The redemption in Jeana€™s story and the swirl of voices, strings and percussion provoke a hair-raising effect that, in itself, is magical. Both parents were musically inclined and they formed a family band, performing mostly in folk venues. They had a lot of magical moments with wildlife in their childhood even in the urban world, she said. She sang in high school chorus, while allowing that it was frustrating because it was not well-run. Another important formative experience during this time was the period spent with a group of girls who, without adult supervision, formed an a cappella group called Accent. An auspicious development for Jean during this period was meeting her present life (and band) partner, guitarist Ilusha Tsinadze, when she was 16. Jean dropped out of high school when she was in her junior year, was accepted at and went to Smith College in Northampton, Mass. Although she only stayed at Smith for a year, she described her experience in glowing terms, citing financial help received and the enjoyment of academic pursuits. Leaving Smith after that year, Jean transferred to The New School of Jazz and Contemporary Music program in New York City. The first job came her way when she read a neatly penned bulletin-board ad from childrena€™s musician Lou Gallo a€” now a long-time collaborator a€” who needed a replacement for a partner whoa€™d moved away.
She graduated in 2006 with a BFA in Jazz Vocal Performance from The New School University and a B.A.
The Third Street Music School Settlement (actually on East 11th Street) in Manhattan ran a Music In the Lower East Side (MILES) program.
Throughout her childhood and then in college, Jean had listened to Brazilian music which is a strong component of jazz. In 2008, she released her first CD, Lead Me Home, in which she documented her growth as a musician and her concern for the welfare of the world at large. Jean had attended NERFA with guitarist Ilusha Tsinadze and accordionist Liam Robinson, a longtime musical partner who had released a CD of traditional folk music with her, Robinson & Rohe.
The song a€?New Year,a€? with its call and response of it shall be, continues to crescendo and builds to an inspiring finish.
WFUV DJ John Platt has said, a€?There are plenty of talented artists out there but what sets Jean Rohe apart are the suppleness of her voice, the integrity of her vision and the grace she shows in her wide-ranging journey across the musical landscape.a€? I cana€™t say it any better.
DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral. While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk.
The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication. Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners.
In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St. As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees. Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented. On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance.
The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date. On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland. THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome. Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east.
4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p.
11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n.
16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, .
23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia. Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States.
The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object.
After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history.
There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St. Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first. A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square. A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism. Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification.
From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings. A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map. These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals.
Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster.
The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford.
The songlike call of umbrella street vendors fascinated Jean and planted a musical seed that finally bore fruit.
She has a brother three years younger, and her parents gave her a lot of independence while growing up. She believes that it sparked an ability to see beyond whata€™s on the surface in her daily life. There were higher goals, such as participating in the North Jersey and All State competitive choruses. Several very intelligent and talented students who started the group invited Jean to join them.
When Jean found out a number of colleges, many of them Ivy League, accepted applicants without a high school diploma, her path was set.
She studied international relations, Spanish literature, music theory and Western classics.
In the job description, Jean saw something very familiar to what shea€™d done in the family band. In 2004, through that program, Jean began teaching sporadic music classes to pre-kindergarten to third-grade students at Lower East Side public schools. On her own, while at The New School, she studied singing in Portuguese from records using a phonetic technique. It captured some of her experiences in Brazil and drew upon the participatory energy shea€™d grown to love. Her musical ideas are complex, though, and fit more readily in a context with other musicians from a duo to full band.
She got in touch with Liam who agreed to help with the new recording and essentially acted as a producer. The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223).
Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head. James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3). 1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig. 5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities.
Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created. In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G. The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents.
The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography.
The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons. This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history. Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts.
Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north. They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text.
Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations.
For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes.
They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe.
In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map.
Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them.
Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace.
Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated.
Jean told me she feels a bond with nature and has always felt herself to be an outdoor person in spite of having lived an urban lifestyle. She played French horn in the orchestra and the straight-bell mellophone in the marching band.


Throughout grades eight to 11, Jean performed with Accent at libraries, senior homes,in talent shows and once at Merkin Hall in Lincoln Center, as part of a multi-group show. We got into jazz standards and some of the classic American songwriters and just learned a lot by playing music together during those formative years,a€? she said. Musically, she got into Brazilian percussion, sang in an a cappella group and was a guest vocalist in a jazz group. Aside from a short-lived waitressing job, Jean found steady employment in the field of music and has never done anything else. She thought, a€?I can totally do this.a€? During their initial get-together, in which they met and played childrena€™s songs, Jean actually taught Lou songs that she knew from childhood.
By 2010, four years after graduation, her workload had increased to three full days of classes. She became more fluent by meeting Brazilian musicians in school and within the New York City community.
In 2010, she attended the Northeast Regional Folk Alliance (NERFA) Conference for the first time with her trio and came back in 2011. She began to see herself more as an artist and realized she would need to leave teaching and become a full-time professional musician to really fulfill her lifea€™s goals.
She also called musicians from other projects and assembled a group of around eight players as the core ensemble. Our monthly pdf and website feature page will provide a link to a full orchestra performance video of the song on YouTube. In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches. India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts. A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed. Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead. Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms.
Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly. Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps. The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot.
Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser.
Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery.
Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research. In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them. It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time.
Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes.
Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top.
Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world. They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books. God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map.
Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories.
The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers. Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries. Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England.
We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265.
A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them.
The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries.
She was in some musical plays, but switched to strictly performing as part of the orchestra. While she had longed to escape from the cocoon of home and high school, it was hard getting used to being surrounded by opinionated strangers and away from familiar surroundings. Some days after school, shea€™d head down to Battery Park City, where a group of seven or eight sets of parents banded together to hire her to teach late afternoon music classes to their pre-K children.
We reviewed Lead Me Home in our 2011 NERFA wrap-up issue: Jean lends her light, refined voice to songs sung in English and Portuguese.
In 2011, Liam had been cast in the Lincoln Centera€™s Broadway production of War Horse and was preparing to leave for a year. Additionally, Jean taught a weekly music class with Lou one morning a week at a Manhattan YMCA. Some days after school, shea€™d head down toA  Battery Park City, where a group of seven or eight sets of parents banded together to hire her to teach late afternoon music classes to their pre-K children.
From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves. Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181). 12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words. Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner. Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular. Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map.
Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents.
These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus. As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps.
Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added. It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi.
They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features. Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources.
Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360. In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. The live performance of a portion of the album this past July at Rockwood Music Hall, on Manhattana€™s Lower East Side, swept over us like a sweet, warm wave.
A never-before-seen umbrella vendor suddenly appears, hawking his wares, but they ignore him. Jeana€™s musical depth and imagination have roots that delve deep into childhood, as a recent interview revealed. She studied with a great piano teacher, jazz pianist and composer Diane Moser, during high school. She combines Brazilian-flavored songs with social consciousness, creating a global mindset. Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow. At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself. The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events. Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning. More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity.
Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions.
A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning.
Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework.
Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury. In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong.
The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards.
This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ. The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it. The family band would play for people as they exited the outdoor show, singing environmentally conscious songs about the sea and its creatures, like a€?Baby Beluga,a€? among others. There she discovered the layers within the culture which make Brazilian music such a communal force. Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei.
The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated.
I brought him to Your disciples, but they couldna€™t heal him.a€?A  Jesus replied, a€?You unbelieving and rebellious generation! In her study of jazz, she found an existing etiquette that tends to dictate how players interact with each other. Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims.


Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi.
Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. On occasion, they got to pet the beluga whale on its tongue (it opened its mouth for this). On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. Bring him here to Me.a€? Then Jesus rebuked the demon, and it came out of him, and from that moment the boy was healed. 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar. In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs. Then the disciples approached Jesus privately and said, a€?Why couldna€™t we drive it out?a€? a€?Because of your little faith,a€? He told them. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity. However, this kind does not come out except by prayer and fasting.a€?This same story is repeated in Mark Chapter 9, vs.
I was there for forty days and forty nights, all that time I ate no food and drank no water.
The Lord gave me the two tablets on which God had written with his own finger all the words he had spoken to you from the heart of the fire when you were assembled at the mountain. At the end of the forty days and nights, the Lord handed me the two stone tablets inscribed with the words of the covenant.Matthew Chapter 4, vs.
1-2 (NLT): Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted there by the devil. 16-18 (NLT): And when you fast, dona€™t make it obvious, as the hypocrites do, for they try to look miserable and disheveled so people will admire them for their fasting. Then no one will notice that you are fasting, except your Father, who knows what you do in private.
As you can see above: Demons are cast out, the Holy Spirit speaks, Moses received the Ten Commandments, and Jesus had the strength to overcome Satana€™s temptations. It can strengthen our faith and get difficult prayers answered.There are different types of fasting. We are trying this for 21 days to achieve some answers from God and help get some desperate and difficult prayers answered.
Fasting, praying, and special giving during the first month of the year sets the tone for the rest of the year. Fasting should be done in combination with things that can increase your faith, wisdom, and hearing from the Lord.
Read a good Christian book, read Goda€™s Word in the Bible, listen with praise and worship to Christian music, and of course pray. Thought for the week:A  For more advice and understanding read a€“ a€?Fastinga€? by Jentezen Franklin. 22-24: The Lord God used the rib of the man to make a woman, and then he brought the woman to the man.
And the man said, a€?Now, this is someone whose bones came from my bones, whose body came from my body. 13: If a man has sexual relations with another man as a man does with a woman, these two men have done a hateful sin.
Most are basically good people that give to charities, help with the homeless, do good deeds and are friendly and nice to people. There are gay celebrities on TV that do wonderful works of mercy and charity for other people. However, if you are gay and dona€™t turn from your present life style and accept Jesus as your Lord and Savior you will go to the pool of fire (Hell). Yes, there is such a place and it is for eternity.A  If you intend to do it a€?somedaya€™, I hope you dona€™t get hit by a car and die before that happens. He wrote the rule book (the Bible) and it is expressed in it several times that he feels the punishment for this is death. We are all sinners in one way or another and must try hard to turn from our former self before we knew Jesus as our Lord. To the ones who say it is genetic or upbringing, I offer this: Alcoholism can be passed down through genes and wife-beating can be passed down through upbringing.
God is the highest authority, how do you think he will judge according to the Ten Commandments and his Word in the Bible? Hook up with a good faith based organization like a€?Food for the Poora€? or a€?World Visiona€? and help these people out. God Bless.====================================================================Pastor Pop-Pop 1-21-2010. We run the risk of becoming weaker when we stay at home, so gradually we wona€™t even notice.
Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour.a€? Notice it says he is looking for someone, like a lion does.
They need Christian friends and other Christian adults if they are to survive in this world. Persevere in them, because if you do, you will save both yourself and your hearers.a€?7 Because we need the help of good people. Pastors cannot serve full-time, a building cannot be purchased, missionaries will not be sent out, ministries to the community wona€™t be fulfilled, and the lost wona€™t be saved. And how can they preach unless they are sent?a€?10 Because God says we should go to church regularly. 30-31: And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and all the tribes of the earth will morn, and they will see the Son of Man coming upon the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he will send out his angels with a trumpet blast, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other.
10: But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a mighty roar and the elements will be dissolved by fire, and the earth and every thing done on it will be found out. 36-43: But of that day and hour no one knows, neither the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone.
In (those) days before the flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, up to the day that Noah entered the ark. Be sure of this: if the master of the house had known the hour of the night when the thief was coming, he would have stayed awake and not let his house be broken into. So too you also must be prepared, for at an hour you do not expect, the Son of Man will come. Pilots vanish, drivers vanish, wives vanish, neighbors vanish, and it is a world wide supernatural event that happens at the exact same time.
There are no second chances of dropping to your knees and asking for forgiveness because it comes and goes in a blink of an eye. Wars, Nation against Nation, famines, earthquakes, natural disasters, and a sin loving generation.
I always interpreted the a€?He will come like a thief in the nighta€? as have a duel meaning. Some people know in advance when they will die and they, believe it or not, are the lucky ones.
Hint: It is hot, miserable, people are gnashing their teeth and screaming, and your caretaker has horns --------- hhmmmmmm.
However, if you have accepted Jesus as your Lord and Savior and turned your life around you will be going somewhere that is truly pure love. If I am wrong, then worms get me just like you but if I am right I live in love and you dona€™t. I just dona€™t know where people get their ideas from because the Bible tells it like I do.
Also, it is also true that before Jesus came to the earth as a man, that all the pagan nations were defeated by Goda€™s people the Israelites. Why ---- because the Israelites worshiped the only God there is and the pagans worshiped false ones. A PS:A  Hope youa€™re not on one of those planes where the Pilot is a follower of Christ when the Rapture comes. Love never gives up, never loses faith, is always hopeful, and endures through every circumstance.
I was impressed by the many many friends who came to offer condolences and said kind things about her. To go through life with so many people that call themselves your family around you is a tribute to the love that is shown and radiates from you.
Some are acquaintances, some good acquaintances, others are friends and still others are good friends. I think I need to add a new one that shows love beyond that of the latter a€“ it is family.
Thought for the week:A  Happy Valentines Day !!!!!=============================================================================Pastor Pop-Pop 2-22-2010. You see the fire trucks pull up and the fire men run from the trucks, get their ladders, hook up the hoses and then ------- sit down and take a coffee break. Your company is told that there is a mother and two children screaming for help from the third floor and they are close to being consumed by the flames. You and your men run over to see what instructions he has but he presents all of you with some Coffee and doughnuts. All of us know of people, friends, and family that have not accepted Jesus as their Lord and Savior and are not saved.
They are like the family in the house.A  Because of pride, fear, or some other human emotion, we either do not share the Word with them or are not persistent with it to get them saved. The people we know then end up dying either naturally or prematurely in an accident and end up burning in the ever lasting flames of Hell.
18-20: And Jesus came and said to them, a€?All authority on heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. There were actually two letters that I have combined and edited to eliminate the womana€™s identity.
It is offered here as another a€?building blocka€? about evangelizing and spreading Goda€™s will. I agree that we are all called to share the gospel with others and that we often fall short of that.
The Holy Spirit is the one who draws them, ("No one can come to me unless the Father who sent Me draws him" John 6:44) convicts them and makes them see that they are sinners. People are drawn to God in us when they see something about us that they dona€™t have and they are made thirsty for. But they all have heard the truth many times and they refuse to acknowledge that they are sinners in need of a rescue. My part is to pray for them, live my life for Jesus (let my light shine) and share the truths of the gospel when there is an opening to do so. It took many years, but I am at peace knowing that if they die without knowing Jesus therefore spending eternity in hell, that it was their choice. Another interesting fact is that we have different witnessing styles and people respond to different styles of witnessing. But perfect love casts out fear" 1 John 4:18) To love others more than yourself and to know that without Christ they will spend all eternity separated from Him. When I go on mission trips, I pray for the hearts of the people that God is going to put onto my path and I pray that God would give me His eyes to see them as He sees them and His heart to love them as He loves them, and His words to speak to them. Although it is debated if they are actually God speaking, they are recognized by most as books that are still good to teach from. Still others like the book of Sirach which is used a lot by the Catholic church brings question into mind that it may have been eliminated by Martin Luther just as a statement to his rebellious nature within that church.
He even wanted to eliminate other books including the book of Revelation but, as history records, -- cooler minds prevailed. 60: Then all the people shouted and praised God, who saves those who put their trust in Him.
Someone had a dream that as the soldier drew back to hit Christ that he grabbed the soldiers arm.
As they talked and discussed, Jesus himself drew near and walked along with them;Mark 16, vs. The doors were locked, but Jesus came and stood among them and said, a€?Pease be with youa€?. A Jesus also appeared to 500 others, Saul (whom later became Paul), and to his disciples again when he rose up and ascended into Heaven. Since Biblical times the tradition that the Roman Emperor Domitian ordered that the Apostle John be executed by throwing him into a cauldron of boiling oil has been widely held.



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