For example, the usage of & and nesting allowed for the cleaning up of otherwise rather gross code blocks.
All style variations of the .widget element are clearly nested below itself, using indentation as both a visual cue for relevancy and a query generator. Nested media queries are a younger addition, but they hint that evolution towards indented syntax for styles comes almost naturally. This creates harder to read code with a lot of duplicity, especially when real world usage extends way over our small example piece. While it is in direct violation of our "nesting all relevant styles" dream, its the imperfection we learned to live with. This idea has been secretly bothering me for quite a while, if only out of some form of OCD about my own stylesheets.
While digging around the topic, Ive found spider webs, eternal discussions, and wildly varying propositions, many of which suggested adding some special syntax to the current selector character &. Secondly, I think & works well because its a clear representation of the whole context, and for that reason it might be problematic adding more features to it. Additions to a compound element present in the current selector proved to handle ~80% of real world code, just like our first example tries to achieve.
While crash testing this in production (hah!), I found another very practical need that I couldnt satisfy with modifications of the parent tree only. However, the styled element in question is tr and you already have that as a generic style, so theoretically, nesting it below itself as a variant might be closer to how you think about the relationship, filling the gaps that current selector & cannot describe. In this case, it means there has to be a simple way to insert some selector at a certain position above the current element while also allowing combinations with compound modifications. In this case, the caret is inserting thead _one_ level above current or last modified element. After using it for a while, Ive found that most of my inconvenient code patterns are solved rather easily by just changing one element here and there or pushing a new selector at a certain position and keep things in place. If you use it, I would hope that the correct handling would be like with any other tool: when its fit for the job.
In the near future, Id like to get the Stylus port working and perhaps create an Atom editor plugin to display the resulting query as a hint in the code. It was fun taking a shot at solving the first-world problems of CSS and it is my hope that you consider the subject at least worthy of a discussion.
Love it or hate it, here it is on GitHub, heres a little microsite and heres a live debugger for good measure. If youre sick of patch updates and security vulnerabilities, LightCMS may be a good option. I wrote about a bunch of design things you should think about if you use the tag in your content.
This one required an extra element inside the content area (the ".push"), to ensure that the negative margin didnt pull the footer up and cover any content. This technique did not require a push element, but instead, required an extra wrapping element around the content in which to apply matching bottom padding to.
Kind of a wash between this technique and the previous one, as they both require extra otherwise unnecessary HTML elements. I had a little situation where I head a header with a span in it, and I wanted to make sure to put a line break before the span. Rather than a , we could use a , and well get that break just by virtue of the div being a block-level element. Ive long been a fan of pseudo element trickery, but this feels slightly dangerous in that you may be hurting accessibility.
In this final post of our series on CSS Modules, I’ll be taking a look at how to make a static React site with the thanks of Webpack.
In the previous post we set up a quick project with Webpack that showed how dependencies can be imported into a file and how a build process can be used to make a unique class name that is generated in both CSS and HTML.


To catch up, you can check out the css-modules-react repo I’ve made which is just a demo project that gets us up to where the last demo left off. We set the libraryTarget because that’s a requirement for nodejs and the static site plugin to work properly.
And if we check out our build directory then we should find an index.html file with our content. Before we do that we should move our routes into a separate file just to keep things nice and tidy. We want to make lots of little bundles of HTML and CSS that we can then bundle into a template (like an About or Homepage). There are two things to note here: First, if you’re unfamiliar with the JSX syntax that React uses, then it’s helpful to know that the text inside the body element is a comment. What this does is import all our markup from `Main.js` (which will subsequently import the Head React component) and then it’ll render all of this with React DOM. We need to deliver certain bits of code to certain _routes_: on the About page we need content for the About page, and likewise on a Homepage, Blog or any other page we might want to have. Before we begin it’s worth noting that in this tutorial we’ll be using version 2.0 of React Router and there are a bevy of changes since the previous version.
If you’re unfamiliar with what’s going on here then it’s best to take a look at Brad Westfall’s intro to React Router. There are certainly ways in which we could improve this project, for one we could add Browsersync to our Webpack workflow so we don’t have to keep npm installing all the time. By making a static site with React we’ve lost a great deal of the magical properties that React gives us out of the box, including managing state, yet it’s still possible to serve two kinds of website with this system: you can make a static site as I’ve shown you above and then progressively enhance everything with React superpowers after the fact. This workflow is neat and tidy but there are many instances when this combination of CSS Modules, React and Webpack would be complete overkill.
However, if there are lots of people contributing CSS to the codebase everyday then it might be extraordinarily helpful if CSS Modules prevented any errors that are thanks to the cascade. When it arrived on the scene, some extremely useful patterns emerged and got quickly adopted. Styling the variation of an element that is invoked either by a property of the element itself or a prepending parent state. Its easy to read and navigate, because it somehow mirrors the familiar DOM structure and keeps all styles for an element in one place, while still producing our precious, yet sometimes complicated, selectors. This means that our .widget is now styled in different places, and this separation grows for every added state in each element in the nest.
Many of you would probably even defend this pattern, because it has been the way things are done for quite a while.
Doing that would mean months of learning complicated core libraries and fighting the long war, which instantly felt like an unacceptable burden. It does one thing and does it well, so creating a good partner to it seemed like a better idea at this time. Unfortunately, due to issue 1703, the current selector placeholder cannot be modified inside a mixin function as of right now.
While it is missing many useful abstractions for manipulation with strings and arrays, it is very possible to craft such functions manually. But its suggestive of the functionality, because you want this thing readable in the actual code. I couldnt imagine this without adding a special character, so I went with the visually suggestive ^ caret. Still, I need to be honest, it is potentially quite invasive to your usual code organization by nature of the idea. Spamming complex nested mixins will unlikely score high on readability than flat out writing the full query, but on the other hand it can simplify most real world problems while keeping a slim footprint.
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But not always, if there is enough content on the page to push the footer lower, it still does that.
Then there is not any overlapping going on, just two elements stacked on top of each other totaling 100% height. The trick here is to make the span block level, but then inject the text with a pseudo element and style it as an inline element. I think some screen readers read pseudo elements, but I dont think all, nor are they supposed to.
This static site will have two templates: a homepage and an about page with a couple of React components to explain how it works in practice. The following example relies heavily on that tutorial so it’s definitely worth working through those previous examples first. We depended on JavaScript to render our markup and it wasn’t entirely clear how we should structure a project. You also might have noticed that odd element—that’s not a standard HTML element—it’s a React component and what we’re doing here is passing it data via its title attribute. And although I’ll be sticking with Webpack’s CSS loader and what I used in the previous tutorial, there are alternatives. We could also add Sass, PostCSS and a number of loaders and plugins to help out, but in the sake of brevity I’ve decided to leave those out of the project for now.
Well, although this looks like an awful lot of work we now have a modular environment to write code. Depending on the size and scope of the web project it would be borderline crazy to spend the time implementing this solution—if it was only a single web page, for instance.
But this might lead to designers having less access to the codebase because they must now learn how to write Javascript, too.
I don’t think so, because—as with all front-end techniques— the solution depends on the problem and not all problems are the same.
This is for large-scale WordPress sites that need the scaling and high-availability of AWS, all managed by the crack engineers at Media Temple. Like a good zealot Ill wait until the end of time for Stylus to fix it, but I had to keep searching for something I could implement _now_. Mixin syntax is already familiar with preprocessor users, so having a suggestive name for describing changes _in_ element parents sounded right to me as an added bumper against unfamiliarity.
But if the content on the page is short, a sticky footer will still hang to the bottom of the browser window.
If it did, that would have to be factored into the negative margins, and having those two numbers not in sync doesnt look quite as nice.
In this post we’ll be looking at a more realistic example whereby we try to make a few components with our new Webpack knowledge. There are also a lot of dependencies that have to be supported for this method to work correctly. You’ll of course have full access to the HTML and CSS of your sites and you’ll even get a free website for your business. The face you can force table layout from CSS is all about exploiting the unique layout properties of table layout -- not semantics.
Its that bottom margin plus the height of the footer that need to be added together to subtract from the viewport height. And yeah, were using viewport units here as another little trick to avoid having to set 100% body height before you can set 100% wrapper height.
Using flexbox for a sticky footer not only doesnt require any extra elements, but allows for a variable height footer.



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