A constitution is a set of rules that guides how a country, state, or other political organization works.
While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region.
In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee.
The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American.
According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation.
The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary. The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings. The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes.
With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation.
The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members.
New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country.
By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish.
Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W.
The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W. As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.
This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals.
In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States.
When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized. 21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents.
30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000. 33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video).
37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.
In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J.
In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. To read more about the Ninth Ciruit Court of Appeals on remand from the US Supreme Court decision. Prohibiting Angel Raicha€™s medical cannabis activities a€“ which the undisputed evidence establishes are necessary to save her from intolerable pain and death a€“ would unduly burden her fundamental rights and would thus violate the Fifth Amendmenta€™s Due Process Clause and the retained rights referred to in the Ninth Amendment.
The government does not attempt to refute Appellantsa€™ showing that the Due Process Clause and the Ninth Amendment protect not only the fundamental right to a€?life,a€? but also the fundamental rights to make life-shaping decisions, preserve bodily integrity, and avoid severe pain. Before examining the numerous omissions and flawed premises underlying the governmenta€™s argument for rationality review, an important inaccuracy that pervades the governmenta€™s brief must be corrected. The government also errs in dismissing the Ninth Amendment based on United Public Workers v. To read the briefs from the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals on Remand from the Supreme Court click here.A  To read all the briefs filed to date in this case click here. This case, first and foremost, is about granting sick and dying patients the right to a medicine that has proven medical benefits supported by government studies and health care professionals. The Attorney General and the federal government now have a choice: They can choose to continue wasting taxpayersa€™ dollars raiding the homes of sick and dying patientsa€”suffering from diseases like cancer, chronic pain, leukemia, multiple sclerosis and AIDSa€”who are abiding by state and local laws, or they can choose more worthwhile priorities, like national security or arresting terrorists. Overwhelming support for more common sense medical cannabis laws, most recently in Montana, Ann Arbor MI, and Columbia MO further point to growing public support for cannabis as legitimate medicine and the compassion most Americans have for severely ill people who rely on cannabis to alleviate their suffering. Something must be done now to protect sick and dying patients in accessing the medicine that helps them lead a healthier and less painful life.


The federal government does not have the right to interfere if a state decides to allow doctors to recommend proven treatments for their patients.
To date, the federal government has ignored conclusive scientific dataa€”even from their own studiesa€”about the effectiveness of medical cannabis. The federal government should not interfere between a patient and her doctora€™s decision to recommend the medicine that best treats the patienta€™s illness. People who suffer from chronic pain, leukemia, cancer, multiple sclerosis and other life-threatening illnesses should not have to live in fear of being arrested for taking the medicine they need to survivea€”medicine their doctors are recommending for them. Be sure to check out all of our Supreme Court briefs and all of the friends of the court amicus briefs. The United States Supreme Court reviewed the December 16, 2003, Ninth Circuit Court of Appealsa€™ ruling in Raich v. If you are having problems downloading any of the pdf files, please use this link to update your Adobe Acrobat Reader to the latest version. The constitution may tell what the branches of the government are, what powers they have, and how they work.
The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department.
They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890.
In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself.
In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms". Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I.
Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional.
These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty.
On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik.
Nor does it dispute that its prohibition of Angela€™s medically necessary activities must be ruled unconstitutional if this Court applies the undue burden standard.
So while the Supreme Court ruling is disappointing, my battle - the battle I share with thousands of medical cannabis patients across the country - is far from over. Justice Stevens wrote in the decision that Congress can change the law to allow medical use of cannabis as medicine. This case is about enabling states to advance social policies beyond the reach of Congress that help extremely sick patients live with their illnesses. This is a federalism issue, and the federal government has no business poking its nose into it. Clearly the federal government is playing politics with patientsa€™ lives, choosing to ignore scientific fact. They will prove there is medical evidence to support the use of medical cannabis and how the government has at every turn tried to prevent research. Supreme Court Heard this landmark Medical Cannabis Case Involving the Federal Governmenta€™s Persecution of Severely ill Patients and Caregivers. Ashcroft to decide whether the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 is unconstitutional as it applies to a patienta€™s or caregivera€™s right to cultivate and possess cannabis to treat medical conditions as recommended by the patienta€™s doctor. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education.
Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft.
United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case. Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy.
He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low.
Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins.
They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought.
Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law.


On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national. A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP.
Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W. Instead, it simply denies that any fundamental rights are at stake and insists that mere rationality review applies. 558 (2003), the Supreme Courta€™s most recent a€“ and thus controlling a€“ ruling on the substantive protections of the Due Process Clause. The single most important thing to understand is that state and local laws on the books protecting medical cannabis patients and their doctors will continue to stand and are not at all affected by this ruling. We have support from Constitional Law Scholars, the Institute for Justice, three states that support the use of medical cannabis, and we have support from three concervative states that support federalism. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead. Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama.
He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel.
As a result of this omission and its misunderstandings of the Supreme Courta€™s other applicable opinions, the government characterizes Angela€™s fundamental rights far too narrowly and fails to engage in the historical analysis that the Supreme Courta€™s precedents demand. While the decision is disappointing, the timing is fortunate because next week, the House of Representatives will vote on medical cannabis legislation that would do just that. In fact, 4our states with medical cannabis laws on the books are red: Colorado, Nevada, Montana and Alaska.
Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G. Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks.
This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black. 449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama.
Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships.
At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982.
The government compounds these errors by relying heavily on plainly inapplicable cases involving attempts to obtain laetrile in commerce as an elective treatment and persons seeking to select a healthcare provider who fails to satisfy basic licensing requirements. Appellants have made it abundantly clear that Angel challenges only the constitutionality of complete prohibition of her medical cannabis use, and that she does not object to reasonable regulations of such use. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education.
The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v.
Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro".
Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996. Mitchell unjustifiably collapsed the Ninth and Tenth Amendments, which were adopted to address different problems. Opening up an important window of opportunity for medical cannabis patients and their caregivers, the United States Supreme Court will review the Ninth Circuit Court of Appealsa€™ December 16, 2003 ruling in Ashcroft v. Accordingly,IT IS HEREBY ORDERED THAT, during the pendency of this action Defenants and their agents and officers, and any person acting in consort wit them, are hereby enjoined from arresting or prosecuting Plaintiffs Angel McClary Raich and Diane Monson, siezing their medical cannabis, forfeiting their property, or seeking civil or administrative sanctions against them with respect to the intrastate, noncommercial cultivation, possession, use, and obtaining without charge of cannabis for personal medical purposes on the advice of a phycician and in accordance with state law, and which is not used for distribution, sale or exchange; and Read more of the Raich preliminary injunction On December 16, 2003. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals issued an opinion reversing and remanding the case Raich v.
86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come.
The case, scheduled before the high court on November 29, 2004 will set a national precedent by weighing whether or not patients have the legal right to treat their illnesses by medicating with cannabis when recommended by their doctors. Ashcroft to the district court with instructions to enter a preliminary injunction, as sought by the patients and caregivers. Mitchell has been superseded by more recent cases a€“ which the government fails to cite a€“ in which the Supreme Court has expressly relied on the Ninth Amendment to support its recognition of unenumerated rights. The Court having considered all the pleadings filed in this matter, the argument made by counsel, and for good cause having been shown, Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction is GRANTED.
833, 848 (1992) (citing Ninth Amendment as textual support for holding); Richmond Newspapers v. In any event, Appellants invoke the Ninth Amendment not because it alters the Supreme Courta€™s Due Process Clause jurisprudence, but rather because it provides strong textual and historical support for that jurisprudence.



Free professional website builder online tool
Jewish dating ottawa




Comments to «How to cite a government website»

  1. shokaladka writes:
    Will be obtainable in significant bookstores and she's not only.
  2. DeatH writes:
    Reach that in really like all humorous teases that.
  3. PredatoR writes:
    The space, even if you are in a area complete of?super but when you get.


2015 Make video presentation adobe premiere pro | Powered by WordPress