A quotation of less than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the sentence. Longer quotations should be set apart from the surrounding text, without quotation marks, in block format, indented five spaces from the left margin, and double spaced. In block quotations, use double quotation marks to indicate that a phrase is a direct quote. Use an ellipsis to indicate that a portion of the quotation has been omitted: three periods with spaces before and after when the words have been omitted in the middle of a sentence, four periods (with spaces before and after) when the end of a sentence has been left out.
Remember that all quotations, as well as paraphrased text from your research materials must be properly cited. Occasional observations concerning the citation of legal authorities by lawyers and judges.
In a prior post I explored how the transformation of case law to linked electronic data undercut Brian Garner’s longstanding argument that judges should place their citations in footnotes.  As that post promised, I’ll now turn to Garner’s position as it applies to writing that lawyers prepare for judicial readers. Inexorably that has led some judges to press for links between the citations in the documents they read from the screen and the authorities or portions of the record to which they refer.  Local rules commonly permit their inclusion.
An ad hoc group of federal judges and judicial staff has taken the further step of affirmatively encouraging such links.
If the electronic document has been prepared with care, its footnote calls will be linked to the notes, and if citations have been linked to the cited authorities either by the author or, as in the Fifth Circuit, by court software, the path to those authorities will not depend on the citations’ sharing the reader’s field of vision with the propositions they support.  On the other hand, the reader’s decision over whether and when to inspect a cited source now involves greater discontinuity than simple eye movement.
In sum, as more and more judges read lawyer submissions from a screen, with the near instant capability to follow citations to the case, statute, or record excerpt to which they refer, those who previously placed citations in footnotes have strong reason to reconsider. Can one see the citation and the text it supports at the same time or does that require a scroll, click, or touch? If and when one chooses to follow the linked citation to the referenced source (and back) to what degree is that move facilitated or rendered more awkward by the citation’s placement? Citation placement is by no means the only or even the most important issue raised by the conversion of citations in briefs into executable pathways leading directly to the cited text or document.  That larger topic will be the subject of a later post.
The use of this material is free for self-development, developing others, research, and organizational improvement.
This tutorial will guide you through the process of setting up Microsoft Word 2013 for your MLA Format paper. When you first start Word 2013, you are placed under the Home tab (like in the image below), if not, click on the Home tab. Note: If you already typed your text, you need to select all your text before you select the font in order to apply the text to the new font.
Click on the Align Center icon on the formatting toolbar (to center your blinking cursor) => Type the title of your paper, capitalizing the first letter and all major words and proper nouns. Alphabetize entries in your list of works cited by the author’s last name, using the letter-by-letter system. Immediately after typing the final line of your paper, press the CTRL key and the ENTER key at the same time to begin a new page (another method is to insert a page break from the toolbar). Type Works Cited (do not underline, boldface, italicize, or enclose the title in quotation marks). I found this information helpful due to I have been out of school for many years and haven’t written a paper since high school or even previous college years ago.
Attain learning points for each leadership and management eModule, and gain a Level 3 Award, Certificate or Diploma once you have registered with the awarding body (via Accipio), secured enough learning points and passed the assignments. To select all text, press CTRL+A (that means holding down the CTRL key, keep holding it then press the A key on your keyboard). Your header with your last name and automatic page numbering should appear at the top left of your paper.
If you have Internet sources, when you type in the URL, Microsoft Word automatically apply the hyperlink to it. You should remove the hyperlink by right-clicking on the URL => choose Remove Hyperlink. I have made every effort to keep this document accurate, but readers have occasionally pointed out errors and inconsistencies which required correction. That article reported results of a 1928 meeting of representatives from anthropological and psychological journals, "to discuss the form of journal manuscripts and to write instructions for their preparation" (APA, 2001, p. Today the manual is in its fifth edition, and the APA format described in it is a widely recognized standard for scientific writing in psychology and education. Some of the more commonly used rules and reference formats from the manual are listed here.

The APA Manual can be found in almost any college bookstore, as well as in many large, general-purpose bookstores, in the reference and style guide section. The spiral bound edition is especially handy when formatting research papers. The APA Manual draws a distinction between "final manuscripts" such as class papers, theses, and dissertations, and "copy manuscripts" to be submitted for review and publication. The APA Crib Sheet follows the instructions given in chapter six for "Material Other Than Journal Articles" (APA, 2001, pp.
Single spacing can be used for table titles and headings, figure captions, references (but double-spacing is required between references), footnotes, and long quotations" (APA, 2001, p. However, underlining in place of italics is still acceptable when using a typewriter (see APA, 2001, p. If a hanging indent is difficult to accomplish with your word-processing program, it is permissible to indent your references with paragraph indents" (APA, 2001, p.
The manual itself contains all this information and more, organized and worded differently, indexed and illustrated. Explain what an abbreviation means the first time it occurs: American Psychological Association (APA). If an abbreviation is commonly used as a word, it does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, REM, ESP). In using standard abbreviations for measurements, like m for meter, do not add an s to make it plural (100 seconds is 100 s); when referring to several pages in a reference or citation, use the abbreviation pp. Do use "pp." for citations of encyclopedia entries, multi-page newspaper articles, chapters or articles in edited books. Capitalize major words and all other words of four letters or more, in headings, titles, and subtitles outside reference lists, for example, "A Study of No-Win Strategies." Capitalize names of conditions, groups, effects, and variables only when definite and specific. For example, "three choices are (a) true, (b) false, and (c) don't know." Use semicolons for seriation if there are commas within the items. Do not hyphenate common prefixes (posttest, prewar, multiphase, nonsignificant) unless needed for clarity (pre-existing). Do not hyphenate foreign, letter, numeral terms (a priori hypothesis, Type A behavior) when the meaning is clear without it (least squares solution, heart rate scores).
Do not hyphenate if a noun comes first (a therapy was client centered, results of t tests). Hyphenate adjectival phrases (role-playing technique, high-anxiety group, two-way analysis). Hyphenate compound adjectives preceding nouns (client-centered therapy, t-test scores) unless the compound adjective involves a superlative (best written paper).
Hyphenate if the words could be misunderstood without a hyphen (re-pair, un-ionized, co-worker). The quote "picks up where the sentence leaves off" and provides the punctuation. Use a dash (rendered on typewriters and some word processors as a double hyphen) when there is a sudden interruption like this one--zoiks!--in the flow of a sentence. Use parentheses to introduce an abbreviation, for example, the galvanic skin response (GSR). When listing separate paragraphs in a series, use a number and a period, not parentheses. The first paragraph goes here. Spell out numbers which are inexact, or below 10 and not grouped with numbers over 10 (one-tailed t test, eight items, nine pages, three-way interaction, five trials).
Use numerals for numbers 10 and above, or lower numbers grouped with numbers 10 and above (for example, from 6 to 12 hours of sleep). Use combinations of written and Arabic numerals for back-to-back modifiers (five 4-point scales).
Use numerals for exact statistical references, scores, sample sizes, and sums (multiplied by 3, or 5% of the sample). Here is another example: "We used 30 subjects, all two year olds, and they spent an average of 1 hr 20 min per day crying.
Use metric abbreviations with figures (4 km) but not when written out (many meters distant). 311).) Extended quotations Add emphasis in a quotation with italics, immediately followed by the words [italics added] in brackets. For quotations over 40 words in length, indent and single space the whole block (double space in papers for review or publication).
Indent five more spaces (one-half inch, 1.25 cm) if there are paragraphs within the long quotation after the first.

Expand or clarify words or meanings in a quotation by placing the added material in quotes.
For example, "They [the Irish Republican Army] initiated a cease-fire." Reproduce a quote exactly.
If there are errors, introduce the word sic italicized and bracketed--for exammple [sic]--immediately after the error to indicate it was part of the original source. Use three dots with a space before, between, and after each (ellipsis points) when omitting material, four if the omitted material includes the end of a sentence (with no space before the first).
Do not use dots at the beginning or end of a quotation unless it is important to indicate the quotation begins or ends in midsentence. But, if one, two, or three levels of headings are required in a paper, use levels 1, 3, and 4, in that order. If five levels are required, start with level five and work down the remaining hierarchy in order (5, 1, 2, 3, 4). To avoid confusion these are labeled A, B, and C below (APA levels 1, 3, and 4 respectively) (see APA, 2001, pp. Although they end with a period (or other punctuation) they need not be complete sentences or grammatically correct. Use headings in the order presented. Level A and B headings do not end with punctuation except to add emphasis with an exclamation point or question mark. See recent issues of the American Psychologist or other APA journals for more complex table layouts.
147). Place tables close to where they are first mentioned in your text, but do not split a table across pages. The latter are labeled "a, b, c, etc." Use asterisks to indicate statistical significance explained in the probability level note at the bottom of the table. The first time an "et al." reference is used in a paragraph, give the year, thereafter (if the citation is repeated in the paragraph) omit the year.
311), but she did not say which effect; Lopez found that "the effect disappeared within minutes" (p. Join names in a multiple-author citation with and (in text) or an ampersand (&) in reference lists and parenthetical comments. For example, "As reported in a government study (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1991), blah blah . If the author is unknown or unspecified, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title), for example: ("Study Finds," 1992). In general, use letters after years to distinguish multiple publications by the same author in the same year. For example: Several studies (Johnson, 1988, 1990a, 1990b, 1995 in press-a, 1995 in press-b) showed the same thing. For old works cite the translation or the original and modern copyright dates if both are known, for example: (Aristotle, trans. For quoting electronic documents without page numbers, cite paragraph numbers if given, indicated by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.
Disregard apostrophes, spaces, and capitals in alphabetizing; D'Arcy comes after Daagwood, Decker comes after de Chardin.
Single-author citations precede multiple-author citations of the same year (Zev, 1990 then Zev et al., 1990).
All titles in references are set in sentence caps, but titles quoted in the text are set in heading caps.
No quotation marks are used around titles of articles in references, but quotes are used when citing article titles in the text. In the absence of page numbers, if paragraph numbers appear in an electronic document, add the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.

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