When asked what he would do if Bolin Chen and Song Ji Hyo actually dated, Gary replied, “If that’s what she really wants, I’m okay with it.
The work is written in Turkish with large naskhi script in black ink on 90 leaves of delicate finished (aharlA±) paper. This work was made for the Treasury of Sultan Murad III, and the quality of its paintings, its binding and its calligraphy make it one of the greatest works of Ottoman art created for a sultan. A contemporary copy of an illustrated cosmography, and perhaps the earliest to survive of the great geographer Ibn al-Wardi (d. The work has also been attributed to an earlier author, Zayn al-Din Abu Hafs a€?Umar Ibn al-Muzaffar Ibn al-Wardi, who died in 1348 AD, but according to the 1479 and 1487 copies of the Kharidat, this author would pre-date the original work. Though the identity of the author is still uncertain, at the very least the physical evidence of our copy would indicate either that it is a very early edition of the later Ibn al-Wardi, perhaps copied within a few years of the original, or that it is an edition of the earlier author, completed within less than a century of his death.
Islamic sacred geography differs from the Ptolemaic tradition in that it does not employ cartographic grids, or longitude and latitude scales; as a rule, these used Mecca and the Kaa€?ba as the center of the world. Between the 12th and 16th centuries, the study of Islamic geography often extended to include cosmology, cosmogony, astrology and similar subjects, rather than the production of purely geographical works that were characteristic of earlier periods. In addition to the two dated copies mentioned earlier, further copies of the Kharidat al-`Ajaa€™ib include one in the Vatican Library dating to the 18th century, one of a similar date (1778 AD) in the National Library of the Czech Republic, as well as one in the Library of Congress, which is undated. The following excerpts are taken out of a work older then 968 when Cairo became the capital. The land of the Zinji lies opposite to that of Sind; between the two intervenes the breadth of the Sea of Persia. Aden, nice town, where the ships of India and China come, one finds there all the products of the eastern countries, brought there from different places, silk, arms, kaimoukt (kind of leader) , musk, aoud (aloes wood), several aromatics, ivory, ebony, clothes of grass, estimated higher is value then those of silk, lead, pearls, precious stones, the zoubad (civet) and amber.
Concerning the lands in the southern hemisphere; they start with the lands of the Sudan or the Blacks, which extends up to the extremity of the Mogreb or Africa, towards the big sea, there are many deserts there where there is nobody. The Zindges; their country is the biggest of the countries the Blacks live in, at one side it touches Abyssinie.
The island of Camar or the island of the Moon, very long and very large, one says 4 months walking east to west; there is a town called Han, where the king resides. There you do not see anymore the pole star, or the big bear, and the waves are big as mountains. He calls the area south of the sources of the Nile: Rub'a al-Kharab, one of the richest regions in the world. He describes Zanzibar as peopled by idolaters who boasted no code of writing (meaning no revealed religion) but were accustomed to being harangued (meaning they get speeches) by leaders of society in the marked places.
One finds at Sofala a big amount of gold, in very pure nuggets and each nugget (tibra) can be 2 to 3 mithcals.
Oriented with the South at the top, it shows the known world as a sphere surrounded by the Encircling Sea, which is enclosed by mountains. An important cosmography composed for the Mamluk na'ib of Aleppo Shahin, Arabic manuscript on paper, 178ff. A A  The land of the Zinji lies opposite to that of Sind; between the two intervenes the breadth of the Sea of Persia. A A A  The Zinji are extremely numerous, through deficient in the means of carrying on war. A A A  Concerning the lands in the southern hemisphere; they start with the lands of the Sudan or the Blacks, which extends up to the extremity of the Mogreb or Africa, towards the big sea, there are many deserts there where there is nobody.
A  The island of Camar or the island of the Moon, very long and very large, one says 4 months walking east to west; there is a town called Han, where the king resides. A A A  He describes Zanzibar as peopled by idolaters who boasted no code of writing (meaning no revealed religion) but were accustomed to being harangued (meaning they get speeches) by leaders of society in the marked places. A A A  One finds at Sofala a big amount of gold, in very pure nuggets and each nugget (tibra) can be 2 to 3 mithcals.


During the event, Song Ji Hyo was asked to choose between her Monday couple partner Gary and “We Got Married” partner Bolin Chen. Within are 55 miniatures depicting subjects in the text, some of them one to a page and some two. The type of paper used here, which is a style associated with 14th and 15th century Spain, and the style of calligraphy which points to a 14th century hand, suggest this copy was produced during the 14th or 15th century, and may thus indicate the earlier authorship. The tradition is generally associated with 10th century scholars such as al-Balkhi, al-Istakhri, al-Muqaddasi, Ibn Hawqal, and the ninth century geographer Ibn Khurdadhbeh (d. These cosmological works seem to have been produced for the average lay reader as organized compendia of world knowledge, rather than critical scientific works, and relied heavily on earlier sources. 64r, shows the direction of prayer to qiblah [Mecca] from different countries, seen here in 35 sectors. Several inscriptions on the inside of the front doublure exist in a later maghribi hand; one of these refers to one unidentified individual by the name of Ibn al-Maa€™mun. There are also several examples in the Chester Beatty Library, dating from the 16th to the 18th centuries; and several examples are cited in C. Others are his stories taken from Masa€™udi (without mentioning his name) in which the Zenj warriors ride on cattle.
It is said that their king goes forth to battle with three thousand followers, ridding on oxen. In the north there is a mountain who goes from one sea to the other, leaving two wholes through which the boats can pass, this town (Aden) is 4 days away from the Zendges.
That island produces nardgil or coconuts, sugarcane, one makes there clothes of grass, as beautiful as from silk, one builds boats of 60 elbows long, that carry 200 men. Mecca, the focal point of all spatial references, is near the center of the Arabian Peninsula, which is embraced by the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea in the shape of a crescent moon to signify the unity of the celestial and terrestrial worlds, a unity of conjoined sacredness. While obviously these maps were produced after the European a€?early medievala€? period, they still reflect the medieval world view of the Arab cartographers.
Seems either no one is talking about louis daguerre at this moment on GOOGLE-PLUS or the GOOGLE-PLUS service is congested. On pages 1ba€“2a two round medallions carry an inscription stating the worka€™s subject and saying that it was prepared for the Treasury of Sultan Murad III (r. This work sums the geographical knowledge of the Arabic world of the time, referring to climate, terrain, fauna and flora, population, way of living, existing states and their governments in individual regions of the world.
In addition to a compendium of place names, seas and mountains, the author has also included a description of the flora and fauna of the places he describes. 912 AD) who devised the earliest known geographical work using the Kaa€?ba as the center of the world in his Kitab al-Masalik waa€™l-Mamalik. The text and map in the manuscript suggest a medieval precursor; old place names and archaic descriptions occur frequently. The final page bears a partial reference to the owner or scribe of the manuscript, whose name appears to be al-Qawariqi. They worship idols, are brave, hardy and fight in battle riding oxen, as their country supplies neither horses, mules, nor camels. Turkish Constantinople is a red crescent a€?walla€? or barrier against the a€?people of the crossa€?.
His first chapter is almost entirely based on Yaquta€™s geography.A  As a result, those trying to date his work start from c. The author also speaks about Slavs and their lifestyle and mentions al-Mahdiyya as the residence of the Fatimid dynasty. Throughout the work, the author refers to various historians and geographers, such as al-Masa€?udi (d. These geographical works neglected to include coordinates or to employ mathematical geography in the maps, and bear great similarity to the simpler-produced maps of medieval Europe.


The region between North Africa and Syria is associated with the northwest wall of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah from east to south.
At the top, Africa is extended the length of the Indian Ocean, but unlike Ptolemya€™s map, here the continent does not enclose the ocean.
The work, which was written by the court panegyrist (Azehnameci) Sayyid Loqman AAYuri, consists of two main sections. The region between Iraq and Afghanistan is connected with the northeast wall of the Ka`ba and has a qiblah from south to west.
The Nile, drawn in red, takes a right-angle turn, possibly reflecting the rivera€™s great bend. The first begins with the universe and the signs of the zodiac and continues with stories taken from the Torah, the New Testament, and the Qura€™an which tell of the lives of prophets and those who rendered service to the faith. Its sense of proportion is highly schematic, and the location of certain places is rather unusual, but al-Andalus [Spain], Qustantaniyyah [Constantinople] and the River Nile are all approximately where one might expect.
India, Tibet and China are associated with the Black Stone in the eastern corner of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah pointing slightly northwest. Snow is not know among them, nor rain, which is commonly the case with the greater part of the country of the blacks. They have islands in the sea, from which they collect cowries to adorn their persons, and they use them in traffic one with another, at an established rate.
The original work is said to have been completed around the year 1419 AD, as stated on the earliest known copy which is dated 1479 AD (cited in R. The world is shown surrounded by water, with an outer boundary of mountains, seen here as the polychrome outer border.
A fourth region, the Yemen, the Hadramawt, Aden and Socotra are linked with the southern corner of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah pointing north.
They have no ships, but traders come in vessels from Uman, to buy their children, whom they sell in different countries. The first part ends with genealogical trees of the Prophet Muhammad, the Four Orthodox Caliphs, and the sultans and high officials of Muslim dynasties such as the Umayyads, the a€?Abbasids, the early Islamic period, the Ghaznawids, the Ilkhanids, the Seljuqs and the Timurids.
Sellheim, Arabische Handschriften: Materialen zur Arabischen Literaturgeschichte, Wiesbaden, 1976-87, Vol.
In addition to the extensive chapter on geography, the Kharidat al-`Ajaa€™ib contains a chapter on the types of birds and other animals that exist in the places that the author has described. The second part opens with Sultan Osman, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty, and goes up to Sultan Murad III, with 12 portraits of Ottoman sultans. The inclusion of a small section explaining the game of chess, including a detailed drawing, has not been recorded in other copies of Ibn al-Wardia€™s cosmography. The inhabitants are infidels, and the tartars among the blacks, consisting of savage tribes of freebooters, who continually take captive and plunder every thing that falls in their way.
In recent works from about 2000 on the Ibn al-Wardi concerned is often called pseudo Ibn al Wardi. In their country the river divides; one branch going towards Egypt, and the other to the country of the Zinji. The paper of the present manuscript can be clearly located to Spain no later than the middle of the 15th century. It is an extensive district, and mines of iron are found in it, which the people of the country work and sell to the traders from India, who give a high price for it, on account of it being harder and of better temper than that which they obtain in their own country, and they purify it and make it into steel, which admits to a durable edge.
The most remarkable produce of this country is its quantity of native gold that is found, in pieces of two or three Meskalla weight; in spite of which, the natives generally adorn their persons with ornaments of brass.




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