Following Malcolm X‘s assassination in 1965, it has been suggested by some historians that the Black Panther Party used his philosophy of gaining freedom “by any means necessary” both as a justification of their methods and as a means of inspiring other African Americans to join their cause. It is also clear is that Malcolm X had a strong influence on the individual, personal philosophies of key Black Panther members, especially the two founding members. Huey Newton’s personal philosophies were similarly influenced by Malcolm X in the years prior to the formation of the Black Panther Party. Malcolm X was able to convince many African Americans that non-violence was no longer an option, a viewpoint which was massively influential on the philosophy of the Black Panthers. The concept of armed self-defence played a prominent role on the BPP philosophy and in their public image.
Malcolm X’s influence on the philosophy of the Black Panther Party however went beyond his calls for armed self-defence. Fanon, an Algerian psychiatrist and author, wrote the book during the Algerian war for independence. The Black Panther Party began to see people like Mao, Castro and Guevara as figures to learn from, as they had overcome similar oppression to what African Americans were facing.
Furthermore, the Black Panther Party believed in the necessity to educate African Americans, and campaigned for changes in the education system itself, especially regarding the teaching of black history. There were of course limitations to the influence Malcolm X had on the BPP’s philosophies. Despite these limitations, it is clear that the party very much followed in his footsteps and heeded Malcolm X’s words on many issues.
While Newton was likely correct to assert the Black Panthers had not done what Malcolm X would have done if he had lived beyond his assassination in 1965, he was also right to suggest that the Black Panther Party’s work stood “as a living testament” to the influence that Malcolm X had on African Americans during the civil rights era.
Read more in Black History: History In An Hour published by Harper Press, available in various digital formats and audio. This entry was posted in Black history, Blog and tagged Black History by History In An Hour.
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Although Huey Newton later stressed in his autobiography a belief that the party had not done things the way that Malcolm X would have done them had he lived beyond 1965, the fact that Malcolm X had a huge influence on the philosophy of the party is virtually indisputable. Malcolm X condoned violence, or the threat of violence, in order to attain the goals of the African American community.
As Bobby Seale explained, “Malcolm X had advocated armed self-defense against the racist power structure.” Huey Newton was the man who led the continuation of that philosophy with the Black Panthers.
The party even campaigned against anti-gun legislation, famously marching through the Sacramento state capitol carrying weapons in order to protest the impending passing of the Mulford Act in 1966, an act intended to stop private citizens from carrying loaded weapons in public. Malcolm X expressed a belief that the struggles African Americans were facing were intertwined with the troubles colonised people were facing in Africa, south east Asia and Latin America. Newton, Seale and the Black Panther Party studied the book in great depth, believing, like Malcolm X had suggested, that their own situation and the situation of the colonised natives of Algeria were fundamentally linked. In order for African Americans to gain their freedom, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale believed they had to learn how revolutionaries in other countries had gained theirs and then find the best way to apply similar strategies to their own situation.
His Islamic teachings were not always relevant to members of the BPP who belonged to other faiths.

Anadil looked at several booths to see if the house dwarfs or members of their families, but also their rooms were empty, and around was empty and there was no one to show them the way. You can watch hundreds of girls on webcam and video chat with them for FREE!Free Video Dating Jungle is a free online dating site with webcam chat and video chat with webcams for those who like to see prospective dating partners live. Newton and Bobby Seale were drawn in by Malcolm’s speeches and agreed with many of the revolutionary ideas he expressed within them.
Newton was sure that despite leaders like Martin Luther King advocating non-violence in the struggle for civil rights, Malcolm X, with his policy of armed self-defence, had the only philosophy which could bring real success in the struggle against white oppression. This was highlighted by his speech on April 3rd, 1964 in which he encouraged African Americans to use their right to vote and threatened the government with an armed response if African Americans did not receive full voting equality, famously stating “it’s either the ballot or the bullet”. Seale claims that Huey Newton pushed for armed self-defence, even in the face of opposition from other civil rights activists, and Seale backed him because he felt that, unlike many leaders of civil rights groups at the time, Newton “knew what the hell he was talking about.” The Black Panther Party utilised armed self-defence in a bid to stop racist police brutality and assaults on African Americans by white people. Malcolm thought of black America as being an “internal colony” which reflected other colonised countries in the world at the time.
Malcolm X was also instrumental in influencing African Americans, including the founding members of the Black Panther Party, to explore the philosophies of Mao Tse-tung, Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. Newton credited Malcolm X with teaching him to understand how to make those theories relevant to the average African American.
The BPP believed it was important for African Americans to be aware of their history and to receive education which was specifically relevant to them. Huey Newton did briefly take an interest in the Nation of Islam after hearing speeches from Malcolm X and Muhammad Ali, however despite being impressed by his visits to mosques in Oakland and San Francisco, Newton had by this time “had enough of religion”, later stating “references to God or Allah did not satisfy my stubborn thirst for answers.” Bobby Seale displayed similar frustrations with religion at this time. The BPP shared the same philosophy towards the use of violence and armed self-defence as Malcolm X had previously and both founding members as well as other important figures within the party spoke openly about the debt they owed to Malcolm X and the influence he had on their personal beliefs. Although Perizada just when you been to this place, she could not remember how to get from there to the bath.
The Black Panther Party later utilised the phrase “The Ballot or the Bullet” as one of their slogans, in the pursuit of voting equality. As a result, he felt that African Americans could learn from the struggles of the oppressed in colonial countries. Huey Newton claims that he developed a belief that there was a link between racism and the capitalist system, a belief which was confirmed for him when he attended a conference for the Afro-American Association, where Malcolm X served as a guest speaker. Malcolm X had held a belief that African American history in the education system had been “whitened” and, as a result, African Americans were not learning the true realities of their culture and history. It is therefore unlikely that Malcolm X’s religious teachings, so central to his own philosophy, had an especially strong influence on Black Panther Party philosophy. Malcolm X helped African Americans to explore the work of other revolutionaries throughout history and the Black Panther Party spent a lot of time intellectualising such works and attempting to put their ideas into practice. As a result, the Black Panther Party began to study Marxist revolutionary theory; a philosophical theory which condoned the use of violence in order to seize power. Bobby Seale spoke of his vision for the formation of black community groups, an idea which had also been influenced by the words of Malcolm X. The Black Panther Party also took influence from Malcolm X’s views on the American education system and its limitations.
He explained that the American Revolution, French Revolution and Russian Revolution all involved huge loss of life and outlined a belief that a revolution which doesn’t involve bloodshed was impossible.
One of the major legacies of the Black Panther Party, its community survival programs, which included free breakfasts for school-age children, were likely a direct result of studying Marxist theory on production and Newton’s general dislike of capitalism.

Seale envisioned that these community groups would serve to “teach brothers, like Malcolm said” in order for African Americans to better themselves. He also justified armed self-defence on a moral and intellectual level, stating “As long as the white man sent you to Korea, you bled.
A  Due to the format of the B of A email, and the copious amounts of "filler" statements they use; the series is a bit difficult to follow. A  I usually write correspondence to fit the lowest common denominator, but how low can one go?A  Although I'm willing to bet that if I reverted to primal grunts, and what could be considered a primitive, yet well understood gesture even in our modern world; that someone on the other side of the Banking Center counter might have their mind bulb flash, if only momentarily. I have a few of my portion of the email, as I cut and pasted it into my regular email service; don't know how they lost theirs.
They relate to the Merlin Teller, and how a fully paid balance of mine is being carried on their books as an outstanding balance on their system for months after I paid the account in full, probably sometime in October of 2007. I was repeatedlyA  told this same information by various B of AA  staff that I spoke with in person, numerous times, in various locations, but I did not record the conversations and wish that I had. When first asked how and why they would do that; as it didn't sound logical or legal to me, I was informed by more than one staff person at more than one branch that it was expected to be carried for 16 to 19 Additional months!A  That is some kind of accounting system. A  That didn't sound accurate, as I was able to access the information on both the old 3732 account AND the new account until approximately January of 2008, and the phone rep I spoke who made arrangements for a balance transfer from another VISA Account I have at another bank for me on either April 3 or 4, 2008, said he would have copies of those 3732 statements mailed to me that day, at no charge to me.A  (I have received an envelope at my P. Box from B of A; I'll expect the contents are the account statements, but won't know for certain until they are forwarded to me. A  Bank of America?A  I'm almost on their side for this particular incident; as I know that avoiding lawsuits and payouts is high on their priority list.
Unless some staffer slipped up, yapped out my private account activity, and didn't take time to note it in my file. Please do your employer a favor, and provide me with the written documentation that I have repeatedly requested.A  Thanks for your cooperation. Stockton: Please forward this email to someone up the ladder who can provide WRITTEN confirmation and information on who requested, and was provided, information on my Visa Card ending in 3732, activity in July or August of 2007. Rose, Good afternoon and thank you for contacting Bank of America in regards to account documentation.
For B of A to be carrying its customers former credits and debits on their books for 16 plus months would be an accounting nightmare, in addition to being out of compliance with several Federal Banking Regulations. Please adjust all records statingA A  any balance due on my past and present Visa accounts to reflect the current credit balance only.A  Also, please update day ph. A  But do note that when I asked him a specific question about them, he couldn't answer it. A  And he didn't volunteer any details on the account maintenance that he appeared to have access to.A A  A A  This message is not flagged. A Can you please provide me with your 16 digit credit card number so I can review your account?
Gordon: The minimum payment is 1% of your balance and any finance charges and applicable fees. The system will not allow the rate to change until the cycle closes and a new cycle starts.

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