Handmade Comfort style wood pen, Persian Lilac with gold trim Lilac, Persian Lilac Scientific Name: Syringa persica L. It just so happens that besides being home to America’s original destination ski resort and being world famous for fly fishing, whitewater rafting, blue football turf and potatoes, Idaho has another claim to fame when it comes to its great outdoors.
The Idaho Chukar Foundation (ICF) is a Meridian-based 501c3 non-profit, founded with the goal of helping to preserve the healthy but essentially regulated upland game bird in the Gem State. DW: Thanks to federal foreign aid grants they were introduced in the 1930s, first to Nevada and then to other states in the West.
Chukar hunting is also a dog sport, so most hunters have trained dogs with them, which adds a mystique to it. Sun Valley Magazine encourages its readers to post thoughtful and respectful comments on all of our online stories. This section is dedicated to all the brave Persian women that were wisely running the country for thousands of years. The significant role of women in Ancient Persia both horrified and fascinated the ancient Greek and Roman male-dominated societies. Women in Persia were very honored and revered, they often had important positions in the Courthouse, Ministries, Military, State and Treasury Department, and other official administrations. Recent works on the role of women in ancient Persia show great participation by women in all facets of life, indicating not only their autonomy and independence, but the existence of an equal social system which accepted the authority and independence of women.
The fortification tablets at the Ruins of Persepolis also reveals that men and women were represented in identical professions and that they received equal payments as skilled laborers and that gender was not a criterion at all (unlike our modern world).
There is much evidence that the principles of Zoroastrianism lay the core foundation to the first Declaration of Human Rights in the Persian Empire set by Cyrus the Great since the rulers of Persia were Zoroastrians and relatively liberal and progressive. It is essential for Women to know and understand their glorious history of the past, because without it, they will not be able to plant their place in the future. Most scholars today agree that women internationally step by step became second rate citizens and lost all their power, autonomy, independence, rights and consistently assigned a passive role in the society as soon as Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and especially Islam) became widespread. The Declaration of Human Rights written by Cyrus the Great has been hailed as the first charter of human rights, predating the Magna Carta by nearly two millenniums (~1700 years) and in 1971 the United Nations was published translation of it in all the official U.N. Princess Amitis became the wife of Cyrus the Great and the Queen of Media and the Queen of the Persian Achaemenid Empire after the historical battle of Pasargadae (where Cyrus became the king of both kingdoms). Emperor Cyrus eventually supplanted and absorbed the United-Median Kingdom in the massive Achaemenid Persian World Empire.
Cyrus deeply respected the culture, language and religion of subdued nations and considered all nations equal in terms of their rights. Pantea and General Aryasb were the commanders of the elite force of Persian soldiers who performed the dual roles of both Imperial Guard and standing army during the Persian Empire’s expansion. In Persian lore, Pantea was the most beautiful and toughest woman in all of Asia and kept her face covered during battle to prevent men from falling in love with her (view image). The elite force were known as “The Immortals” because they were kept constantly at a strength of exactly 10,000 men, every killed or seriously wounded member was immediately replaced.
There is a report in the chronicle of Nabonidus that, when “the king’s wife died,” there was public mourning in Persia along with all the twenty-five nations that were part of the empire lasting for several months.
The location of Cambyses and Mahruyehs tomb is uncertain and has been debated for a long time. According to the legends Atusa also had a very strong women’s intuition and sixth sense which the King strongly admired and followed. Click here to read the Testament of Darius the Great to his son and successor Emperor Xerxes the Great (Kheshayar Shah). Worth to mention is that over a half millennium after Irdabama, in Europe, Roman women were not allowed to own their very own business and land. The Greeks offered a reward of 10,000 drachmas for capturing Artemisia’s head, but no one succeeded in winning the prize.
During the Greco-Persian Wars, the Greek city-states were never a threat to the Persian heartland. Also the Greek city-states were constantly busy fighting each other all the time and the Persian Kings saw that region as very unstable and left them alone. After the Persian victory at the Battle of Thermopylae, Athens was abandoned and King Xerxes decided to burn some of the Government Headquarters and Palaces to the ground as revenge and warning for all the previous Greek terrorist attacks on Persian holdings and civilian population. Conspiracy against history - The forgotten Chapter: The Battle of Thermopylae was of course written by the classical Greek author, Herodotus. Yet Xerxes never married her, funny how Xerxes later ended up marrying Esther his Jewish Princess! Whilst King Artaxerxes II wanted to eliminate his brother for betraying him, Parysatis interfered succesfully and restored order and peace with her own army.
Historians know very little about Darius II’s reign but it does seem that he was quite dependent on his wife Parysatis according to the Greek Historians. Alexander and his Army also plundered Persia, he ordered the execution of many Persians, allowed his troops to indulge themselves in plunder and rape and, in a drunken rage, set torch and destroyed Persepolis, the magnificent palace complex of the kings in revenge for all the Persian-Greek wars many centuries before and also because he was not yet the sole ruler of the Persian Empire, and it was too dangerous to leave the enormous treasures behind, where his enemies could recapture them.
The Greco-Persian wars and Alexander’s victories proved that light-armed troops could not stop heavy, well-trained, and brilliantly led infantry of the type of hoplites or phalanx.
The Amazons - One of the areas that have received the least amount of attention by international scholarship is the role of women warriors of ancient Persia. Although she was not as tactical in the battlefield as the legendary General Surena (who was her role model), she was a great respected Lieutenant General on her own.
The ancient Painting below is showing the Surrender of Roms Emperor Valerian and Roman Senator to Shapour King of Persia (on horse-top).
The Persian exotic dancing traditions has still survived to the present day of Iran and the most beautiful women in Persia are devoted to the profession of dancing; the transparency of their shift, which is the only covering they use to conceal their persons, the exquisite symmetry of their forms, their apparent agitation, and the licentiousness of their verses, are so many incentives to a passion which requires more philosophy than the Persians possess to restrain.
The Persian Sassanid High Command often channeled invading forces into “kill zones” and destoryed them by deploying Heavily Armored Savaran units (Elite cavalry). Mofid’s presentation shares the similarities between Persian chukar hunting in their native range of southwest Asia and here in southern Idaho, where they were first introduced in the 1930s and have gone on to thrive. The ICF believes that there are seven major concerns for chukars in Idaho (which can be read on their Facebook page). Chukars need steep, arid terrain with lots of access to water and that’s what we have. But as I tell people interested in the sport, you’ve got to be in as good shape as your dog. Unlike other states, Idaho doesn’t have any data or staff dedicated to monitoring the species. Many ancient Persian cities and states were ruled by women and had their army totally under control of female commanders. Women were treated like Goddesses esteemed as mothers of creation before the imposition of the dark, backward, and pernicious Abrahamic ideologies (Judaism, Christianity, and especially Islam) after the barbaric Arab invasion upon Persia which destroyed our style of Humane Federalism, Bill of Rights, Equalism, Freedom of speech and Freedom of religion and replaced those factors with central brutal government, prejudice and slavery. New mothers and pregnant women even received wages far above those of their male co-workers as gratitude.
Our so called civilized modern world still has a long way to go in terms of gender equality. According to ancient greek historian Herodotus, after the birth of Cyrus the Great, King Astyages had a strange dream that his “Magi” (Court Magician) interpreted as a sign that his grandson would eventually overthrow him. They formed the elite core of the Persian army in times of war and the royal guard in times of peace in Persian Achaemenid Empire.
To insure loyalty, the original members of this “immortal” fighting machine were Persians by bloodline and trained from early childhood (age 7+). Atusa is well mentioned in the Persepolis Fortification Tablets, an administrative archive from Persepolis.
They had attacked Persian cities, set fire to Persian temples, disrupted key trade routes, and pirated merchant ships crossing the Bosphorus. Understand that back then Persia was the sole superpower of the globe and Greece consisted of tens of separated and scattered city-states, each played their own tunes and they were busy fighting each other all the time. It is important to note that Persia did not want to conquer Greece, the empire was already over stretched spanning three continents and over twenty-five nations. Xerxes later rebuilt some of the dammaged civilian areas of the city and sent a message to the Athenian citizens and told them that they could return to their homes, which they did. Yes, no matter how much this great love affair between Xerxes and Artemisia dragged on, yet they never got married!

When Alexander conquered the Persians, he burned many of the grand buildings and libraries in Persepolis and destroyed or stole many of its royal treasures. These could only be encountered with even more heavily armed and highly professional cavalry causing disorder in the massed ranks and then attacking them on vulnerable points with bowshots capable of piercing armour and lances effective against shields. Her main tactics was to not charge into the enemy line before weakening and exhausting them first. Ardeshir (Son of Babak) went to a great war against her father (Ardavan V) and killed him in the war.
Emperor Valerian kneels and begs for mercy from King Shahpur of Persia while the Female Persian cavalry officer (left) is guarding along with nobleman of the Suren clan (with tall “beaked” hat).
In the 1950’s and 60’s, Persian classical dance began a revival but the decline in the monarchy in 1979 was paralleled by a decline in the support and status of dancers.
The free program runs from 6 to 8 pm on Thursday, February 21st at The Community Library in Ketchum and the photographs of the beautiful birds and of Persia are striking--and are strikingly similar to Idaho. There’s plenty of chukar in that country from Fairfield past Picabo all the way to Arco. The creator in Genesis is presented as an Old Male Sovereign Outsider who relate to the world by way of command. It is now kept in the British Museum and it is no exaggeration to say that it is one of the most precious historical records of the world.
Not everyone could become one of the 10,000 since the training was very rigorous and hard both physically and psychologically. Moreover, the unfinished stone platform known as Takht-e Rustam has long been seen by archaeologists as a possible location for their tombs, based on the similarity of its design and dimensions with those of the tomb of Cyrus in Pasargadae. She made sure that “Xerxes” became the successor of Emperor “Darius the Great” and not his eldest son “Artobazanes”. She was the wife of king Smerdis (Bardya) who was allegedly killed and replaced with a false pretender to the throne (real name: Gaumata). She was also an Achaemenid military Commander and her mother was a Arteshbod General of the Imperial Army. They incited rebellions inside Persian provinces, but perhaps most abhorrent to the Persians was the ease by which the Greeks broke their treaties and betrayed Persia’s trust.
Some of these city-states were pro Persia, some were anti Persia, some were neutral and some were even parts of Persia as protectorates! Many Ionian Greeks were already parts of Persia as protectorates and Persians respected Greek philosophers and had many of them in their employ. It wasn't until about 1850 that America embraced Herodotus as the leading authority on Persian history.
The entire civilized ancient world viewed them as bloodthirsty barbarians and nothing else. In monarchic Persia, however, women enjoyed a level of gender equality unmatched even to this day, and slavery was not practiced. For 12 months each woman underwent beauty treatments and Educational Importance of Royal Manners and Etiquettes in the Harem.
She was also a General (Arteshbod) and took full command of the Imperial Army when her husband died in battle. The ancient painting below is showing Alexander’s troops burning and looting the palaces in Persepolis.
The Parthians (Ashkanian), a tribal kingdom from northeastern Persia of the coastal areas broke the Macedonian dynasty, gradually defeated the Greek Seleucids and consolidated their control over all of Persia and they remained true to the spirit and culture of Persia, and did their best to make positive contributions. This lesson went home with the Parthians who in ousting the Seleucids from Persia formed their own professional armies and taking into consideration of what was needed against their enemies.
The Scythians were diverse groups of militaristic Iranic pastoralists and their language belongs to the Iranian group (Eastern Iranian language family). She was the daughter of Ardavan the Fifth, the last King of the Parthian Empire (Ashkanid Empire). She was unfortunate to live during the decline of the Parthian empire due to centuries of Roman-attacks, major internal revolts and instability.
Classical Persian dance today continues to evolve in private, combining strength, flexibility, musicality, and art, into what could be considered the epitome of classical Persian dance. She was the twenty-seventh Sassanid Monarch of Persia and she ruled the empire after her sister Purandokht during the Sassanid Dynasty era. The legend and fairy tale of Princess Turandokht (Turandot) is very famous in Europe and it was taken from the Persian collection of stories called: The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Hezar o-yek shab), she became an icon of nobility and stature. Harpagus, morally unable to kill a newborn hid the child, who was none other than Cyrus himself (Cyrus the Great) with a shepherd named Mitridates. Also a replica of the Cyrus Charter of Human Rights is kept at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. They also followed a strict adherence to the religion of the prophet Zarathustra and his teachings in order to respect and value life. She bore four children: Cambyses II (who succeeded his father and conquered Egypt), Smerdis (Bardiya) who also reigned as the king of Persia for a short time, a daughter named Atusa. Atusa, had a great authority in the Achaemenid royal house and her marriage with Darius I is suggested to be because of her power and influence and also the fact that she was a direct descendent of Cyrus the Great. Darius the Great followed in the footsteps of Cyrus the Great, and respected the culture, language and religion of subdued nations and considered all nations equal in terms of their rights. Work was reserved thus for slaves and for the lower classes according to Roman and Greek historians. She was the legendary Grand Admiral and leader of the Persian Navy, She was Xerxes’ great love.
Rather than resort to violence Persia tried to keep the Greeks in check by financially supporting Greek politicians who were “pro-Persian,” But what finally triggered Persia’s wrath was an act rarely mentioned in the West, though well documented, even by Herodotus (Father of History). Admiral Artemisia became a living legend and a role model for all the women in the Empire and the known civilized World. That shows how humane the Persian empire was and how much they respected civilians, despite the fact that the Athenians wiped out the entire Persian city of Sardis and all its civilian population. Before 1850, however, the West had a very favorable and true impression of the humane Federal Persian Empire.
Grand Admiral Artemisia wanted a very high position and command in Persian CourtHouse to establish her absolute power and authority in the Persian Achaemenid Court. Many modern scholars are concerned over Esther’s historical accuracy since it is hard to distinguish authentic history from fiction in biblical texts. They were then given anything they wanted or wished for to take with them from the Harem to the King’s palace. Alexander was very much found of her and had a crush on her according to the Greek Historians! The current province of “Sistan” in today’s Iran is historically known as “Sakestan” which means “The land of Saks” (Birthplace of the Scythians).
The only survivor in Persian dance in its existing condition, which has survived throughout the centuries. The last holdout of Sassanid Persia was in the east, and it is to this little studied part of the world that scholars need next to approach, for it seems certain that the small states of Central Asia, too, were part of the ancient Persian world, and their role in bringing Persian influences to China and to Russia should not be forgotten. Shirin was a christian princess who eventually consents to marry King Khosrow after several romantic and heroic episodes, including his rescue of her from a lion. When Purandokht ascended to the throne after the murder of the general Shahrbaraz, who killed her nephew Ardashir III, she attempted to bring stability to the empire.
The Europeans changed the nationalities of the historical characters but other than that everything else is intact and true to the original.
Scientific Name Melia azedarach Trade Name Persian lilac Family Name Meliaceae Common Names Albero di paternoster Alelaila Aleli Alilaila Anesita Arbol de paternoster In spring and early summer, Persian lilac produces masses of purplish, fragrant, star. After moving to Idaho 20 years ago, the former professional ballet dancer was thrilled to find incredible chukar hunting throughout the region. There have been lots of things that have had a negative impact on the terrain and populations in Iran.
Princess Atusa later played an important role in Achaemenid royal family, as she married Darius the Great. When her mother Cassandane died all the nations of the Persian empire observed a great mourning that lasted for months.

In bed she feels for the absent ears of her husband while he is making love to her in the dark; and so begins the legendary story about the overthrow of the “Magi” (court magian) who pretends to be the king by the seven aristocrats. The fortification tablets at Persepolis contain information about her wealth, workshops and hundreds of workers of both sexes. She had the reputation to be more bloodthirsty than any Persian king had ever been against those who broke the law in order to set a precedent for the importance of the rule of law in the empire.
A great powerful, independent and intelligent woman who won many battles during the Achaemnid Dynasty Era.
That's because the West's main source for Persian history was the Bible and the Cyropaedia in which both glorified the monarchy of Cyrus The Great and the humane nature of the Persian Empire.
Well, Persian Empire being the only Super Power in the known world back then, she wanted to be an important part of it!
According to the Biblical Book of Esther King Xerxes of Persia held a one hundred and eighty-day feast in Susa to display the vast wealth of his empire to the world and the splendour and glory of his majesty. Most women chose luxurious colourful dresses, wore heavy makeup and carried as much gold and diamond jewellery as they could carry in order to catch the Kings Eyes and attention.
Alexander tried to emulate the Persian court customs and attempted to create a new culture, a mixture of both Persian and Hellenistic. After their capture, the Persian women joined Alexander’s baggage train for around two years.
She bore him a posthumous son called Alexander IV Aegus, after Alexander’s sudden death at Babylon. An important legacy of his conquest of Persia was the introduction of the Persian imperial practices into the West. There have been numerous finds in the gravesites of ancient North-Iranic warriors known as the Scythians (Saka in Persian) and their Sarmatian (or Ard-Alan) successors.
During the Sassanid dynasty many of the Persian soldiers captured by Romans were women who were fighting along with the men.
This stability was brought about by a peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire, the revitalization of the empire through the implementation of justice, reconstruction of the infrastructure, lowering of taxes, and minting coins. Turan is the ancient Persian name for Central Asia which used to be part of the Persian Empire. She was her Father’s Right hand, and the amazing Nationalistic Feelings that she developed during her teenage years led her to become a military person.
As a former Ketchum Hot Dog ski racer, that’s one of the things I like about it, running around in the mountains.
The texts of the Torah, Bible and Quran preach discrimination against women, degradation and subjugation of women, and even violence against women!
According to this legend, Cyrus would eventually defy his grandfather, King Astyages, leading to a great war between them; as the dream had forecast. Commander Pantea truly was an important and sensitive military commander whose presence on the ancient battlefield made a difference to the outcome of the battle and played a part in building up the tapestry of ancient military Achievement. According to Herodotus, Cyrus loved his Queen Cassandane dearly and, when she died, ordered all the subjects of his empire to observe “a great mourning.” Cyrus never recovered from the grief of losing her and stayed inactive for the next decade until his death.
And the situation became worse each century as Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) became widespread. The Athenians, set fire to the “outlying parts” of Sardis trapping most of its population “in a ring of fire”, literally killing hundred thousands of innocent civilians.
In the wake of two bloody revolutions fought by America and France to liberate themselves from their own monarchies, a major campaign began, around the mid 19th century, to promote democracy throughout the rest of Europe, and Herodotus was the perfect propaganda tool and was quickly ushered in as the “Father of History”. When the king’s heart was “merry with wine,” the king ordered his seven chamberlains to summon Queen Vashti to come before him and his guests wearing her royal crown, in order to display her beauty. When it was time for Esther to go to the king’s palace, she chose the simplest white dress she could find, wore minimum makeup and jewellery. Roxana and her son became victims of the political intrigues of the collapse of the Alexandrian Empire. Many of these practices particularly those relating to state administration and the rule of law were later adopted by the Roman Empire. The ancient burial mounds have often yielded the remains of women warriors who were buried alongside their swords, shields and other war equipments.
Greek texts, detailed descriptions for different forms of Persian dancing, fire dance, sword dance even horse dance (dancing while horseback). During his reign, King Khosrow Parviz built several magnificent palaces in the Kermanshah Province (west of Iran) and named them after his queen, Shirin; hence the city got its name from there and is now called “Qasr-e Shirin”, literary meaning “Palace of Shirin”.
She was largely unsuccessful in her attempts to restore the power of the central authority which was weakened considerably by civil wars, and resigned. Like her father Apranik decided to become a professional soldier and she climbed the steps of progress, one by one and after her complete education, she managed to rise from a petty officer, to a full commander of the Persian Army.
They teach that women are not only inferior, but also must obey men, because “God” tells us that men are their masters (justifying all manner of religion-justified nastiness directed against them).
Irdabama proved that possession of enormous property, wealth and good social standing was not limited to Royal women and that everything was possible with hard work and determination. Around 1850, his “Battle of Thermopylae” came to symbolize the West's struggle for democracy against the powerful forces of Persia's monarchy. She refused to come since the Susa feast had lasted for nearly six months and she did not want to embarrass herself in front of all the drunken royal guests all over again, thus she left the palace at night.
The Greek sources mention that following Alexander’s death, his favourate wife Roxane from the kingdom of Bactria (modern Afghanistan) lured Stateira and her sister to her, and had the two princesses killed and thrown into a well, Roxane was pregnant and was determined that her son should be the undisputed heir of Alexander.
These burial mounds have been discovered in various forms fall the way into the Caucasus and Iran (to the north and northwest).
The Great King Shahpur of Persia invaded Roman Empire territory and took Emperor Valerian and the entire Roman army prisoner as a lesson to never attack Persia again! Apranik was a tireless inspiration for her troops in defense of their nation against outside aggressors.
In other words, the texts of these so-called “holy books” systematically ensure a second-class status for women . The story is easy to buy into: 300 brave Spartan barbarians saved Western democracy from 3 million evil Persians! Furious at her refusal, the King asked his wise men and the seven princes of Persia for advice, they advised the King to search for a new queen. None of them pleased him as much as she did, and right away he fell in love with her natural beauty, simplicity, sincerity and intellect and crowned her to be his wife and queen.
But aside from the fanciful numbers, this whimsical tale has far graver consequences than a mere bias account of history. The King followed this advice and banished the rebellious Queen Vashti and then began searching for a new queen by means of a large-scale nationwide beauty & talent contest. This in turn forced the Romans to quickly negotiating peace with the Sassanid Persians and they started to pay heavy taxes each time they approached near Sassanid territory in order to avoid unnecessary conflicts. Irdabama was just one of the many successful and powerful business women in the ancient Persian World.
The “Battle of Thermopylae” has been the single most powerful wedge, which has divided East and West for over 2 millennia.
Xerxes had seen it all, he had women throwing themselves at him from all parts of his empire from Chinese border in the East and Aristocrats from Ariana and Bakhtar Satrapies, all the way to Greek colonies of Persian Empire in the West and Europe to the Northern borders of Africa, Egypt in south! Then he declared a holiday everywhere in his vast kingdom along with all the twenty-five countries that were part of his empire and gave expensive gifts to everyone. Most of them had the power to use their own seals and letterheads indicating not only their autonomy and independence, but the existence of an equal social system which accepted the authority and independence of women. In a time when East and West should be reconciling their differences, along comes the movie “300” to drive that wedge even deeper. This bowl is made from a piece of Persian lilac wood that has a beautiful speckled wood grain. By doing this, she for sure captured his heart and definitely accomplished getting a high position in Persian government.

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