral agents, identify HBV genotype (A-G) for epidemiologic and prognostic purposes, and detect mutations in precore and basal core promoter regions.
A Type-specific (HSV 1 and HSV 2), highly sensitive serology test that helps to diagnose herpes infections, regardless of symptoms and to aid in counseling and treatment decisions. John Baxter, MD, discusses the role of laboratory testing in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection. Michael Ison, MD, MS, discusses infectious disease testing in solid organ transplant settings, considering both donors and recipients. In our laboratory, all clinical ocular samples suspected of possible HSV infection are tested with standard cell culture, ELVIS™, and PCR. PCR is performed for HSV (1 or 2) on specimens collected by soft-tipped applicators, metal spatulas, and jeweler's forceps, and placed in 2.0ml of chlamydia transport medium.
Clinical diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is insensitive and non-specific and requires laboratory confirmation.
Laboratory diagnosis of common viral infections of the central nervous system by using a single multiplex PCR screening assay.
Polymerase chain reaction for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA on mucosal surfaces: Comparison with HSV isolation in cell culture. Current status and prospects for oral acyclovir treatment of first episode and recurrent genital herpes simplex virus.


Using the evidence base on genital herpes: Optimising the use of diagnostic tests and information provision. All information is based on peer-reviewed publications, practice guidelines, or other reputable sources.
We feel that processing all specimens with this battery of tests provides the most expedited results especially when the results can be delayed due to off-hour collection, weekends, and holidays.
Intraocular fluid or vitrectomy specimen can be supplied directly or increased to a volume of 0.45 ml with chlamydia transport medium.
We evaluated the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of genital herpes in 25 patients suspected of genital herpes. Health screening lab tests may or may not alert you and your doctor to serious medical conditions and are not intended to be a substitute for a physician's examination. After taking an informed consent, swab samples were collected from the genital ulcers for Tzanck smear, antigen detection by indirect immunofluorescence (indirect IF), virus isolation in vero cell line and HSV DNA detection by targeting Glycoprotein D region by nested PCR as described previously by Read and Kurtz. Positive control (tissue culture isolates of HSV-1 and HSV-2) and negative control (reaction mix containing no DNA) were included in each run to rule out false negative and false positive reactions.
Three patients were found to be human immunodeficiency virus positive on routine screening.
Minute painful genital ulcers were the common presentation in each patient with multiple lesions in 80% of them.
Five patients (20%) showed the presence of multinucleated giant cells in Tzanck smear examination.


The cytopathological effect (CPE) suggestive of HSV was observed on second passage in 2 (8%) samples.
All the patients demonstrated IgG antibodies but none of the patients showed IgM specific antibodies, against HSV type 1 or 2. Following nested DNA PCR, the 272 bp amplified product was visualized in ethidium bromide stained gel showing the presence of HSV DNA in 14 (56%) samples [Figure 1]. The DNA detection by PCR was able to detect an additional 12 (48%) cases, which were missed by tissue culture alone and 8 (32%) cases, which were missed by indirect-IF, 9 (36%) cases, which were missed by Tzanck smear alone.
Though all precautions were taken to maintain the cold chain during transportation of samples, but it is well known that positivity is higher during cooler weather.
Published studies have shown PCR to be 4.1 times more sensitive than culture in detecting HSV infection.
However, its role has been largely confined to the investigation of suspected HSV encephalitis where it has replaced virus culture as the gold standard. The additional advantage of PCR in case of genital herpes would be the detection of the virus in subclinical episodes of virus shedding and in undiagnosed symptomatic genital lesions.
The major limitation of the present study is small sample size and large prospective studies are required to replace virus culture by PCR as the gold standard in diagnosis of genital herpes.



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