This simple sketch is typical of Lucan-type T-O maps in that it presents only the four cardinal directions, the three continents, and the features that divide them, including a€?gada€™, or Cadiz. This page is from Lucana€™s manuscript of Pharsalia, which describes the fight between Pompeii and Caesar. On the African side, which has the most legends and is even divided into various countries and provinces, opposite Roma we see Cartago and to its east the legend inside the rectangle reads Fenicies [Phoenicia].
Looking at the map it seems that some of the legends are later additions, such as Mare Mediterraneu, Tanais and Nilus, which the scribe may have added in order to rectify some of the apparent errors.
The map shown at the bottom is a simple Lucan map, which mentions only the three continents with the rivers and sea separating them (Tanais, Nilus and Mare Mediterraneu).
As mentioned above the map is of T-O type, but unusually, it also incorporates the Macrobian climatic zones. The inhabited world is squeezed inside the Northern Temperate Zone; hence it is shown n somewhat distorted and stylized form.
In Europe, at the lower left of the map many provinces are shown including Roma, Ythalia [Italy], the city of Constantinople, Grecia, Ungaria [Hungary], the river Danube, Germania and Francia.
In Africa the cities of Carthage, Cyrene [Seine a€“ Aswan] and Hyppone [Hippo, present day Annaba in Algeria], as well as other provinces are shown. The text that surrounds this tiny but detailed T-O map refers to the division of the earth among the sons of Noah, revealing its origin from another work, as Gautier does not mention this event in the accompanying text.
This map is known as Gautier de Chatillon world map and is included in his work entitled De Alexandreis, an epic poem about the conquests of Alexander the Great. The four protruding arms and the outer ring of the map are inscribed with the names of the four cardinal directions and the external double circle bears the legends of the twelve winds.
This is a climate Y-O map, in which the inhabited world is divided into eight climates, seven of which come from Pliny. Lucan lived during the first century and like Sallust, was of the opinion that Asia was the greatest continent of all and that Europe and Africa should be considered together as one continent. One is a T-O map shown on top of the page, which is a typical Sallust map oriented with east at the top and showing the Mediterraneu, Tanais and Nilus, The last two legends appear under the arms of the T while inside the body of water the legends at the left read Fison [Ganges] and Fir-fir.
We also see the island of Gades (port city of Cadiz in mainland Spam) at the western edge of the Mediterranean.
Johna€™s College Map, the map in this German Bible is arranged in an abstract fashion, but it is more geographically accurate and is superimposed on a zonal format.
This untitled map is bound to the end of the Bible known as the Arnsteln Bible, kept in the British Library. Zonal maps we generally oriented with north at the top, but here the T-O model takes precedence and hence the map is oriented with East at the top. In order to accommodate all the information intended to go on the map the width of the Temperate Zone has been exaggerated, making it wider than all the other zones combined.
The northern part contains the provinces of Armenia, Brithinia, Frigia, Galacia, Lidia, Bactria, Pamphilia, Cilicia, Nyce and Troy.
At the very edge of the map the provinces of Anglia, Scocia, Hyberia [Ireland] as well as Britannia are shown.
In line with Sallust, who writes that the Persian and Armenian mercenaries of Herculesa€™ army settled in the northwest of Africa, this area of the map shows the name Perse [Persians] but no Armenians.
From top, along the Mediterranean we note the tribes of Medi (Medes), Ubies (Libyans) and Armeni (Armenians), who according to Sallust had settled in North Africa after the death of Hercules.


Instead of a pictorial representation of the world, a list of provinces, cities and islands is given, divided into the three continents. The surrounding ocean and the divisions between the continents are added to this map (the Nile, the Mediterranean and the Tanais [Don] with the additional refinement of the Sea of Azov [Meotites Palus, here: the lake or swamp of Maeotis]. 278a€“280, mischaracterizes the V-in-square figure as used to diagram the Noachide dispersion in copies of Isidorea€™s Etymologiae (Book 14), where it is almost always juxtaposed with a T-O map.
This map is drawn on the last page of a heavily annotated manuscript below another, Sallust-type map. The original of the text of Lucana€™s Pharsalia (or, a€?Civil Wara€?, as many scholars call it) was written in 61-65 CE, approximately a century after the events it chronicles. There are two rivers emerging from the Tanais is and the Nile, connecting them to the surrounding ocean in a slanted path. These are the Numidi, Libie, Armeni and Medi (Numidians, Libians, Armenians and Medes), with Perse [Persians] further to the south, each shown with linear borders. It is accompanied by some other sketches, none of which contain any associated text in the Bible that houses them. The zones in the map are therefore shown as vertical divisions at the two extremities of which we intemperata [extreme] zones.
The Mediterranean Sea, here called Affricum mare, separates Europe from Africa and the rivers Thanais and Nylus are the borders between Asia-Europe and Africa-Europe respectively. The central sector is topped by Paradise, followed up by the names India, Parthia, Assyria, Persida, Media, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Arabia, Syria, Palesinta, Ascelonia and Antiochia. Britannia, here most probably refers to the French region of Brittany rather than Britain, which is already shown with the names of its constituent provinces.
The map is located at the end of the poem and contains 59 geographical names, in addition to the cardinal directions and the 12 winds. The book includes this map, which is a Sallust type of map and contains a few of the toponyms included in the poem. In Europe the names shown include the river Danubius [the river Danube] Ungaria, Germania, Italia and Roma. This feature is mentioned by Isidore in XIV.4, and in the diagram forms an elbow or Y-shape.
The V-in-square figure does not correlate Noaha€™s sons with the worlda€™s partes, which are nowhere included: the name Shem written inside the a€?Va€? cannot be said to a€?indicatea€? Asia, nor Japheth at left Europe, nor Ham at right Africa.
This map has a great deal of detail in Africa, as it was designed to illustrate Sallusta€™s history of Jugurthaa€™s revolt against Rome. In the accompanying Flemish manuscript, as is common, the Jugurthine War is bound with Sallusta€™s account of the conspiracy of Catiline.
Above the left arm is a vignette of a castellated city, representing Jerusalem (somewhat rubbed). According to Sallust these were the tribes, which form the ancestral line of the present day North Africans.
The map seems to have been prepared in Germany and above it there is a diagram showing the four branches and sub-branches of philosophical knowledge, though also have no connection with the map. The Temperate Zone, which includes the inhabited world, is widened and occupies a large portion of the map and is itself shown in the T-O format. The two sloping lines at the western end of the Mediterranean, near the ocean are named Calpes, to Rock of Gibraltar, with Gades [Spanish city of Cadiz] situated in their middle.


The Biblical provinces of Samaria, Galylea, Judea and Hierusalem follow the inscription ASIA.
Oriented to the East, the areas marked off in the North and South may be the remnant of a zonal map.
In addition to having the T-O map layout, the map also boasts two double vertical lines at the northern and southern fringes of the inhabited world, dividing the world into three climatic zones.
The triangular shape at the western end of the Mediterranean, near the ocean is inscribed Calpe, Latin for the a€?Rock of Gibraltara€?.
The text in the southern hemisphere describes the universe surrounding the earth a€?like the white of an egga€™. The scribe also included the cardinal directions and the names of Noaha€™s three sons, as well as a small cross in the East. Rather, the V-in-square functions precisely to offer an alternative to the tripartition of the T-O; the former epitomizes the distribution of peoples according to passages in Etym.
What is less common is that the map appears in the Catiline section rather than in the Jugurtha text.
The other arm bears the legend Egiptus, near which appears the rectangular shape of Mare Rubrum [Red Sea]. Above the map is a diagram of the structure of knowledge or philosophy, divided into the theoretical, practical and mechanical branches.
At its southern border is the perusta [scorched] zone, which is followed by the Southern Temperate Zone, all unknown to mankind. The third sector of Asia, at the far right, contains the inscriptions Alexandria, Egyptus and Babylonia (in reality Cairo).
In short, this is a composite world map, drawn from a variety of sources and here included as relevant to the tale of Alexander, who conquered the world. The two outer zones are the frigid zones, outside the habitable world and only the central part is shown as the habitable world, conforming to the T-O shape and divisions.
This diagram appears for the first time in a pair of Spanish manuscripts from the 9th century. What is less common is that the map appears in the Catiline section rather than in the Jugurtha text.A  A teachera€™s notes on the details of Roman military organization, taken from Cincius, On Military Science, appear on the rim of the map. The column on the left begins with the region of Armenia and is then followed by Bitinia, Frigia, Galathya, Lidia, Boecia, Pamphilia and Niceia. Inside Europe there are only a few legends, the important ones being Europa, Hispania and Roma. The right column begins with Paradisus and is followed by India, Parthia, Media, Assiria, Persida, Mesopotamia, C[h]aldea, Arabia, Siria, Palestine, Anthiochia, Ascolonia, Samaria, Asia, Judea, I[e]r[usa]lem, Galilea and the legends in South Asia read Egypt, Alexandria, Babilonia.
Early exegetical tradition hesitated too rigidly to align Noachide inheritance with the geographic division of lands.



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