When you present at a conference: Maybe it is your first time on the stage to give a conference presentation, although you have already prepared your content for the presentation, you still need to do something to gain enough confidence of a perfect form for displaying. As a successful presentation, it should attract Audiences attentions in the beginning of the conference, except content innovations, there must be more fresh things on the display form. Once you got a license of Focusky, you can free use the software for a life-time, and it will be forever free updating the software. Interpret and create simple APA-style graphs—including bar graphs, line graphs, and scatterplots. Interpret and create simple APA-style tables—including tables of group or condition means and correlation matrixes. Once you have conducted your descriptive statistical analyses, you will need to present them to others. When you have a small number of results to report, it is often most efficient to write them out. There was a moderate negative correlation between the alphabetical position of respondents’ last names and their response time (r = ?.27). Notice that when presented in the narrative, the terms mean and standard deviation are written out, but when presented parenthetically, the symbols M and SD are used instead.
When you have a large number of results to report, you can often do it more clearly and efficiently with a graph. The independent variable should be plotted on the x-axis and the dependent variable on the y-axis. Values should increase from left to right on the x-axis and from bottom to top on the y-axis. Axis labels should be clear and concise and include the units of measurement if they do not appear in the caption. Captions should briefly describe the figure, explain any abbreviations, and include the units of measurement if they do not appear in the axis labels.
Captions in an APA manuscript should be typed on a separate page that appears at the end of the manuscript. As we have seen throughout this book, bar graphsA graph used to show differences between the mean scores of two or more groups or conditions. In most cases, the information in a line graph could just as easily be presented in a bar graph.
Like graphs, tables can be used to present large amounts of information clearly and efficiently. The most common use of tables is to present several means and standard deviations—usually for complex research designs with multiple independent and dependent variables. Another common use of tables is to present correlations—usually measured by Pearson’s r—among several variables. As with graphs, precise statistical results that appear in a table do not need to be repeated in the text. In an APA-style article, simple results are most efficiently presented in the text, while more complex results are most efficiently presented in graphs or tables.
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Enter your details below to receive our email newsletter with the latest Professional PowerPoint tips, tricks and advice from eSlide's Presentation Pros. Or maybe you are already a veteran, you have won lots of faithful audiences in different conferences, but you are not satisified with the current situation and you are seek for some break throughs in other forms. One-way presentation or lengthy text will make the audience a depressing and sleepy feeling. In this section, we focus on presenting descriptive statistical results in writing, in graphs, and in tables—following American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines for written research reports. Notice also that it is especially important to use parallel construction to express similar or comparable results in similar ways.
When you prepare graphs for an APA-style research report, there are some general guidelines that you should keep in mind. For each level of the X variable, there is a point representing the mean of the Y variable. In Figure 12.13 “Sample APA-Style Line Graph Based on Research by Carlson and Conard”, for example, one could replace each point with a bar that reaches up to the same level and leave the error bars right where they are. For each individual, there is a point representing that individual’s score on both the X and Y variables. This is called a correlation matrixA table that shows the correlations among several variables..
Graphs and tables should add information rather than repeating information, be as simple as possible, and be interpretable on their own with a descriptive caption (for graphs) or a descriptive title (for tables). Searching for extra time to magically appear in a busy schedule is akin to searching for Bigfoot.
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These principles can be adapted easily to other presentation formats such as posters and slide show presentations.
First, the graph should always add important information rather than repeat information that already appears in the text or in a table.
They should add important information to the presentation of your results, be as simple as possible, and be interpretable on their own. He recounts the story of when he met Jimmy Carter in the run up to his first election: “Mr. All audiences will be inspired by the unique displaying method, and they will follow your clues to think deeply when you are giving the speech or presentation in the conference.
They can be presented either in the narrative description of the results or parenthetically—much like reference citations. Each point in a scatterplot represents an individual rather than the mean for a group of individuals, and there are no lines connecting the points. For example, the Publication Manual discourages the use of color unless it is absolutely necessary (although color can still be an effective element in posters, slide show presentations, or textbooks.) Third, graphs should be interpretable on their own.
A new element in Figure 12.12 “Sample APA-Style Bar Graph, With Error Bars Representing the Standard Errors, Based on Research by Ollendick and Colleagues” is the smaller vertical bars that extend both upward and downward from the top of each main bar.


Each point in a line graph represents the mean score on the dependent variable for participants at one level of the independent variable. The convention followed by most researchers, however, is to use a bar graph when the variable plotted on the x-axis is categorical and a line graph when it is quantitative. A reader should be able to understand the basic result based only on the graph and its caption and should not have to refer to the text for an explanation.
These are error barsIn bar graphs and line graphs, vertical lines that show the amount of variability around the mean in each group or condition. Figure 12.13 “Sample APA-Style Line Graph Based on Research by Carlson and Conard” is an APA-style version of the results of Carlson and Conard. First, when the variables on the x-axis and y-axis are conceptually similar and measured on the same scale—as here, where they are measures of the same variable on two different occasions—this can be emphasized by making the axes the same length.
Self-esteem, mood, and intentions to use condoms: When does low self-esteem lead to risky health behaviors? They typically extend upward and downward one standard error from the top of each bar or point., and they represent the variability in each group or condition.
Notice that it includes error bars representing the standard error and conforms to all the stated guidelines.
Second, when two or more individuals fall at exactly the same point on the graph, one way this can be indicated is by offsetting the points slightly along the x-axis.
Although they sometimes extend one standard deviation in each direction, they are more likely to extend one standard error in each direction (as in Figure 12.12 “Sample APA-Style Bar Graph, With Error Bars Representing the Standard Errors, Based on Research by Ollendick and Colleagues”). Other ways are by displaying the number of individuals in parentheses next to the point or by making the point larger or darker in proportion to the number of individuals. Finally, the straight line that best fits the points in the scatterplot, which is called the regression line, can also be included. Recall that these researchers categorized participants as having low or high self-esteem, put them into a negative or positive mood, and measured their intentions to have unprotected sex. Although not mentioned in Chapter 5 “Psychological Measurement”, they also measured participants’ attitudes toward unprotected sex. The standard error is used because, in general, a difference between group means that is greater than two standard errors is statistically significant.
Notice that the table includes horizontal lines spanning the entire table at the top and bottom, and just beneath the column headings. They were interested in the relationships between working memory and several other variables.
Thus one can “see” whether a difference is statistically significant based on a bar graph with error bars.
Furthermore, every column has a heading—including the leftmost column—and there are additional headings that span two or more columns that help to organize the information and present it more efficiently. Finally, notice that APA-style tables are numbered consecutively starting at 1 (Table 1, Table 2, and so on) and given a brief but clear and descriptive title. Notice here that only half the table is filled in because the other half would have identical values. For example, the Pearson’s r value in the upper right corner (working memory and age) would be the same as the one in the lower left corner (age and working memory).
The correlation of a variable with itself is always 1.00, so these values are replaced by dashes to make the table easier to read.




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