At the heart of the Persian Army were the 10,000 Immortals a€“ soldiers chosen for their bravery and skill. Created Zoroastrianism a€“ A religion that taught that the forces of good and evil were battling for control of the universe. First Persian War - In 490 BC Darius I invaded the Greek mainland to punish the Greek city-states for helping rebellious Greeks in the Persian Empire. A¬300 Spartans held off the Persian army at Thermopylae pass for three days until they were betrayed and overwhelmed.
A¬The Athenian navy defeated the Persians in a navel battle at Salamis and on land at Plataea.
Education, clear thinking (philosophy) and the arts were valued in Athensa€¦in addition to a strong military.
After the Persian Wars Athens formed an alliance of Greek city-states called the Delian League.
In 415 BC Athens attempted to expand its empire once again, by attacking the island of Sicily.
In 359 BC Phillip II became king of Macedonia and (very soon) led his army south to conquer the disorganized Greeks. Phillipa€™s success as a military leader was based on a fighting formation called a phalanx a€“ a group of warriors who stood close together in a square with long spears. Philip II planned to march east and conquer the Persian Empire, but in 336 BC he was assassinated while celebrating his daughtera€™s wedding.


Alexander quickly demonstrated his leadership abilities at age 20 by ruthlessly putting down a rebellion in the Greek city-state of Thebes. Beginning in 334 BC, Alexander moved east and south out of Greece and conquered the Persians, Egyptians and other smaller groups.
Alexander was a great admirer of Greek culture so his longest lasting legacy was that he spread Greek culture across his empire as he conquered.
Over many centuries these cultures blended together to form Hellenistic Culture or Hellenism.
Greek philosophers believed that one thing was more important than anything else in lifea€¦a€¦.using the human mind to think and understand.
Plato a€“ A student of Socrates, Plato wrote The Republic in which he described the prefect society.
Archimedes a€“ Invented the a€?water screwa€? that allowed the lifting of water to a higher level.
At the heart of the Persian Army were the 10,000 Immortals a€“ soldiers chosen for their bravery and skill.A  The army also had an excellent cavalry a€“ a unit of soldiers who ride horses.
After four years of disorder, a prince, Darius I came to power.A  He became known as the a€?king of kingsa€?. Built The Royal Road.A A  It stretched 1,700 miles and allowed messengers to travel quickly.
Philip II planned to march east and conquer the Persian Empire, but in 336 BC he was assassinated while celebrating his daughtera€™s wedding.A  His son Alexander would take his placea€¦a€¦.


Alexander quickly demonstrated his leadership abilities at age 20 by ruthlessly putting down a rebellion in the Greek city-state of Thebes.A  He now could go and conquer an empire without fearing any further rebellions in Greece. Many government buildings in the US today are modeled after the Greek style.A  Greek buildings are known for their columns and balance. Aristotle a€“ Taught that people should live lives of moderation and balance.A  The should use reason, or clear and ordered thinking to guide their lives.
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