Author: admin | 01.01.2014

Flagellin Treatment Protects Against Chemicals, Bacteria …Flagellin Treatment Protects against Chemicals, Bacteria, Viruses, and Radiation1 Matam Vijay-Kumar,* Jesse D.
Ebola Virus – Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaAccording to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the name Ebola virus is always to be capitalized, but is never italicized, and may be abbreviated (with EBOV being the official abbreviation).
Wayne State University Researcher Seeks To Understand Link Between Obesity, Flu Severity( Wayne State University – Office of the Vice President for Research ) The recent H1N1 flu pandemic was found to be particularly dangerous to obese people, and a Wayne State University researcher is looking for clues as to why. Could A Virus Cause Prostate Cancer?Other viruses have been recently been found to be directly linked to the development of cancer. Amniotic Fluid Yields Alternatives To Embryonic Stem CellsStem cells found in amniotic fluid can be transformed into a more versatile state similar to embryonic stem cells, according to a new study. Zhiqiang Hu, an associate professor of civil and environmental engineering, worked with then-doctoral student Yanyan Zhang to examine the uses of bacteriophages against biofilms.
In recent years, the notion of “good bacteria” having an impact on people’s health has sparked a trend in the food and nutritional supplement industry. In the middle of cold and flu season, amid sniffles, sneezes and coughs, a team from the College of Engineering’s Civil and Environmental Engineering Department has published a paper that suggests there could be some “good viruses” too.
In their recently published paper, Associate Professor Zhiqiang Hu, working with then-doctoral student Yanyan Zhang, looked at the effects of bacteriophages in water and wastewater treatment, particularly when paired with chlorine.
Derived from the Greek word phagein, meaning, “to eat,” a bacteriophage, simply known as a phage, is a virus that replicates inside bacteria. Phages attach themselves to bacteria, a parasitic behavior that ultimately destroys the bacteria once the phage begins propagating. The research served as the basis for Zhang’s doctoral dissertation examining the effects of phages on the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa alone and when paired with chlorine .
Bacteria are capable of grouping together to form a biofilm, which produces an outer surface layer, making the bacteria harder to kill.
The amount of time it take phages to fully destroy a biofilm depends on the number of phages and the biofilms’ size.
Now a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Alberta, Zhang collected samples from a Columbia wastewater treatment facility. Above are four transmission electron microscopic images showing the biofilm subcellular structures after the phage and chlorine treatment. Particular phages only bind on the receptors of certain bacteria, making it easier to target a specific type of bacteria. Images of the biofilm wells show the comparison of the effects of chlorine, phage and a phage-chlorine treatment to wastewater samples over the course of five days. Over the course of five days, Hu and Zhang noticed a greater reduction of biofilms in the phage-treated samples. The paper, “Combined Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms with Bacteriophages and Chlorine,” was published in the January 2013 issue of Biotechnology and Bioengineering.

Viruses take the cake as tiniest of the waterborne disease-causing microorganisms—smaller than both protozoa and bacteria. Even as a traveler in the backcountry, however, you must be observant of your surroundings, and recognize where others may not have practiced clean tactics. Viruses can survive for very long periods of time, but can only reproduce in the living cells of a host.
If fluids and electrolytes aren’t properly replaced, the illness can progress to life threatening. Hepatitis A isn’t considered a major threat in the undeveloped water sources of North America.
Symptoms may include fever, reduced appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches, and jaundice, which is yellowing of the skin and eyes. Most healthy people who are diligent about replacing the fluids and electrolytes lost will recover without medical treatment. As carriers of our own viral offenders, it’s important that all backcountry, international and adventure travelers practice good hygiene to protect ourselves and others from infection. In the United States, 95% of adults between 35-40 years of age have already been recommendation for any particular treatment plan.
Fever reducers, such as acetaminopen or ibuprofen, are helpful while your child has a fever.
Scientists have succeeded in reprogramming amniotic fluid cells without having to introduce extra genes. For control purposes, researchers also examined chlorine-only treated bacteria and maintained an untreated sample. Now a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Alberta, she and Hu published their findings in the January 2013 issue of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. These nasty little bugs are also the least understood by scientists, and cause the greatest range of symptoms across infected individuals.
They can advance quickly through backcountry campsites when people don’t wash their hands sufficiently, and make their way onto food and into water sources. If you’ve ever gotten a bad case of “food poisoning,” there’s a chance you were playing host to—and dealing with the consequences of—one of these microorganisms.
It’s one of the main culprits of diarrhea and dehydration in this age group, causing around 500,000 deaths each year in children 5 and under worldwide. A fever of over 101°F is usually the first indication, followed by vomiting and watery diarrhea. But it is a concern in countries with poor sanitation, particularly parts of Africa, Asia and South America. The gastrointestinal symptoms usually show in 2 to 4 weeks and jaundice generally appears 5 to 7 days after.

Microfilters typically only remove parasites (protozoa) and bacteria; they’re generally sufficient in North American backcountries. EPA requirements call for removal or inactivation of greater than 99.99% of viral particles. The bacteria can cause infections in humans and, in extreme cases, can lead to fatal infections if allowed to colonize in a major organ.
The good new is, in North American backcountries, viruses are typically considered much less of a concern than the other pathogenic threats. For international travelers, this risk is compounded by the fact that good medical services can be hard to come by should you get sick.
When people neglect to dispose of their waste properly, viruses can be present in the natural water sources.
In countries where drinking, bathing and well water are vulnerable to sewage contamination, viruses can spread rapidly through communities.
But if you’re worried that there could be a viral risk where you’re going, bring a purifier—either in the form of a device or an agent, like MSR Aquatabs®. There’s no easier way to ensure that all you bring home from your grand adventures are stories and pictures to share. It is the bacteria implicated in “hot tub rash,” an infection of the hair follicle often caused by bacteria found in hot tubs and in water slides.
Therefore, human-specific viruses tend to be less present in settings where there’s little human traffic. Most viral infections aren’t life threatening in healthy adults, but the ability to rehydrate your body with safe drinking water is critical. It takes only a few to make you sick—scientists estimate a single particle to about 10, even in healthy adults. However it’s important to remember that UV light devices and purifying tablets do not remove sediment and particulates in the water, so you’ll typically have to filter the water first before using these treatment methods. In addition, in developed regions—like much of North America and Europe—advanced sewage systems and generally good hygiene practices have greatly reduced the risk of viral outbreaks. By definition, a purifier removes all three waterborne threats: protozoa, bacteria and viruses.
Tablets also make a good backup in the field if you come across a hairier situation than you were expecting. If you’re traveling to a country where access to safe drinking water is a concern, consider bringing a purifier as your treatment tool of choice—or as a mandatory addition to a microfilter.

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