The running head is shortened version of your essay’s title and it cannot be more then 50 characters including punctuation and spacing. The title page of APA style essay contains the title of your work, the name of the author and institutional affiliation. The title of the work should be typed in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. Don’t use bold, italics, underlining, formatting, or quotation marks within the title of the abstract page.
Starting from the next line, you should write a concise summary of the key points of your work. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work that can be connected with your findings to the abstract. Some writing specialists also advise to list the keywords from your paper in the abstract section. If you decided to do it, indent as if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (should be italicized), and then list your keywords.
The basic structure for citing articles that appear in periodicals follows the author-date format.
The structure of the reference varies depending on who authored the source and how many authors are credited. Book reference are usually very similar to journal article references and include the author’s last name, first initials, publication year, book title, location, and publisher. Online documents, databases, online communications and journal articles all have unique referencing requirements. An engineering drawing, a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items. Engineering drawing and artistic drawing are both types of drawing, and either may be called simply "drawing" when the context is implicit. The process of producing engineering drawings, and the skill of producing them, is often referred to as technical drawing or drafting, although technical drawings are also required for disciplines that would not ordinarily be thought of as parts of engineering (such as architecture, landscaping, cabinet making, and garment-making).
The various fields share many common conventions of drawing, while also having some field-specific conventions. An engineering drawing is a legal document (that is, a legal instrument), because it communicates all the needed information about "what is wanted" to the people who will expend resources turning the idea into a reality.
Some of the tools of manual drafting include pencils, pens and their ink, straightedges, T-squares, French curves, triangles, rulers, scales, erasers, and tacks or push pins. Producing drawings usually involves creating an original that is then reproduced, generating multiple copies to be distributed to the shop floor, vendors, company archives, and so on.
For centuries, engineering drawing was the sole method of transferring information from design into manufacture. Almost all engineering drawings (except perhaps reference-only views or initial sketches) communicate not only geometry (shape and location) but also dimensions and tolerances for those characteristics. Lines can also be classified by a letter classification in which each line is given a letter. Type B lines are dimension lines and are used for dimensioning, projecting, extending, or leaders. Type F lines are Type F[typo] lines, except they are used for drawings in electrotechnology. Type K lines indicate the alternate positions of an object and the line taken by that object.
Symbols used to define whether a projection is either Third Angle (right) or First Angle (left).
In most cases, a single view is not sufficient to show all necessary features, and several views are used.
The orthographic projection shows the object as it looks from the front, right, left, top, bottom, or back, and are typically positioned relative to each other according to the rules of either first-angle or third-angle projection. In first-angle projection, the projectors originate as if radiated from a viewer's eyeballs and shoot through the 3D object to project a 2D image onto the plane behind it. As shown above, the determination of what surface constitutes the front, back, top, and bottom varies depending on the projection method used. An auxiliary view is an orthographic view that is projected into any plane other than one of the six principal views.[8] These views are typically used when an object contains some sort of inclined plane.
The isometric projection show the object from angles in which the scales along each axis of the object are equal. In both oblique projection and orthographic projection, parallel lines of the source object produce parallel lines in the projected image. Perspective is an approximate representation on a flat surface, of an image as it is perceived by the eye. Foreshortened: the size of an object's dimensions along the line of sight are relatively shorter than dimensions across the line of sight.


Projected views (either Auxiliary or Orthographic) which show a cross section of the source object along the specified cut plane. Plans are usually "scale drawings", meaning that the plans are drawn at specific ratio relative to the actual size of the place or object. With linear dimensions, two parallel lines, called "extension lines," spaced at the distance between two features, are shown at each of the features. With ordinate dimensions, one horizontal and one vertical extension line establish an origin for the entire view.
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is a method of specifying the functional geometry of an object. All ISO paper sizes have the same aspect ratio, one to the square root of 2, meaning that a document designed for any given size can be enlarged or reduced to any other size and will fit perfectly. Technical lettering is the process of forming letters, numerals, and other characters in technical drawing.
Here is an example of an engineering drawing (an isometric view of the same object is shown above). Engineering drawing symbols — Symbols in engineering drawings is the method of communicating and detailing the characteristics of the drawing. Engineering technician — An engineering technician is a person who has relatively practical understanding of the general theoretical principles of the specific branch of engineering in which they work. Engineering process outsourcing — (EPO) for the AEC industry is a vertical domain for the industries of the built environment.EPO industry is playing crucial role in efficiently supporting dynamic architecture, engineering and construction industries worldwide.
Engineering bill of material — (EBOM) is a form of bill of material reflecting the product as designed by engineering, referred to as the as designed bill of material. Engineering — The Watt steam engine, a major driver in the Industrial Revolution, underscores the importance of engineering in modern history.
Pages that go after the title page should have a running head that looks the following way: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER.
The keywords from your research paper will help the scientists to find your work in databases. All the instances, citations that appear in the text of your research work should be listed in the reference section at the end of your paper.
More than just the drawing of pictures, it is also a language—a graphical language that communicates ideas and information from one mind to another.[1] Most especially, it communicates all needed information from the engineer who designed a part to the workers who will make it. For example, even within metalworking, there are some process-specific conventions to be learned—casting, machining, fabricating, and assembly all have some special drawing conventions, and within fabrication there is further division, including welding, riveting, pipefitting, and erecting.
It is thus a part of a contract; the purchase order and the drawing together, as well as any ancillary documents (engineering change orders [ECOs], called-out specs), constitute the contract. This standardization also aids with internationalization, because people from different countries who speak different languages can share the common language of engineering drawing, and can communicate with each other quite well, at least as concerns the technical details of an object. Since the advent of computer-aided design (CAD), engineering drawing has been done more and more in the electronic medium with each passing decade.
The classic reproduction methods involved blue and white appearances (whether white-on-blue or blue-on-white), which is why engineering drawings were long called, and even today are still often called, "blueprints" or "bluelines", even though those terms are anachronistic from a literal perspective, since most copies of engineering drawings today are made by more modern methods (often inkjet or laser printing) that yield black or multicolour lines on white paper. In recent decades another method has arisen, called model-based definition (MBD) or digital product definition (DPD). For example, a mass-marketed product usually requires a much higher surface quality than, say, a component that goes inside industrial machinery.
The origin and vector direction of the projectors (also called projection lines) differs, as explained below. The 3D object is projected into 2D "paper" space as if you were looking at a radiograph of the object: the top view is under the front view, the right view is at the left of the front view. In addition to the 6 principal views (front, back, top, bottom, right side, left side), any auxiliary views or sections may be included as serve the purposes of part definition and its communication.
Using the auxiliary view allows for that inclined plane (and any other significant features) to be projected in their true size and shape. Isometric projection corresponds to rotation of the object by ± 45° about the vertical axis, followed by rotation of approximately ± 35.264° [= arcsin(tan(30°))] about the horizontal axis starting from an orthographic projection view. These views are commonly used to show internal features with more clarity than may be available using regular projections or hidden lines. Distances may be indicated with either of two standardized forms of dimension: linear and ordinate. A line perpendicular to the extension lines, called a "dimension line," with arrows at its endpoints, is shown between, and terminating at, the extension lines.
Radial dimensions use an "R" followed by the value for the radius; Diametral dimensions use a circle with forward-leaning diagonal line through it, called the diameter symbol, followed by the value for the diameter. These developed further refinements in the second half of the twentieth century, when photocopying became cheap.
Given this ease of changing sizes, it is of course common to copy or print a given document on different sizes of paper, especially within a series, e.g.


Male nude by Annibale Carracci, 16th century Drawing is a form of visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two dimensional medium.
The page header should be placed flush left and the page number should be flush right, both at the top of the page.
Article references will vary based on where the article appears and who authored the content. Thus, if the resulting product is wrong, the worker or manufacturer are protected from liability as long as they have faithfully executed the instructions conveyed by the drawing. Today most engineering drawing is done with CAD, but pencil and paper have not disappeared. The English idiom "to go back to the drawing board", which is a figurative phrase meaning to rethink something altogether, was inspired by the literal act of discovering design errors during production and returning to a drawing board to revise the engineering drawing. In MBD, the information captured by the CAD software app is fed automatically into a CAM app (computer-aided manufacturing), and is translated via postprocessor into other languages such as G-code, which is executed by a CNC machine tool (computer numerical control). The simplest dimensioning system just specifies distances between points (such as an object's length or width, or hole center locations).
Third-angle projection is primarily used in the United States and Canada, where it is the default projection system according to British Standard BS 8888 and ASME standard ASME Y14.3M.
View lines or section lines (lines with arrows marked "A-A", "B-B", etc) define the direction and location of viewing or sectioning. The true size and shape of any feature in an engineering drawing can only be known when the Line of Sight (LOS) is perpendicular to the plane being referenced.
The distance is indicated numerically at the midpoint of the dimension line, either adjacent to it, or in a gap provided for it.
Distances along the x- and y-axes to other features are specified using other extension lines, with the distances indicated numerically at their ends. A radially-aligned line with arrowhead pointing to the circular feature, called a leader, is used in conjunction with both diametral and radial dimensions.
Engineering drawings could be readily doubled (or halved) in size and put on the next larger (or, respectively, smaller) size of paper with no waste of space.
There were also once British paper sizes, which went by names rather than alphanumeric designations.
With the goals of legibility and uniformity, styles are standardized and lettering ability has little relationship to normal writing ability. Thus today it is often the case that the information travels from the mind of the designer into the manufactured component without having ever been codified by an engineering drawing. Since the advent of well-developed interchangeable manufacture, these distances have been accompanied by plus-or-minus or min-and-max-limits tolerances.
Sometimes a note tells the reader in which zone(s) of the drawing to find the view or section. One of the things that makes isometric drawings so attractive is the ease with which 60 degree angles can be constructed with only a compass and straightedge.
All types of dimensions are typically composed of two parts: the nominal value, which is the "ideal" size of the feature, and the tolerance, which specifies the amount that the value may vary above and below the nominal. And the metric technical pens were chosen in sizes so that one could add detail or drafting changes with a pen width changing by approximately a factor of the square root of 2. Because manufacturing and construction are typically very expensive processes (involving large amounts of capital and payroll), the question of liability for errors has great legal implications as each party tries to blame the other and assign the wasted cost to the other's responsibility.
In the case of CAD drawings, the original is the CAD file, and the printouts of that file are the "prints". Coordinate dimensioning involves defining all points, lines, planes, and profiles in terms of Cartesian coordinates, with a common origin.
This is the biggest reason why the conventions of engineering drawing have evolved over the decades toward a very precise, unambiguous state.
The term "technical data package" (TDP) is now used to refer to the complete package of information (in one medium or another) that communicates information from design to production (such as 3D-model datasets, engineering drawings, engineering change orders (ECOs), spec revisions and addenda, and so on). However, even in the MBD era, where theoretically production could happen without any drawings or humans at all, it is still the case that drawings and humans are involved. These workers often use drawings in the course of their work that have been produced by rendering and plotting (printing) from the MBD dataset. In these cases, the drawing is still a useful document, although legally it is classified as "for reference only", meaning that if any controversies or discrepancies arise, it is the MBD dataset, not the drawing, that governs.



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