For example, the usage of & and nesting allowed for the cleaning up of otherwise rather gross code blocks. All style variations of the .widget element are clearly nested below itself, using indentation as both a visual cue for relevancy and a query generator.
Nested media queries are a younger addition, but they hint that evolution towards indented syntax for styles comes almost naturally. This creates harder to read code with a lot of duplicity, especially when real world usage extends way over our small example piece. While it is in direct violation of our "nesting all relevant styles" dream, its the imperfection we learned to live with.
This idea has been secretly bothering me for quite a while, if only out of some form of OCD about my own stylesheets. While digging around the topic, Ive found spider webs, eternal discussions, and wildly varying propositions, many of which suggested adding some special syntax to the current selector character &. Secondly, I think & works well because its a clear representation of the whole context, and for that reason it might be problematic adding more features to it.
Additions to a compound element present in the current selector proved to handle ~80% of real world code, just like our first example tries to achieve.
While crash testing this in production (hah!), I found another very practical need that I couldnt satisfy with modifications of the parent tree only.
However, the styled element in question is tr and you already have that as a generic style, so theoretically, nesting it below itself as a variant might be closer to how you think about the relationship, filling the gaps that current selector & cannot describe. In this case, it means there has to be a simple way to insert some selector at a certain position above the current element while also allowing combinations with compound modifications.
In this case, the caret is inserting thead _one_ level above current or last modified element.
After using it for a while, Ive found that most of my inconvenient code patterns are solved rather easily by just changing one element here and there or pushing a new selector at a certain position and keep things in place. If you use it, I would hope that the correct handling would be like with any other tool: when its fit for the job. In the near future, Id like to get the Stylus port working and perhaps create an Atom editor plugin to display the resulting query as a hint in the code. It was fun taking a shot at solving the first-world problems of CSS and it is my hope that you consider the subject at least worthy of a discussion.
Love it or hate it, here it is on GitHub, heres a little microsite and heres a live debugger for good measure. If youre sick of patch updates and security vulnerabilities, LightCMS may be a good option.
I wrote about a bunch of design things you should think about if you use the tag in your content. This one required an extra element inside the content area (the ".push"), to ensure that the negative margin didnt pull the footer up and cover any content. This technique did not require a push element, but instead, required an extra wrapping element around the content in which to apply matching bottom padding to.
Kind of a wash between this technique and the previous one, as they both require extra otherwise unnecessary HTML elements.
I had a little situation where I head a header with a span in it, and I wanted to make sure to put a line break before the span. Rather than a , we could use a , and well get that break just by virtue of the div being a block-level element. Ive long been a fan of pseudo element trickery, but this feels slightly dangerous in that you may be hurting accessibility. In this final post of our series on CSS Modules, I’ll be taking a look at how to make a static React site with the thanks of Webpack.
In the previous post we set up a quick project with Webpack that showed how dependencies can be imported into a file and how a build process can be used to make a unique class name that is generated in both CSS and HTML. To catch up, you can check out the css-modules-react repo I’ve made which is just a demo project that gets us up to where the last demo left off.
We set the libraryTarget because that’s a requirement for nodejs and the static site plugin to work properly. And if we check out our build directory then we should find an index.html file with our content. Before we do that we should move our routes into a separate file just to keep things nice and tidy.
We want to make lots of little bundles of HTML and CSS that we can then bundle into a template (like an About or Homepage). There are two things to note here: First, if you’re unfamiliar with the JSX syntax that React uses, then it’s helpful to know that the text inside the body element is a comment. What this does is import all our markup from `Main.js` (which will subsequently import the Head React component) and then it’ll render all of this with React DOM. We need to deliver certain bits of code to certain _routes_: on the About page we need content for the About page, and likewise on a Homepage, Blog or any other page we might want to have. Before we begin it’s worth noting that in this tutorial we’ll be using version 2.0 of React Router and there are a bevy of changes since the previous version. If you’re unfamiliar with what’s going on here then it’s best to take a look at Brad Westfall’s intro to React Router.
There are certainly ways in which we could improve this project, for one we could add Browsersync to our Webpack workflow so we don’t have to keep npm installing all the time.

By making a static site with React we’ve lost a great deal of the magical properties that React gives us out of the box, including managing state, yet it’s still possible to serve two kinds of website with this system: you can make a static site as I’ve shown you above and then progressively enhance everything with React superpowers after the fact. This workflow is neat and tidy but there are many instances when this combination of CSS Modules, React and Webpack would be complete overkill. However, if there are lots of people contributing CSS to the codebase everyday then it might be extraordinarily helpful if CSS Modules prevented any errors that are thanks to the cascade. One of the new features in this version of Internet Explorer that I really like is the frequently used tabs page that appears when you open a new tab in IE9.
The sites are listed on this page with the most accessed sites listed starting from the upper left. So after searching through the IE9 settings properties I finally went to the best source of information I know – Twitter – and found out how to have these come up by default when I open a new instance of the IE9 Beta browser. In January 2010 his community contributions were recognized by Microsoft when he was awarded the Most Valuable Professional (MVP) Award for Windows Desktop Experience.
A few weeks ago, Microsoft released the Release Candidate version of their new web browser, Internet Explorer 9.
The new visual representation of Internet Explorer is first on my list because it is what most people will notice first when they install the program.
They have also taken a page from Google’s design book and integrated in an omnibar that rolls both address bar and search bar into one place. One of the most talked about features in all new browsers is privacy settings, specifically those related to user tracking. I included this feature on my list because of the principle, but not really the implementation. As I mentioned when talking about the new UI design for Internet Explorer, I believe it was Microsoft’s hope to make using IE feel more like an integrated part of Windows 7. We have a host of great articles on Internet Explorer 9 Tips and Tricks that you can read if you are looking for a specific feature or functionality. 101 websites for getting things done - an informative book which will make you more productive and efficient. Do you have a flair for writing and understand technology, software, gadgets and web applications well? When it arrived on the scene, some extremely useful patterns emerged and got quickly adopted. Styling the variation of an element that is invoked either by a property of the element itself or a prepending parent state. Its easy to read and navigate, because it somehow mirrors the familiar DOM structure and keeps all styles for an element in one place, while still producing our precious, yet sometimes complicated, selectors. This means that our .widget is now styled in different places, and this separation grows for every added state in each element in the nest. Many of you would probably even defend this pattern, because it has been the way things are done for quite a while. Doing that would mean months of learning complicated core libraries and fighting the long war, which instantly felt like an unacceptable burden. It does one thing and does it well, so creating a good partner to it seemed like a better idea at this time.
Unfortunately, due to issue 1703, the current selector placeholder cannot be modified inside a mixin function as of right now. While it is missing many useful abstractions for manipulation with strings and arrays, it is very possible to craft such functions manually. But its suggestive of the functionality, because you want this thing readable in the actual code. I couldnt imagine this without adding a special character, so I went with the visually suggestive ^ caret. Still, I need to be honest, it is potentially quite invasive to your usual code organization by nature of the idea. Spamming complex nested mixins will unlikely score high on readability than flat out writing the full query, but on the other hand it can simplify most real world problems while keeping a slim footprint. Their Developer Program gives you all the tools you’ll need to build your web design business on a top-tier, cloud-based platform and your customers don’t ever have to know it’s not your CMS.
But not always, if there is enough content on the page to push the footer lower, it still does that.
Then there is not any overlapping going on, just two elements stacked on top of each other totaling 100% height. The trick here is to make the span block level, but then inject the text with a pseudo element and style it as an inline element.
I think some screen readers read pseudo elements, but I dont think all, nor are they supposed to. This static site will have two templates: a homepage and an about page with a couple of React components to explain how it works in practice. The following example relies heavily on that tutorial so it’s definitely worth working through those previous examples first. We depended on JavaScript to render our markup and it wasn’t entirely clear how we should structure a project. You also might have noticed that odd element—that’s not a standard HTML element—it’s a React component and what we’re doing here is passing it data via its title attribute.
And although I’ll be sticking with Webpack’s CSS loader and what I used in the previous tutorial, there are alternatives.

We could also add Sass, PostCSS and a number of loaders and plugins to help out, but in the sake of brevity I’ve decided to leave those out of the project for now. Well, although this looks like an awful lot of work we now have a modular environment to write code. Depending on the size and scope of the web project it would be borderline crazy to spend the time implementing this solution—if it was only a single web page, for instance. But this might lead to designers having less access to the codebase because they must now learn how to write Javascript, too. I don’t think so, because—as with all front-end techniques— the solution depends on the problem and not all problems are the same. This is for large-scale WordPress sites that need the scaling and high-availability of AWS, all managed by the crack engineers at Media Temple. Back then he used GeoCities Web Hosting for it and what you see here today is the result of the work he has continued on the site since 1995. In January 2011 he was renewed as a Microsoft MVP but in a new category called Windows Expert - Consumer and he has been a Microsoft MVP ever since. I have been using IE9 for a few weeks, and my experience with it has been positive overall. Looking at the new design, I think it is clear that Microsoft is trying to make the user experience feel very familiar to users of Windows 7. Also taking a note from Chrome, Internet explorer 9 now has a tabs page that gives you access to your most used pages when opening a new tab. If Microsoft’s goal was to make IE9 feel more like it belongs in Windows 7, then they completely accomplished that goal for me. All of the major browser developers are now including anti-tracking features into their products, and Microsoft’s Internet Explorer is no different.
Microsoft is handling the issue of browser tracking by having ‘lists’ of sites that are not allowed to track you or your browsing activity. Like a good zealot Ill wait until the end of time for Stylus to fix it, but I had to keep searching for something I could implement _now_. Mixin syntax is already familiar with preprocessor users, so having a suggestive name for describing changes _in_ element parents sounded right to me as an added bumper against unfamiliarity. But if the content on the page is short, a sticky footer will still hang to the bottom of the browser window. If it did, that would have to be factored into the negative margins, and having those two numbers not in sync doesnt look quite as nice. In this post we’ll be looking at a more realistic example whereby we try to make a few components with our new Webpack knowledge. There are also a lot of dependencies that have to be supported for this method to work correctly. There are significant changes that Microsoft has made to the browser, and many of them are very good.
They have done away with the clunky, Widows XP-like frame and file bar, and have switched to a more updated set of shortcut buttons. If the default number of frequently visited sites is not enough for you, you can always display more sites in the IE9 Tabs page.
I tried to keep this section relatively short in my article, but as you can see, there are so many changes in the design of Internet Explorer that it is hard to list just a few. If you click the Settings cog in the upper right-hand corner of the browser window, and go to Safety and then Tracking Protection, you will find the new Anti-Tracking settings pane. As we have previously mentioned, it is possible to add dynamic IE9 shortcuts to the Windows 7 Taskbar. I can see IE9 becoming the new standard for web browsing, with a few changes coming down the pipe for the internet as a whole. If you have an answer to these, or any other comment or question, please leave a comment in the section below. You’ll of course have full access to the HTML and CSS of your sites and you’ll even get a free website for your business. The face you can force table layout from CSS is all about exploiting the unique layout properties of table layout -- not semantics. I have compiled a short list of a few of the changes to Internet Explorer that I find to be the most interesting, dynamic, and useful changes that have been made to the IE platform. It is my hope that website hosts and content creators will shy away from user tracking on the whole, thus making the steps in Internet Explorer 9 obsolete.
Certain websites, like Facebook, are more highly integrated into this process, while others will work simply like bookmarks. Its that bottom margin plus the height of the footer that need to be added together to subtract from the viewport height.
Another great feature is the ability to open a specific tab from its Windows 7 taskbar preview.
And yeah, were using viewport units here as another little trick to avoid having to set 100% body height before you can set 100% wrapper height. Using flexbox for a sticky footer not only doesnt require any extra elements, but allows for a variable height footer.

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