Microsoft PowerPoint Viewer is a free software that allows you to view presentations made on Microsoft Office 97 and its later versions.
I would like to mention here that the website says that LittlePTT can open PPTX files also, as well as it lets you save and edit PowerPoint files.
Apart from opening and displaying PowerPoint files, LittlePPT allows to Zoom In and Zoom Out slides. Kingsoft Presentation 2012 is not that big in size(just 37MB), and it works great to match all the features of Microsoft’s official PowerPoint application. There was a retrospective of my single screen video dance work as part of the Rotation 03 Festival at the Kiasma Theatre, Helsinki, in association with Helsinki Museum of Contemporary Arts and Finnish National Gallery for Modern Art. This event recognized the achievement to date of a body of work and the evolution of a specific aesthetic and approach to making dance for the screen that has been internationally recognized. My initial impulse to make video dance came when, on graduating from the Laban Centre, London in 1988 with a degree in Dance Theatre, I felt the urge to bring dance to as wide an audience as possible.
Fifteen years later, I remain as inspired and excited by video dance as an artistic medium.
I am in no way disheartened by this outcome, for what has also happened over the past 15 years is that video dance has come into its own as an art form and there are now many opportunities beyond television for this kind of work to be funded and seen.
One of the benefits of having made most of my work independently is that I have been to a great extent free to explore very particular ideas, lines of enquiry and methods of working, in collaboration with many different choreographers and dancers.
From a formal point of view, I found Lucinda Childsa€™ exploration of the effect of repetition on our perception of movement intriguing.
On reading about Yvonne Rainera€™s work, particularly once she had moved from dance to film-making, I related very strongly to her suggestion that we should find alternative structures than simple narrative closure, in which everything in a story ties up and makes sense by the end.
After Laban, I went to art-college in Dundee to undertake a post-graduate course in Electronic Imaging.
I saw work by video artists like Bill Viola and Gary Hill, which seemed to me to also to take human movement as its subject and through it conveyed the very essence of human existence.
By the time I graduated from art-college, I had made my own connections between various artistic practises and had formed a clear idea of the kind of ideas that inspired me.
The camera, and its relationship to the human body, is central to my approach to making video dance. Whatever the idea for the work, my choices about how to use the camera are strongly influenced by my belief that at the heart of video dance is the expression of human emotion. Through the use of close ups and different angles, the camera can take the viewer to places they could not usually reach. In my experience, it is often the movement of the body parts outside the frame that creates interesting and active viewing.
How the camera moves in relation to the performers is another important aspect of filming dance. However, what I have also discovered is that the carefully choreographed camera can lose out on an important element of dance: the feeling of spontaneity, the energy of the moment, which can make watching someone dance live such an exhilarating experience.
When I started out making video dance, I would storyboard everything I planned to film, designing exact shots which explored framing and camera movement in relation to the choreographed dance movement. In order to redress this, and in an attempt to retain the integrity of the dancersa€™ performance, I started to explore a more fluid approach to making video dance. The idea of improvisation is that those working, in this case the dancers and camera operator, decide how they should move (or how they should film) in the moment.
When developing a new video dance work, as the director, I set a series of improvisations with a€?rulesa€™ suggested by knowledge of the possible spatial and motional relationships between camera and dancers. Shooting on video helps this process immensely, as the performers, camera operator and director can look back at the material and together evaluate the effect of certain decisions and types of movement and how things could tried differently. In the context of making video dance, improvisation can be a misunderstood a€“ and scary a€“ word.
Whilst it may be accepted that improvisation could be a valid tool for generating ideas and developing material, when it comes to filming material that will be used in the finished video dance, it is usually thought to be wiser to set and rehearse everything before committing to tape. In a€?Pacea€™ (1996), dancer and choreographer Marisa Zanotti and I set out to explore ways of conveying energy and speed on screen.
The energy and rawness of a€?Pacea€™ comes very close to what Marisa and I had envisaged and on this basis of this experience, I have continued to use improvisation in many of the video dance works that I have directed. For example, in one sequence around two minutes into a€?Pacea€™, the camera moves with the dancer, following a triangular floor pattern through the studio. Beyond the new technology and the creative opportunities it offered, a€?Pacea€™ was also the first time that I worked with visual artist and editor Simon Fildes.
Each of the twenty or so video dance works that I have directed have been very different in terms of their starting point, who I have been collaborating with and the context in which they were made.
At some level, all explore a€?perceptiona€™ and the idea that our understanding and interpretation of an action, relationship or moment in time depends on our point of view and the information we are given. Around three or four years ago, I became particularly interested in developing this idea of how different levels and types of perception, both visual and aural, effect the way in which we understand a situation. In the process of my research, I came across an English company, Touchdown Dance, who work with dancers with visual impairment in the Contact Improvisation form. In a€?Sense-8a€™, the challenge we set ourselves was to take the viewer in deeper and deeper into the performersa€™ experience. Perception is also a strong theme in a€?The Trutha€™, which takes as its starting point the widespread use of CCTV or surveillance images by the media and how these are exploited to develop speculative narratives around certain high profile events. Together we - Kate, Karin, Simon & Katrina - came up with the concept for a€?The Trutha€™.
So we approached the choreographers a€“ Fin Walker (UK) and Paulo Ribeiro (Portugal) - to create the movement for us. So, although I did come into the studio as the choreographers were creating the movement and look at the movement though the lens, I did not start to make decisions about how the movement would be framed until the choreography was completed. The third element of material that runs through a€?The Trutha€™ is the surveillance-style images, set on the concourse of a station. Just as the concept of the film is that the truth can look different depending on your point of view, so the camera and editing offer many different points of view on the same moments.
Whilst sharing certain stylistic approaches and techniques with the video dance work, the documentaries a€?Adugnaa€™ and a€?Symphonya€™ differ significantly from the video dance work in terms of intention. The challenge in making these films was to capture the essence of the incredible work being done by Royston, his colleagues and the people they work with.
Another way in which the documentaries differ from the other works is that the choreography existed in its own right and was not created specially for the camera. My ambition is to find and communicate ideas that can only be expressed through this hybrid medium and using a style and syntax that is unique to video dance. Particularly a longer work like a€?The Trutha€™ demands us to allow ourselves to experience the emotional flow of the work, to look carefully and actively and to suspend our judgement. What I am more interested in is to take the viewer on an intense emotional journey, one that cannot necessarily be rationalised or explained away in words. I saw work by video artists like Bill Viola and Gary Hill, which seemed to me to also to take human movement as its subject and through it conveyed the very essence of human existence.A  A touring programme of German video art from the 1980a€™s particularly impressed me.
How the camera moves in relation to the performers is another important aspect ofA  filming dance. To buy the DVD Five Video Dances at A?25 including postage and packing you can use the PayPal secure server by clicking here. The principal types of regional and local maps in the Middle Ages were itinerary maps, maps of regions like England or Palestine, city plans, and, especially from the very late Middle Ages, maps of disputed lands or boundaries of properties. Written itineraries were well known in the Middle Ages and were apparently used both as travelersa€™ aids and for armchair travel, often for the purpose of either actual or mental pilgrimage.
The other significant extant example of an itinerary map is the one that appears in various redactions in manuscripts of Parisa€™s Chronica majora.
In addition to these surviving examples of itinerary maps, the significance of the itinerary a€” especially the written or narrated itinerarya€”is demonstrated by the frequency with which itineraries served as at least one source for other types of maps. Paris created a number of regional maps of England and Palestine, as well as two historical maps representing features of early Britain. Matthewa€™s so-called Itinerary from London to the Holy Land, which has been reckoned with his map of Palestine, is not really a connected whole; it is the result of combining two different works, a pictorial representation of the route between London and Apulia (in southern Italy), and a sketch of the Holy Land. Matthew Parisa€™s maps of Palestine are best described as maps not so much of the Holy Land as of the Crusader kingdom, especially since a plan of the city of Acre, the principal port of the kingdom, dominates the coastline. The Itinerary to Apulia is not, therefore, part of a pilgrima€™s guide to the Holy Land; but rather appears to be a political sketch, with the following history (from Beazley). The text of this map of Palestine is, in fact, closely related to various Intineraries of the period of Latin domination in Syria, such as Les pelerinages pour aller en Jerusalem, Les chemins et les pelerinages de la Terre Sainte, or La deuice des chemins de Babiloine (viz.
Itinerary Map from London to Bouveis, Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Library, MS 26, f.ir. Matthewa€™s little red lines become roads, inches become miles, vignettes become cities to be traversed by the viewers of his manuscripts. With the actual city lost to travelers, labyrinths created a space for virtual travel, much in the same way as Matthewa€™s maps do. The maps Matthewa€™s manuscripts contain, even the a€?lineara€? itinerary pages like the one that opens CCCC 26, are not as straightforward as they at first appear. These labyrinthine maps of Matthew Paris are quite different from those of his contemporaries in important respects.
On the Psalter Map, beginning at the top and proceeding clockwise, we encounter the Garden of Eden, the Red Sea, a band of monstrous peoples, Britain, and the gates in the Caucus Mountains, retaining the hordes of Gog and Magog.
Matthew was not immune to the common medieval interest a€“ monastic and secular a€“ in marvels like the monstrous peoples of Africa and Asia, reflected not only by their presence on the Psalter, Hereford and Ebstorf maps, but also by their near ubiquity in texts and images of all types.
Just as audiences flocked to see Henry IIIa€™s elephant, they may also flocked to see some of the world maps, such as the Hereford Map, likely displayed in Hereford Cathedral as part of a pilgrimage route dedicated to Bishop Thomas Cantilupe, who died in 1283. Matthew also chooses not to dwell in his maps on the horrifying hordes of Gog and Magog, lurking behind the Caspian Mountains, which is surprising, given his millennialism.
Matthewa€™s maps a€“ from the first legs of the itinerary, branching out from London along two paths, to the (nearly) pathless tracts of the Holy Land a€“ present a range of spatial options to the ocular traveler moving through them.
But again, this invites a question: If these maps, which were likely made just after 1250, are millennial, why not populate them with prodigies, with monstrous births heralding doom, with monsters of the sorts found on the Psalter Map, or with images of the people of Gog and Magog, who appear three times on the Hereford Map, once behind their wall and twice already outside of it, released into and upon the world? Not only is the Holy Land to be inexorably lost, despite the valiant efforts of these last Crusaders, but the invasion of Europe itself is threatened by the apocalyptic Mongol hordes, believed to be Gog and Magog unleashed beyond the frontiers of civilization as harbingers of the end of the world.
This is, indeed, the moment of production for the maps, but this is not the moment (or moments) depicted on the maps, themselves. Connolly translates jurnee, the repeated inscription on the paths throughout the itineraries, as a€?one day,a€? rather than the customary a€?daya€™s journey,a€? perhaps unintentionally conjuring a sense of longing for travel by a cloistered monk a€“ one day, one day a€“ but also for the reclamation of the Holy Land a€“ one day, one day a€“ and, of course, ultimately, the return of Jesus, the end of time, the Last Judgment, and the creation of the Heavenly Jerusalem a€“ one day, one day.
Connolly characterizes the performative experience of walking a labyrinth as a€?a prolonged, sometimes frustrating process,a€? but, after all its disorienting divagations, a€?[a]t the very end of the labyrinth, a straight line appears to lead you directly to the center, to arrive, metaphorically, at the holy city of Jerusalem.a€? Returning to Matthewa€™s map of the Holy Land, (CCCC 16) we find that there is a pathway charted on its largely pathless surface, a road marked out like those of the itinerary pages that precede it.
Matthewa€™s maps seem to present a maze of pathways, but like the labyrinths, present a unitary destination.
Itinerary from London to Jerusalem with a description in French, similar to one in the Royal MS. Matthew Parisa€™ Itinerary from Pontremoli to Rome with images of towns, their names, and descriptions of places, with attached pieces, including the city of Rome to the right; from Matthew Parisa€™ a€?Historia Anglorum, Chronica majoraa€?, Royal 14 C. Mascun to the Alps in Matthew Parisa€™ a€?Chronica Maioraa€?, a€?Corpus Christi College, MS 26, fol. A A A  The principal types of regional and local maps in the Middle Ages were itinerary maps, maps of regions like England or Palestine, city plans, and, especially from the very late Middle Ages, maps of disputed lands or boundaries of properties. While monsters and marvels played an important role on mappaemundi like the Psalter, Hereford and Ebstorf, their role on Matthewa€™s maps is strongly curtailed. GeoHub is a portal of open location-based data from city departments that empowers both the public and city employees to explore, analyze and build on the data. Youths are highly enthusiastic about starting their own businesses in order to realize their dreams. Hundreds of runners and walkers gathered in the afternoon of November 8, 2015 at Ap Lei Chau for the 12th CyberRun for the Rehabilitation with the theme of “Sunset Jogging to Cyberport”. Esri China (HK) participated in the 20th Anniversary Ceremony of our long-term business partner NetCraft Information Technology (Macau) Co. Esri User Conference (Esri UC) 2015 was once again successfully held in San Diego from July 18-24. In Esri User Conference every year, Esri presents hundreds of organizations worldwide with Special Achievement in GIS (SAG) Awards. GIS professionals, users and friends who open the website of Esri China (Hong Kong) every day may have a pleasant surprise in early August.
Smart City promises to enhance the quality of city living by using Information and Communication Technology and related initiatives are generating interests among different sectors in the city. The revamped Statutory Planning Portal 2 (SPP2) of Town Planning Board launched last fall has quickly become one of the most popular website providing public information. The 7.8 magnitude earthquake occurred in Nepal on 25 Apr 2015 has taken over 8,000 lives and injured over 19,000 people. Esri is supporting organizations that are responding to earthquake disasters with software, data, imagery, project services, and technical support. The Hong Kong Council of Social Service in 2002, the Caring Company Scheme aims at cultivating good corporate citizenship. The Esri Asia Pacific User Conference (APUC) has finally returned to Hong Kong after a decade and the 10th Esri APUC was successfully held in 27-28th January 2015.
This year, about 600 delegates from 20 countries of Asia, Oceania, Europe and North America descended upon the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre. The application gets open in full screen mode; it doesn’t have any specific user interface. It supports all PowerPoint document formats including PPT and PPTX, Rich text format (TXT), as well as text file format (TXT). Although the program supports opening files in wide variety of formats, however, it hampers the quality of the presentation a little bit. It’s a simple and lightweight program (size just 1.6 MB), which allow users to easily open and view PowerPoint presentations.
The interface is almost similar to that of Microsoft PowerPoint, which gives a feel of working with the traditional PowerPoint application. Though it’s a powerful editor, it can still be used as a Viewer application because of its small size and free availability. Although I was keen to be a choreographer, I was reluctant to make work that, I felt then, would only be seen by other dance enthusiasts at one of the small, dedicated dance theatres in the big cities.


These offered a refreshing alternative to the broadcasts of full length ballets a€?livea€™ from the stage at Covent Garden Opera House that then made up the majority of dance on UK television. What is unexpected is that, of the twenty or so video dance works that I have directed in the intervening decade and a half - and although I have directed many hours of broadcast documentary arts programmes - only one of the video dance works I have made has been commission by and seen on television. The money to make the majority of my video dance has come from both public and private commissions and the resulting works have been screened all over the world - at festivals and in cinemas, theatres and galleries.
This article sets out to describe some aspects of this journey and I hope that it will provide an interesting and illuminating context for the five works a€“ three video dances and two dance documentaries a€“ that are being screened as part of the a€?Rotation 03a€™ festival in Helsinki. Whilst at Laban, I came across the work of the post-modern dance makers, for example, Lucinda Childs, Steve Paxton and Yvonne Rainer.
I saw a connection between Childs work and the use of repetition in the music of minimalist such as Steve Reich and Brian Eno, as well as in the dance music that I lost myself in on the dance floor at clubs at the weekend. To paraphrase Rainer, real life often does not have the comfort of closure and so maybe art should not be so tidy either?
I wanted to make dance for the screen and I realised that, in order to do so, I would need to learn about video production. These experiences where brought to bear on a series of different collaborations and creative environments. With the camera, I try to create an energy that involves the viewer in the movement, allowing them to become an active participant in the action, rather than simply a passive observer. When I look at movement through the lens, I try to do so as though I am involved in an interaction with the person or people in front of me.
The lens can enter the dancera€™s kinesphere a€“ the personal space that moves with them as they dance a€“ framing the detail of the movement and allowing an intimacy that would be unattainable in a live performance context. The framing I chose often focuses on a detail of movement, frustrating the audiences view of the a€?wholea€™, whilst at the same time creating dynamic and tension within the shot and forcing the viewersa€™ imagination to come into play. The choreographed camera, moving through space in relationship to the dancers, alters our perception of the dance, rendering it three-dimensional and creating a fluid and lively viewing experience. This dilemma, and the search to find a solution, has also significantly informed my approach to making video dance. However, over time, I began to feel that what was gained in carefully contrived shots was being lost by a certain lack of fluidity and immediacy in the dancersa€™ performance. Over a number of works, and in collaboration with different dancers and choreographers, I began to use structured improvisation as a creative tool. They base this decision on their experience of what they see and feel in the moment, informed to a greater or lesser extent by certain ideas, rules, restrictions or a€?scoresa€™. Through rehearsal and repetition, a vocabulary of framing and movement is built up, forming a palette of video dance material that is then a€?choreographeda€™ in the edit suite.
In the process, the dancer and camera really do become dancing partners and a sense of a€?livenessa€™ is captured on tape.
However, in my experience, there is a qualitative difference between the performance of video dance material that has been set exactly and that material which retains elements of improvisation. We were determined to make a video dance work a€“ in this case for broadcast on BBC television a€“ that would have the audience sitting on the edge of their seat. Over a couple of weeks in the studio, Marisa and I developed a series of structured improvisations which were rehearsed and refined until we knew that, come the shooting days, they would generate the type of images we wanted for our video dance. It is through the juxtaposition of different shots and sounds that the work assumes its emotional impact, as characters are revealed through fragments of action and the viewer is drawn through a series of events and states.
Firstly, there is editing for the continuity of the live choreography, where the timing and structure of a work originally made for the stage is more or less maintained. However, it was not until a€?Pacea€™, which was the first time I had the opportunity to use a non-linear digital editing system, that I was really able to push this approach to a new extreme. In the edit, we initially a€?recreateda€™ this journey by montage-ing shots from different takes of that particular improvisation. Each time this sequence is repeated, a number of shots are dropped, until in the end it is made up of only three shots. I very quickly realised that Simona€™s input went way beyond being able to operate the editing software.
However, there are certain themes that have remained constant throughout almost all of the works.
They also all incorporate the fact that the interplay between vision and sound has a great impact on our perception of what is happening on the screen.
I also started to think of making a video dance work which would communicate whether you could see it, hear it or see and hear it.
Here, my two main areas of interesta€“ improvisation as a creative tool and visual and aural perception a€“ seemed to converge. We hear the dancers describe, to each other and the viewer, what they are seeing, as they move and as they observe. It explores the idea that the same situation can give rise to completely different interpretations, depending on point of view, perspective and other related information. Usually, I will work with a closely with choreographer to evolve a new idea for a video dance.
Related to the idea of different interpretations of the same information that is at the core of a€?The Trutha€™, we then decided that it would add interest and intrigue to work with two choreographers, whose vocabularies and styles differ greatly, thereby giving two different versions of events in the choreography.
We asked them to respond to the concept of a€?trutha€™, but we left them in the dark as regards almost every other aspect of the production a€“ location, costume, sound, filming style and soundtrack.
Usually I spend a lot of time in the studio with the dancers and choreographer, developing the camera framing and movement as the dancersa€™ movement evolves. Here we see the four characters, appearing to relate a€“ or not to relate a€“ to each other in very different ways.
They challenge us to look again at the same moment a€“ or movement a€“ from a different perspective and to experience how this changes the impact of that moment and the perceived relationship between the characters.
They were made as awareness and fund-raising films for Dance United, a UK-based dance development company, headed up by the visionary teacher and choreographer Royston Maldoom. We stove to create two films that contain the factual information that needs to be imparted and whilst at the same time communicate the power and potential of dance as a means of expression and as a tool for social change. However, the approach we took to filming the choreography was to re-structure it entirely for the screen.
What we are making is not a dance, nor is it a video of a dance, or even for that matter, simply a video.
Because it is screen-based work a€“ and therefore by default associated with television a€“ there is the danger that the expectation is that everything should be obvious straight away and on one viewing and for there to be a sense of narrative closure. These offered a refreshing alternative to the broadcasts of full length ballets a€?livea€™ from the stage at Covent Garden Opera House that then made up the majority of dance on UK television.A  Now experienced film and television directors and choreographers were being brought together to experiment with movement, cameras and editing and the results were broadcast to audiences that, although perhaps small by prime-time television standards, were inconceivable in a live theatre context.
Here, highly textural abstract images, unidentifiable, yet obviously derived from images of human action, were edited using repetition, the sound and image interacting and building up rhythms which I found both compelling and very moving.
Here, my two main areas of interesta€“ improvisation as a creative tool and visual and aural perception a€“ seemed to converge.A  Together with Touchdowna€™s director Katy Dymoke, I developed an idea which would eventually become a€?Sense-8a€™, a video dance commissioned by the Arts Council of England as part of their Capture scheme. Albans in England possessed what may be called an historical school, or institute, which was then the chief center of English narrative history or chronicle, and with a different environment might have become the nucleus of a great university. Most of these maps appear to have belonged to separate traditions, although the extensive corpus of maps in Matthew Parisa€™s chronicles, combining as it does multiple map types, suggests the degree to which a graphically inclined author might be familiar with and able to deploy images from all the known categories of maps, in addition to other types of drawings and diagrams.
Only two maps structured as itineraries survive, the more elaborate of which is the Peutinger map (Book I, #120). The map shows the route from England to Apulia, marking each daya€™s journey and prominent topographic features like mountains and rivers.
For example, some of the information on the Hereford world map (#226) was based on an itinerary that may show a route familiar to English traders in France.
In many ways they continue the itinerary from England to Sicily (Otranto in Apulia was a common point of embarkation for Acre). CCCC 26 contains the annals from creation to 1188, CCCC 16 from 1189 to 1253, and Royal 14 C.viii from 1254 to 1259, when Matthew died. These contain images of cities, connected by clearly marked roads inscribed journee [a daya€™s journey].
This mode of associating travela€™s a€?microa€? with its a€?macro,a€? as it were, was of increasing significance in the 13th century, when pavement labyrinths were either first used in European churches or were newly popular. And by presenting its audiences with a richly meaningful image of the city of Jerusalem a€“ one whose centrality in the nave mimicked that citya€™s centrality in the world and whose fundamental geometry signaled a cosmic architecture a€“ this pavement triggered associations with the city, both in its earthly and historic instance and with its future, heavenly instantiation, and it did so as it invited its audiences to perform an imagined pilgrimage to this sacred center. Labyrinths allowed church visitors to travel short distances in the densely confined knots of their paths, while simultaneously travelling to the very a€?centera€? of the world, emphatically emphasized by their symmetrical forms. Perhaps unsurprisingly, they are filled with problems, and become a€?very muddled and confusing,a€? with cities that are a€?misplaceda€? or appear twice. The well-known Psalter Map, for example, is a typical mappamundi, displaying the entire ecumene, that is, the inhabitable world, as known to 13th century English cartographers (#223).
Wonders of this sort are not incidental to the function of medieval maps like the Psalter; rather, they are essential components thereof, supplying a necessary antipode to a central Jerusalem, rooted in biblical and patristic texts. Matthew represented marvels known from monster cycles like the Marvels of the East and the Liber monstrorum, and from contemporary narratives about cultural others like the a€?Tartarsa€? a€“ a medieval Christian term for the Mongols a€“ but also from personal observation, such as the elephant given by Louis IX to Henry III, which appears as one of the prefatory images appended to CCCC 16.
As Dan Terkla writes in a€?The Original Placement of the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Imago Mundi, vol. They are wholly absent from the itinerary maps, and appear in a limited scope on the Holy Land maps a€“ CCCC 16). Roughly centered, on either side of the gutter and just above the wall of Acre, are two large blocks of text. These are not, to my observation, a common feature of the maps, and of course I cannot speculate on the date of this erasure.
In contrast, the Ebstorf map, for example, gives us a gory presentation of these cannibal hordes. For Matthew and his contemporaries, there existed only one future, and its expected arrival was nearly coincident with his creation of the maps. One response might be that the sorts of monsters found on the Psalter Map and other mappaemundi were seen as normal elements of creation, rather than as portents of the apocalypse. Returning to Matthewa€™s off-center image of Jerusalem, we find that the three structures it contains are not as they were at the time of the mapa€™s creation.
The journey may be long a€“ at least 46 days in Lewisa€™s reckoning a€“ and the path may not be singular or even, further out on the journey, marked at all, but one day, one day, one day, for Matthew anda€?his monastic audience, one day the reader would at last arrive. Their path from town to town has the appearance of being perpetually straight and direct, but in fact would twist and turn. Just beneath Jerusalem, inscribed in red and oriented ninety degrees counter-clockwise to the rest of the map, again following our orientation from our bodies, forward, we read le chemin de Iafes a Ierusalem [a€?the road from Jaffa to Jerusalema€?].
Here we seem to see movements in space as we traverse the paths a€“ initially forking for Matthew, but ultimately as singular on his maps as on the labyrinths. This is surely the case, more often than not, but medieval maps are frequently anagogic, pointed a spiritual meaning only to be realized in a heavenly future.
The extension of its city walls to the left show the fortifications constructed by St Louis during his crusade in 1252-4. Babylon of Egypt).A  The first of these is of 1231, the second of 1265, the third of 1289-1291, but it is probable that earlier redactions of the last two already existed in Matthewa€™s time, and were used by him. The journey may be long a€“ at least 46 days in Lewisa€™s reckoning a€“ and the path may not be singular or even, further out on the journey, marked at all, but one day, one day, one day, for Matthew andhis monastic audience, one day the reader would at last arrive.
When you launch the app, it opens a window, which asks you to select the PowerPoint file you want to view.
And since it’s a Microsoft product, it open files without hampering the quality even a bit.
This free PowerPoint Viewer works with almost all Windows versions (in both 32 and 64-bit formats) and is available in 7 different languages, including English, German, French, Italian, Chinese Traditional, Chinese Simplified, and Japanese. This free PowerPoint Viewer provides a user-friendly interface, though it doesn’t supports opening files in latest PowerPoint formats. There are now many individual artists and collaborative teams who have made several video dance works and who, over time, have developed their own unique approaches to making dance for the screen. Mainly through the books of Sally Banes, and a very few video documentation of performances, I learnt about their revolutionary approaches to making dance in New York in the a€?sixties and a€?seventies.
On visits to the south of Spain, I saw Moorish art that used repetition to create beauty and invoke contemplation. What I had not anticipated was that I would come across a whole different area of art a€“ video art a€“ which, in my view, shared much in common with the post-modern dance practises which had so inspired me. Whilst the initial starting point for each of the video dance works I have directed may have be different, the work shares common concerns and approaches.
In the need to ensure that a pre-planned camera movement could happen or a certain light and framing came into play, fixed points in space needed to be reached by the dancers. The various sections of the finished work are based on a series of improvisations which explore different relationships between camera and dancer, and the effect of various lenses, framing choices and ways of moving camera in relation to a variety of explorations of movement ideas by the dancer. The significance of a moment, or movement, is explored as time is slowed down, stretched, speeded up, repeated or stopped by the editing.
Secondly, there is the a€?montagea€™ approach, in which shots are taken from different spatial and temporal contexts and are re-ordered, breaking down completely the sequence of the live action and creating a spatial logic and rhythm unique to the video dance work. By using the possibilities offered by this new media, I began to really explore the effect on the perception of time and movement of repeated and altered patterns of montage.
When you watch the sequence in the finished video dance, in your minda€™s eye the truncated sequence still covers the same ground as it did when it was made up of the full 12 shots and the performer seems to compete the phrase in a dramatically shorted space of time. He understood the ideas that Marisa and I had been exploring and was able to take them onto new levels through his understanding of editing. This is something that is often done when a dancer with visual impairment or who cannot see at all, is part of a group of Contact Improvisers. In the case of a€?The Trutha€™, however, it was two dancers, Kate Gowar and Karin Fisher-Potisk, the Artistic Directors of the dancer-run company Ricochet Dance Productions, who approached myself and Simon to make a new video dance work.
It was very exciting for us all that these two talented choreographers embraced the challenged of this very a€?hands offa€™ collaboration with such imagination, understanding and commitment.
However, this time it felt important that the choreography should follow its own line of development and be created according to the choreographersa€™ and the dancersa€™ understanding of the characters relationships and interactions. As video dance progresses, our perception of the relationships between these four characters and their relationship to each other is continually altered by the accumulation of information that we glean through the different scenes and interactions a€“ both a€?choreographeda€™ and a€?reala€™ a€“ that we see the characters involved in. Again, the intention was to capture the essence of the choreographed work and the impact of the dancersa€™ performance.
In all the video dance that I have directed, my collaborators and I have tried to make work that, on one level, demands analysis and thought, and on the other, can be enjoyed on an impressionistic or experiential level.


As a young dance-maker, I saw many of these short a€?video dancea€™ works and was inspired and excited by the potential I could see in this new, hybrid medium. A 12th or early 13th century copy of a Late Antique original, the map has usually been studied for what it can tell us of ancient cartography or of the interest in the ancient world on the part of the 15th century German humanists who rediscovered it.
Suited to its location in a chronicle, the map serves a historical purpose in demonstrating the route of a well-known contemporary diplomatic expedition, Richard of Cornwalla€™s expedition to Sicily in 1253 as the claimant to the crown, although the map contains information drawn from multiple journeys and routes.
For example, the Hereford map incorporates an itinerary through France and possibly one in Germany. Of the historical maps, one is a sketch showing the location of four pre-Roman roads in Britain. I will concentrate on the maps appended to the beginning of the first volume, though similar maps appear at the start of all three volumes, suggesting their great importance to Matthewa€™s conception of the Chronica, his major work. Each column, then, represents a segment of the voyage from London, at the base of the first column of folio i r, through Sienna, at the top of the final column of the itinerary on f.
It is worth mentioning that the Psalter Map is only a few inches tall, and that the whole codex fits comfortably in the hand, unlike Matthewa€™s larger, more cumbersome (and ever-expanding) volume.
In essence, the center is presented as sacred and the margins as problematic, potent, and potentially monstrous, but also thereby seductive and attractive. This may result from the shift from counterpunctual arrangement of sacred center and monstrous margins on the Psalter, Ebstorf and Hereford maps, among others, to the less clearly structured arrangement of Matthewa€™s maps. Both are of a somewhat marvelous vein: to the left of the gutter, we read of Bedouins, whose description is reminiscent of wonders texts like the Marvels of the East. In the Chronica and contemporary accounts, Gog and Magog are conflated with the two most prominent cultural Others perceived as threats to 13th century a€?Christendoma€™: Jews and Mongols. Second, and more importantly, the choice to include or exclude such images might have been predicated on chronology. If those mental wanderings took them to the right destination, they would realize the function of the labyrinths rather than contradict them. Very quickly however, the labyrinth focuses your concentration on the path, else you are likely to stray from it. In walking a labyrinth, virtual pilgrims orient themselves to its shifting orientation; in traversing the itinerary, the world is bent, reorienting itself constantly to our perspective, making the shift to the trackless conclusion, the map of the Holy Land, all the more powerful. However, since the endpoints on Matthewa€™s maps and at the centers of the labyrinths are the Heavenly Jerusalem, the motion is as chronological as it is geographical. That is, while medieval maps are organized spatially, they are in a sense oriented temporally. The de-centered maps of Matthew, unlike the labyrinths or the Psalter Map and its cognates, do not announce their radial orientation toward Jerusalem. At the upper left is the enclosure in which Alexander confined Gog and Magog, but Matthew notes that they have now emerged in the form of Tartars. Albans, a portion of the supposed Pilgrim-road, as far as southern Italy, is given in another shape, together with the Schema Britanniae.
They support almost all PowerPoint file formats, and allows you to conveniently and quickly view PowerPoint files on your system. You can the, simply choose the desired file to open.  It can open any kind of PowerPoint presentations and allow you to view them in full screen. It would have been better if the developer had revised the application to make it compatible with all available PowerPoint formats.
Moreover, whilst when I started out, I was amongst the first of the so-called a€?hybrida€™ video dance artists, having trained in both dance and the moving image, now in the UK and elsewhere, many undergraduate dance courses offer video dance as an area of both practical and academic study. I was intrigued by the post-modernsa€™ perception of movement as interesting in itself and not necessarily representing anything other than itself and by their presentation of so-called a€?pedestrian movementa€™ as dance.
The result often seemed to be that the dancersa€™ movement, and therefore performance, was impeded. For those coming from a narrative film background, where the convention is to work from a pre-written script, improvisation can seem an alien concept, although similar practises have been used by many well-known film-makers.
In other cases, such as a€?Pacea€™ and a€?Sense-8a€™, all the material that was used in the final edit was generated through structured improvisation. The narratives that emerge tend to be subtle and intriguing, suggested rather than explained, impressionistic rather than literal. The effect is that the speed of the solo dancera€™s movement seems to increase dramatically as the space closes in. At other times, we catch a€?birda€™s eyea€™ glimpses of the scene from a surveillance-style camera position. It highlights the fact that we all a€?seea€™ things differently and how our descriptions of what we are seeing and hearing a€“ what we pick up on - reveal a great deal about our perception of our environment.
I hoped this would give the dancersa€™ performance an integrity of its own and help to produce a tension between their action and how the viewer then experiences this through the way the camera and the editing interprets and alters the action. It is, however, extremely important to remember the commitment of time and resources involved in producing the medieval copy: the question then arises of what this map meant to the society that found the human and financial resources to copy it.
Parisa€™ map of Palestine draws on the kind of information about the length of the journey from city to city that would normally be found in an itinerary as an indication of scale for the map. Harvey has suggested that the maps of England and the Holy Land might be seen as enlargements of the end points of the itinerary. Daniel Connolly in his book The Maps of Matthew Paris: Medieval Journeys through Space, Time and Liturgy writes that Matthew began the Chronica majora a€?as a fairly strict copy up to about 1235, of Roger Wendovera€™s Flores historiarum [Flowers of History]. There is, though, a more substantive manner in which the itineraries break down their apparent linearity: they a€?forka€? from the very start, with two paths diverging from London. Still, the Psalter Map remains a strong point of comparison for two reasons: first, it was made within perhaps a dozen years of Matthewa€™s maps. While Iain Macleod Higgins (Defining the Eartha€™s Center) is correct that a€?the viewer of a circular map can never quite lose sight of a well-marked center, since the very shape of the map keeps onea€™s gaze circling around it,a€? by the same logic, we cannot lose sight of the periphery for long, and the visual attention given to the monstrous peoples of the South, as well as the other peripheral points of interest, keep pulling the gaze back. Matthew managed through his texts, marginal illustrations and maps, to bring the whole of the world and its history, from Creation to the present, from sacred Jerusalem to the monstrous elephant, to himself and his monastic brethren.
In contrast, a€?[t]he main audience for [Matthewa€™s] maps doubtless was the brethren at St. Unlike these other maps, Matthewa€™s maps of the Holy Land de-center Jerusalem and, since it is not replaced with anything else, they do not have a clearly defined umbilicus.
To the right, more promisingly, we find a passage that begins, in Lewisa€™s translation, a€?There are many marvels in the Holy Land, of which [only a few] shall be mentioned.a€? However, these marvels are, in comparison to the Wonders of the East and other such texts, somewhat anemic.
Indeed, these beasts a€“ fairly ordinary to modern eyes a€“ do appear just above the two- faced people in the Beowulf manuscripta€™s version of the Wonders of the East. Muslims occupied the Holy Sepulcher, as well as the Temple of Solomon a€“ home of the Knights Templar a€“ and the Temple of the Lord by 1250. By tracing their routes on foot or on their knees, virtual pilgrims would hope to reap spiritual rewards akin to those gained on pilgrimage, effecting peregrinatio in stabilitate a€“ that is, pilgrimage without moving. There is a second pathway, also rubricated and turned ninety degrees, at the right edge of the map. Yes, they are oriented toward the east, but on several mappaemundi, beyond the east, it is Jesus who rises. Instead, they challenge the viewer to work though them slowly, meditatively, to explore and wander as we do in life.
So if you don’t have to create or edit PowerPoint files, you can simply rely on these free PowerPoint Viewer applications, instead of purchasing the full Microsoft Office suit.
Its more like viewing a PowerPoint presentation in Microsoft PowerPoint, except that you can’t enter the edit mode.
This maturing and widening out of video dance means that it has reached the stage where the discussion of the nature of the art form and the support of its continued development can, and must, include very different ways of working, styles of delivery and artistic intentions. I was also struck by their break away from the conventional theatre setting for dance performances. Dance makers are probably more familiar with the idea of working with improvisation, both as a means of generating material which will then be choreographed and as performance material in its own right.
The drama of the chase is then relieved by the gradual introduction of new material, with a very different texture, shape and inherent rhythm. As the video dance progresses, the camera is drawn closer into the action, until as the viewer you feel as though you too are part of the Contact Improvisation jam. In the edit for a€?Sense-8a€™, we brought all these elements together, adding layers of sound to the montaged visual material to create one fluid, multi-perspective experience of the dance. It has been plausibly explained in the context of the strong interest in the classical world that we have already seen influencing the toponyms of later medieval world maps; however, more research should be done to elucidate the importance and the influence of this map. In 1240, or soon after, Matthew started writing, covering the material from 1235 and continuing to the middle of 1258, at which time another hand takes over.a€? These maps, along with the marginal images throughout the Chronica, have been securely attributed to Matthew himself and, according to Suzanne Lewis in her The Art of Matthew Paris in the Chronica Majora a€?may be regarded in large part as original conceptions and inventions,a€? rather than derivatives of traditional models.
Second, unlike some mappaemundi, including Hereford (#226) and Ebstorf (#224), the Psalter Map was not freestanding.
Indeed, two of the three sites were originally Muslim structures a€“ the Temple of Solomon was a mosque and the Temple of the Lord was the Dome of the Rock a€“ and they had reverted to Muslim control by the time the maps were made. The labyrinth is at first a challenge of some dexterity, and so it also foregrounds your sense of balance and of bodily position relative to it.
The maps echo and invoke the actual experience of pilgrimage, which a€“ like modern travel a€“ was surely bewildering, disorienting, but also amazing. The Hereford, Ebstorf, and the Psalter maps are all oriented not only toward Earthly Paradise at their eastern extreme, but beyond it to the creator of that paradise.
They become all the more powerful, therefore, when their off-center, deemphasized Jerusalem turns out to be the only and inevitable end. This free PowerPoint Viewer is a multi-screen viewer, which allows opening separate PowerPoint documents together, in different screens. These interconnections are especially striking in the rich cartographic production of Matthew Paris. On the peripheries of both maps, we see the Garden of Eden, the Red Sea, a plethora of monstrous peoples, and the hordes of Gog and Magog (feasting in bloody cannibalism, on the Ebstorf and also, perhaps, on the Hereford). In CCCC 26, the center would be just east of (that is, above) the crenellated wall of Acre. In a sense, this follows the logic of the mappaemundi discussed above; we appear to have zoomed in on the center of these maps, to focus on the area around Jerusalem, which would necessitate cropping the worlda€™s monstrous fringe. Like medieval labyrinths, Matthew Parisa€™s maps were not mazes per se, in that there are not alternate routes leading to dead ends: both contain singular paths. At the same time, there is a loss of your sense of a€?placea€? in the church as orientations are constantly shifting and revolving. So, too, while these maps are centered on Jerusalem, this umbilical point presses the viewer to consider the future. The first columns contain cities connected by clearly marked paths; these are followed by columns with cities still arranged in clearly linear fashion, but without the marked paths.
CCCC 26 opens, following the flyleaves reused from a manuscript of canon law, with a series of linked maps running from folio i recto through iv recto (the lowercase Roman numerals indicate the status of these folios as prefatory). The Psalter Map is one of two that form a sort of series, like Matthewa€™s maps, with one more geographical and one more linear, text replacing itinerary but no less clearly directional and effacing of actual geographic arrangement. Jerusalem a€“ so ardently central on the Psalter Map a€“ is shunted off to the right by Matthew. However, if we assume some consistency of geographical space from map to map, Matthewa€™s expansive map, filling the complete manuscript opening and extending out onto added flaps of vellum, does reach to the margins of the world. Matthewa€™s paths seem to fork out from London, but ultimately all converge at one geo-chronological endpoint, at a place that is also a time: the Heavenly Jerusalem, at the center of the physical world and simultaneously the end of human history. Its movements to and fro, back and forth create a regular and somewhat wearying effect that combines with the hypnotic vision of the pavement receding beneath your alternating steps.
Then, the linearity ends, and we are left with images that are more conventionally a€?map-likea€? in their appearance.
We are able to choose our path to the Holy Land a€“ should we, leaving London, travel via the main route, Le Chemin a Rouescestre [the Road to Rochester] or the side route, le chemin ver la costere et la mer [the road toward the coast and the sea]?
Indeed, before the late-13th century insertion of additional prefatory miniatures, it was positioned before its text as a sort of frontispiece, as are Matthewa€™s, and was also one of a series of maps.
He adds an inscription referring to Jerusalem as a€?the midpoint of the world,a€? which seems visually contradicted by his map, whereas such an inscription would have been redundant on the Psalter Map. At the upper left corner of the foldout flap along the folioa€™s left edge, as if to ensure the clarity of their separation from the Holy Land, are the peoples of Gog and Magog, visually implied by the wall of the Caspian Mountains, held there until the end of time, when they are to be released to rampage across the face of the earth. Instead, it presents the period before, but also simultaneously, the period after, the transient, lost glory of the Crusader Kingdom and the immutable glory of the Heavenly Kingdom to come.
Like the labyrinthsa€™ single paths, Matthewa€™s many roads can only guide the viewer toward one destination.
Most images function spatially, not linearly, but the itinerary pages present a line or course of travel; a route, much as a text would. Once in the Holy Land (CCCC 16), we are free to choose any routes we desire, as the roads themselves disappear (up until the very end, as will be discussed below).
The Psalter Map, like medieval labyrinths, is emphatically centered on Jerusalem a€“ following a new 13th century trend a€“ and around its circumference, we find points of great interest.
The Caspian Mountains, restraining the hordes of Gog and Magog, actually touch the very margins of the world on the Psalter and Ebstorf Maps, and nearly do so on the Hereford Map. They prepare and condition the viewer, raising an expectation that the maps will function in a linear fashion, and thereby convey motion in time as well as space. Upon hearing that the Mongols a€“ feared by Christians to be the apocalyptic hordes a€“ are making progress toward Europe, he imagines that continental Jews a€?assembled on a general summons in a secret place, where one of their number who seemed to be the wisest and most influential amongst thema€? instructs them to undertake a complex plot to smuggle arms to the Mongols, so that they can defeat the Christians. The final segment of the path a€“ le chemin de Iafes a Ierusalem [the road from Jaffa to Jerusalea€?] a€“ realizes this expectation. Matthewa€™s fantasy is not merely xenophobic, but outright eschatological, a vital distinction in the context of the maps of CCCC 26. If the Mongols (or the Jews, or for that matter, the Mongols and Jews, or even the Jewish Mongols) are the hordes of Gog and Magog, then they have already broken out of the gate prophesied to contain them until the apocalypse. It reads, Le chemin de laphes a Alisandre.a€? This seems to be a vestige, a latent echo of the itinerarya€™s multiple paths.



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