In 1992, the Discovery year for all those connected to the American continents - North, Central and South - world Jewry was concerned with commemorating not only the expulsion, but also seven centuries of the Jewish life in Spain, flourishing under Muslim rule, and the 500th anniversary of the official welcome extended by the Ottoman Empire in 1492. This humanitarianism demonstrated at that time, was consistent with the beneficence and goodwill traditionally displayed by the Turkish government and people towards those of different creeds, cultures and backgrunds.
A History Predating 1492 The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews. When Mehmet II "the Conqueror" took Constantinople in 1453, he encountered an oppressed Romaniot (Byzantine) Jewish community which welcomed him with enthusiasm. A Haven for Sephardic Jews Sultan Bayazid II's offer of refuge gave new hope to the persecuted Sephardim. The arrival of the Sephardim altered the structure of the community and the original group of Romaniote Jews was totally absorbed. Over the centuries an increasing number of European Jews, escaping persecution in their native countries, settled in the Ottoman Empire. Under Ottoman tradition, each non-Muslim religious community was responsible for its own institutions, including schools.
Recognized in 1923 by the Treaty of Lausanne as a fully independent state within its present day borders, Turkey accorded minority rights to the three principal non-Muslim religious minorities and permitted them to carry on with their own schools, social institutions and funds. A Community Calendar (Halila) is published by the Chief Rabbinate every year and distributed free of charge to all those who have paid their dues (Kisba) to the welfare bodies. Social clubs containing libraries, cultural and sports facilities, discotheques give young people the chance to meet. The Jewish Community is of course a very small group in Turkey today, considering that the total population - 99% Muslim - exceeds 67 million. 1492 Sultan Bayezid II welcomes Jews fleeing the Spanish inquisition; in Istanbul , the Jewish population double and Salonika becomes a major Jewish centre.
1516 - 1517 The Ottoman conquest of Palestine and Egypt leads to the strengthening of Jewish communities in their ancient homeland of Eretz Israel. 1535 Approximately 56,000 Jewish live in Istanbul,1556 Sultan Suleyman ' the Magnificent' write a letter to Pope Paul IV asking for immediate release of the Ancona Conversos whom he declared to be Ottoman citizens.
1922-23 Hayim Nahum Turkey's Chief Rabbi is an adviser to the Turkish delegation to the Lausanne Conference.1923 The Turkish Republic is founded under the preseidency of Mustafa Kemal ATATURK . 1940s Turkey stays neutral in World War II,,1942 Wealth tax ( varlA±k vergisi ) places a disproportionately heavy burden on non Muslim communities and sets off a massive migration of Jews to Palestine . ISTANBUL,After the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in1453 , Sultan Mehmet II ( the Conqueor 1451-1481 ) encouraged immigration to repopulate the city. Senguler Tourism a member of Association of Turkish Travel Agencies,ISTANBUL JEWISH HERITAGE TOURS,jewish tours in istanbul,jewish heritage tours in istanbul turkey,hakan hacibekiroglu,Welcome to our IJHT web site.. On the midnight of August 2nd 1492, when Columbus embarked on what would become his most famous expedition to the New World, his fleet departed from the relatively unknown seaport of Palos because the shipping lanes of Cadiz and Seville were clogged with Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain by the Edict of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain.
In the faraway Ottoman Empire, one ruler extended an immediate welcome to the persecuted Jews of Spain, the Sephardim.
In 1992, the Discovery year for all those connected to the American continents - North, Central and South - world Jewry was concerned with commemorating not only the expulsion, but also seven centuries of the Jewish life in Spain, flourishing under Muslim rule, and the 500th anniversary of the official welcome extended by the Ottoman Empire in 1492. This humanitarianism demonstrated at that time, was consistent with the beneficence and goodwill traditionally displayed by the Turkish government and people towards those of different creeds, cultures and backgrounds. In 1992, Turkish Jewry celebrated not only the anniversary of this gracious welcome, but also the remarkable spirit of tolerance and acceptance which has characterized the whole Jewish experience in Turkey. The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews. Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest. Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there. The arrival of the Sephardim altered the structure of the community and the original group of Romaniote Jews was totally absorbed. Over the centuries an increasing number of European Jews, escaping persecution in their native countries, settled in the Ottoman Empire.
For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain. Most of the court physicians were Jews: Hakim Yakoub, Joseph and Moshe Hamon, Daniel Fonseca, Gabriel Buenaventura to name only very few. One of the most significant innovations that Jews brought to the Ottoman Empire was the printing press. Under Ottoman tradition, each non-Muslim religious community was responsible for its own institutions, including schools. An important event in the life of Ottoman Jews in the 17th century was the schism led by Sabetay Sevi, the pseudo Messiah who lived in Izmir and later adopted Islam with his followers.
Efforts at reform of the Ottoman Empire led to the proclamation of the Hatt-A± Humayun in 1856, which made all Ottoman citizens, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, equal under the law.
Recognized in 1923 by the Treaty of Lausanne as a fully independent state within its present day borders, Turkey accorded minority rights to the three principal non-Muslim religious minorities and permitted them to carry on with their own schools, social institutions and funds. Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi. Most Jewish children attend state schools or private Turkish or foreign language schools, and many are enrolled in the universities. While younger Jews speak Turkish as their native language, the over-70-years-old generation is more at home speaking in French or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino). A Community Calendar (Halila) is published by the Chief Rabbinate every year and distributed free of charge to all those who have paid their dues (Kisba) to the welfare bodies. Two Jewish hospitals, the 98 bed Or-Ahayim in Istanbul and the 22 bed KaratasHospital in Izmir, serve the Community. Social clubs containing libraries, cultural and sports facilities, discotheques give young people the chance to meet. The Jewish Community is of course a very small group in Turkey today, considering that the total population - 99% Muslim - exceeds 67 million. New York, NY New, Get Introduced parties and get togethers Connecting New York City singles. New York City (or NYC) -- officially, "City of New York," and affectionately known as "The Big Apple" -- is the largest city of the state of New York and in the United States, and by many measures, one of the most important cities in the world.
New York is also the location of what was, according to many experts, the most devastating act of terrorism in modern history: the September 11, 2001 attack that utterly destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center and several surrounding buildings.
New York has had a reputation as a crime-ridden city, partly due to the hundreds of TV and cinematic crime dramas set in it. The current mayor of New York City is Michael Bloomberg, elected in 2001 on the Republican ticket. Although New York's harbour was first discovered by Giovanni da Verrazano during his expedition of 1524, the history of New York City properly begins with the Dutch settlement of 1624. In 1664, British ships captured the city, with minimal resistance: the governor at the time, Peter Stuyvesant, was unpopular with the residents of the city. Several battles were fought in New York during the Revolutionary War; the British defeated George Washington's troops, and held the city until the war ended.
New York was briefly the capital of the new United States of America, in 1789 and 1790, and George Washington was inaugurated as President in New York, then the nation's second largest city.
The building of the Erie Canal, in the 1820s, helped the city grow further by increasing river traffic upstate and to the west. The modern city of New York -- the five boroughs -- was created in 1898, as the merger of the cities of New York (then Manhattan and the Bronx) and Brooklyn with the largely rural areas of Queens and Staten Island. The building of the New York subway, as the separate IRT and BMT systems, and the later IND, was a later force for population growth and development.
The world-famous Grand Central Terminal[?] opened as the world's largest train station on February 1, 1913. As of the census of 2000, there are 8,008,278 people, 3,021,588 households, and 1,852,233 families residing in the city.
The median income for a household in the city is $38,293, and the median income for a family is $41,887. I invite people using message boards saying that I prefer my guests to be 30 - 50 years old but everyone is welcome. 1922-23 Hayim Nahum Turkey's Chief Rabbi is an adviser to the Turkish delegation to the Lausanne Conference.,1923 The Turkish Republic is founded under the preseidency of Mustafa Kemal ATATURK . 1940s Turkey stays neutral in World War II,1942 Wealth tax ( varlyk vergisi ) places a disproportionately heavy burden on non Muslim communities and sets off a massive migration of Jews to Palestine . The Life of Ottoman Jews For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain.
Ottoman diplomacy was often carried out by Jews. Joseph Nasi, appointed the Duke of Naxos, was the former Portuguese Marrano Joao Miques. Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi.
Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest. From 4th Century BCE Archaelogical findings indicate Jewish settlement in the Aegean region of Anatolia.
From 220 BCE There are Jewish settlements in Sardes , Miletus , Prien , Bursa in the southeast and along the Aegean ,Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. 1299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands.
1453 Following the conquest of Constantinople,Sultan Mehmet II transfers Jewish populations to their new capital .
1839 - 1876 The Tanzimat reforms lead to the application of news laws,bringing equality to all Ottoman citizens,regardless of religion.
1870s The French Jewish school network Alliance Israelite Universelle expands throughout the Ottoman Empire in cities with large Jewish populations with a mission to modernise the Jewish communities of the East. 1881 Despite an official Ottoman policy against the modern migration of Jews to Palestine,Russian Jews are welcomed to migrate to the heartland of Ottoman Anatolia (Asia Minor ) where they set up farming communities lasting until World War I . 1908 The Young Turk revolution is supported by a wide coalition of Muslims,Jews,Armenians and Greek who unite under the French slogan of liberte,egalite and fraternite against Sultan Abdulhamid II. 1933 Turkey recruits German Jewish academics facing Nazi discriminative policies in order to strengthen Istanbul and Ankara universities. 1934 As a result of pogroms in Edirne and Canakkale the majority of the Jews yf Thrace migrate to Istanbul. 1948 Israel declares independence leading to continuous immigration throughtout the following years. 1989 The Quincentennial Foundation made up of Turkish Jews and Muslims is established three years before the 500th anniversary of Sephardi life in Ottoman lands and Turkey. 1990s Relations between Turkey and Israel become stronger when a strategic military bond between the two countries emerges. 1994 A modern Jewish school in Ulus opens its doors replacing the former school located in the old Jewish neighbourhood of Galata..
2001 The Zulfaris Synagogue is turned into the Quincentinal Foundation Museum of Turkish Jews providing space to commemorate Jewish Life in the former Ottoman lands and the modern Turkish state. 2002 Ishak Haleva is pronounced Chief Rabbi when Rabbi David Asseo dies after serving for more than 40 years.
2003 16 November Neve Shalom and Bet Israel synagogues are attacked during Shabbat prayers killing 23 people including six Jews .
2004 The European Day of Jewish Culture opens synagogues for the first time to the general Turkish public offering musical and educational activities. Much of what we know about early Italy come from the Histora Naturalis by Pliny the Elder which was published around 77-79 A.D.
Many people groups possess mythological descriptions of their origins, often contained in the form of totems -- ancient heroes, animals, or even plants and trees, from which that group of people emerged at first on earth. According to legend, the king of a small community in Italy ordered his twin sons to be thrown into the Tiber River. Romulus (hence the name a€?Romea€?) forged numerous alliances with neighboring peoples in order to fortify and protect a€?for eternitya€? the city which eventually gained the name, a€?The Eternal City.a€? The time period for this story is not ancient. They established an absolute monarchy with a Senate, a constitution, and a popular assembly. It was early Rome and not Athens that was to lay the greatest amount of groundwork for later democracies.
To ensure that a dictatorship or absolute ruler could not emerge, the Republic developed a series of assemblies, assuring that every class within society would have representation. The Senate, however, endured through the several sacks of Rome by the barbarians, and even functioned under several Germanic emperors.
Plebian Council: each of the 35 tribes selected representative to the Council, which passed most laws, and served as a court of appeals.
Magistrates: served as judges, overseers of legal affairs, enforces of an early form of habeas corpus (an accused persona€™s right to be heard and not held without sufficient evidence) were selected by the Assembly of the Centuries. Consuls: were elected by the populace annually from among the magistrates, presided over the Senate and the Assemblies, had supreme civil and military powers, were heads of the Roman government, and when outside of Rome commanded an army. Roman society in the Republic developed a hierarchical format, dividing the people into two classes: the patricians (land-owning aristocracy) and plebians (eveyone else -- until slavery developed).
As the Republic took on a more military-expansionist quality, success in warfare became connected with advancement in politics.
Rome was originally a land army, but copied the ships of the Carthaginians, who at the time were masters of the Mediterranean Ocean.
In addition, Antiochus ordered all Jewish worship to cease, killed those who disobeyed, and profaned the temple by offering pigs on the holy altar.
The unrest in Rome due to massive unemployment and the influx of new people led to the rise of radical rivalries. The appointment of Julius Caesar as dictator for life for all practical purposes marked the end of the Republic. Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncle to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus. The three members of the second triumvirate agreed to divide the Republic among themselves -- Octavian took the West, Antony took the East, including Egypt, and Lepidus took Spain and North Africa. Marc Antony, now residing in Egypt, soon made a romantic friendship with Cleopatra with whom he produced several children.
Octavian and Anthony despised each other and Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, was too weak a character to stand up to either. Following the death of Julius, six emperors from his family line ruled successively from 27 B. Claudius was a respected older Senator leader when he succeeded Caligula, his nephew, in 47 A.D.
For instance, during one part of the siege laid by the Romans, the Zealots destroyed food supplies that were stored in the city in order to gain an advantage over their rival factions. Vespasian gained control of the Roman wheat supply in Egypt and North Africa and thereby announced his intentions. When Vespasian left with his troops to go north, the Jews, and especially the Zealots, saw this as a sign of weakness. Prior to the arrival of Vespasian, civil war was taking place inside of Jerusalem The Hellenized Jews, the Pharisees, the Zealots, and the ordinary people were locked in a chaos of robbery, intrigue, murder, and assassination. For three generations the high priest selected to lead temple worship did not come from the line of Aaron, as prescribed in Scripture. These high priests were rejected by the conservative, religious party as political stooges of the Romans and certainly not lawfully selected high priests.
Things became so desperate in the city that people resorted eating animal manure, and there is even a reported case of cannibalism. Finally, after months of siege, the Romans managed to scale the walls, burn the temple and burn the city. Jesus instructed his disciples and they in turn the other Christians in Jerusalem about this impending terror.
The Christians were warned by the prophecy of Jesus to flee the city when they saw wars, rumors of wars, earthquakes and the other accompanying events. The temple worship in Jerusalem came to an end, as did the priesthood and the sacrificial system. It was Goda€™s final statement in the destroying of Jerusalem that the new Sacrifice had come, Jesus, the Lamb of God, He was now the High Priest. This dynasty brought excellent administrative leadership to the Empire through the absolute rule of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. A large system of aqueducts, sewer systems, and medicine improved the health of the empire. Julius Caesar developed a calendar containing 12 months and 365 days which was universally adopted in the domains of the Empire. The Gregorian calendar has four months with a length of 30 days and seven months that are 31 days long.
Central heating in homes was developed in construction methods that allowed for air spaces under houses through which hot air from furnaces could circulate.
Concrete was invented by the Romans, making possible the large construction projects--stadiums, theaters, basilicas, aqueducts, basilicas. Roman architecture first used domes in constructing temples, which made possible larger unsupported ceilings in public buildings.
Latin became the a€?lingua francaa€? throughout the empire and produced the foundation for the a€?Romance languagesa€? -- Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian. A successive line of emperors ruled absolutely from Rome over an empire that covered most of the known world. The Christian Church grew rapidly throughout the empire and very little opposition to the Church was experienced after the time of Trajan.
The elevation of Constantine marked the beginning of a new Empire, an Empire to be greatly impacted by the Christian Church.
There will certainly be emperors who would be disappointed that they are not included in the chart below. Due to a variety of factors, including geography, military strength, and leadership, the city of Rome was over time able to gain control over central and southern Italy.
Rome was first governed by a monarchy which was replaced by a Republic -- the Republic provided a separation of powers and responsibilities, primarily concentrated in the Senate and among several important assemblies. Tensions and conflict between the Patricians and the Plebeians escalated and broke out into hostilities which threatened the peace and security of Rome.
A first triumvirate was formed (Julius, Pompey, Crassus), seeking leadership and resolution to the conflict and granting authority.
Juliusa€™ assassination on the floor of the Senate by Brutus resulted in the formation of the second triumvirate composed of Octavian, Marc Anthony, and Lepidus. Although married to Octaviana€™s sister, Marc Anthony lived openly with Cleopatra in Alexandria, Egypt.
The clash between Octavian and Anthony was settled at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, with Anthony and Cleopatra driven back to Alexandria where both committed suicide. The last of the Julian line, Nero, was emperor who killed the two apostles, Peter and Paul, in Rome in 67 AD.
Rome grew to a huge empire that controlled almost all of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea from the Euphrates on the East to the Atlantic Ocean on the west, as well as Gaul (France), Spain, and England.
Most roots of Western civilization can be traced to elements that existed in the Roman Empire from about 27 B.C.
Rome contributed roads, bridges, architecture, citizenship, language, republicanism, and culture to Europe -- producing the famed Pax Romana. The rise of the Roman Empire was foretold in the dream of the Persian king, Nebuchadnezzar, as interpreted by Daniel in his prophecy 2:1-45. The Roman Empire provided the environment (language, roads) that enabled the Christian Church to grow throughout the known world.
Ultimately, the Christian Church conquered the Roman Empire through the faithful witness of Christians throughout the empire and with the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to the Christian faith. Describe the interaction between the Goths and the Romans, resulting ultimately in the sacking of Rome in 476 A.D. The small town was established on the banks of the Tiber River on an elevated site to give protection. Jerusalem had been under Seleucid control for many years.A  When they heard a false rumor in 167 BC that Antiochus Epiphanes IV, king of the Seleucids, had been killed in battle in Egypt, a rebellion broke out in the city.
While in Egypt Julius developed a relationship with Cleopatra, teenage ruler of Egypt, who subsequently bore him a son. Octavian, nephew of Julius, was appointed by the Senate to a new triumvirate togetherA  with Marc Antony and Lepidus in 43 B.C.
Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncleA  to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus. DESCRIPTION:This seminal work was initially compiled in manuscript form on vellum, with drawings in red and black. The author, a seventh century Bishop of Seville (Spain), leaned heavily himself on classical writers, as well as the teachings of the Church Fathers.
In view of the extraordinary influence of this treatise, the following excepts (the translation is taken from G. Concerning the earth we are told that it is named from its roundness (orbis) which is like a wheel; whence the small wheel is called a€?orbiculusa€?. As to size, Isidore accepts Eratosthenesa€™ estimate (via Macrobius) of 252,000 stadia for the circumference of the earth.
The Ancients did not divide these three parts of the world equally, for Asia stretches right from the south, through the east to the north, but Europe stretches from the north to the west and thence Africa from the west to the south. Interestingly, Isidore was the first writer to clearly define the Mediterranean by that proper name. It contains many provinces and districts whose names and geographical situations I will briefly describe, beginning from Paradise .
This obvious Biblical note coming so early in the topographical section of the treatise might lead the reader to expect its continuance in subsequent chapters; but apart from one or two entirely understandable references to Biblical lore - Scythia and Gothia also are said to have been named by Magog, son of Japhet and the River Ganges which sacred scripture calls Phison, flows down from Paradise to the realms of India - only the most sparing use of this source is made. In the extreme east of Asia the country of Seres is rich in fine leaves, from which are cut fleeces which the natives who decline the merchandise of other peoples sell for use as garments . Europe, in the true classical fashion, is divided from Asia by the river Tanais [todaya€™s Don] and is bordered on the north by the Northern Ocean. Moreover beyond [these] three parts of the world, on the other side of the ocean, is a fourth inland part in the south, which is unknown to us because of the heat of the sun, within the bounds of which the Antipodes are fabulously said to dwell. This concession by Isidore as expressed in the brief quote above indicated that he more than half believed in the sphericity of the earth and quite fully in the doctrine of the Antipodes.
As far as his own graphic expression of the worlda€™s geography, one of the map designs frequently associated with Isidore of Seville is actually a survival of the ancient Greek tripartite division of the world into Asia, Africa and Europe, surrounded by the Ocean Sea. The T within the O produced a world image divided into half (by the cross of the T) and two quarters. Regardless of experience and all knowledge to the contrary, the most important city regionally was located in the center of the habitable world.
In addition to the usual tripartite circular map of the world, some manuscripts of the Etymologiarum feature other map designs as well.
Caius Crispus Sallustius, generally known as Sallust (86-34 BCE) was a Roman senator and historian, who subsequent to his falling out with the Caesar, was sent to Africa as a governor of Numidia (In the north-west of Africa}.
He produced his most important works on the conspiracy of Catiline and the war of Rome with Jugurtha. The Medes and Armenians connected them selves with the Libyans who dwelled near the African sea, while the Getulians lay more to the sun, not far from the torrid heats; and these soon built themselves towns, as, being separated from Spain only by a strait, they proceeded to open an intercourse with its inhabitants. Some copies of Sallusts manuscripts, which have reached us, do also include a simple T-O map, which relates to his narrative of the Jugurthine War. As mentioned above, Sallusta€™s works were copied and re-copied and were in use until the late medieval period and many of the later copies of his manuscripts have reached us.
Sallust mappamundi, ninth century, a€?University of Leipzig Library, Leipzig, Germany, MS 1607, f. Since Sallust was the governor of Numidia, he has naturally paid more attention to the details of this continent. In the bodies of water dividing the world into the three continents, the Mediterranean bears no legend. Another variation of the basic Isidorean design was called the Byzantine-Oxford, or B-O T-O maps. More prominently than in any other example of the biblical school, the Holy Land dominates the center of the map. The map was brought back to England or Ireland after the First Crusade, which conquered Jerusalem in 1099.
Christian scholars adopted the T-O map for its simplicity, as had the classical writers who first employed it. These T-O maps, whether actually contained in the Etymologiarum of Isidore, in later editions of the same, as modified derivatives thereof (Sallusts, B-O T-O), or as maps that were merely influenced by the basic design format (Hereford, Ebstorf, et. At the Benedictine monastery of Thorney in East Anglia, a large and elegant computus book was finished in 1110, designed to be an ornament of the newly completed church. The continents are arranged with Asia at the top, Europe apparently in the center and Africa in the southwest corner. Like the map within the rota of sunrises and sunsets, this is a T-O map with Asia in the top half, and Europe and Africa in the lower half. In form, content and function, MS 17a€™s map represents a recent development in medieval cartography. On the other hand, this mappamundi is also closely connected in content and context to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram on fol.
But there is also a particularly insular connection between computus and universal geography, one that is connected to the debates over the correct system of calculating Easter that marked the early years of Christianity in England.
Schematic maps of the oikumene of the T-O type are often embedded in computus diagrams as a shorthand representation of the earth; zone maps illustrating the climates of the earth, derived from Macrobiusa€™ Commentum in Somnium Scipionis (#201), appear in anthologies of cosmographic materials as illustrations of passages from Isidore (cf.
In about 1446-1451 Jean Mansel composed a universal history titled La fleur des histoires, and then in the 1460s wrote a longer version of the same work. The map is placed at the start of the prologue to Book IV, in which a description of the regions of the world is given in alphabetical order.
The name gorgato recalls the medieval Latin gargata and Old French gargate, meaning a€?throat,a€? perhaps alluding to the creaturea€™s voracious nature, but these monsters seem to have been invented by the cartographer. The T-O map tradition did not die out as a cartographic form of expression until as late as the 17th century, as may be seen from a book such as the Variae Orbis Universi, by Petrus Bertius, 1628. The Matenadaran archive collection in Yerevan, capital of Armenia, contains some 14,000 manuscripts from the golden age of Armenian literature, beginning in the 5th century, and from later periods.
One exception to the general lack of maps in the Yerevan archives is MS 1242, a collection of eighteen unrelated essays on religious, moral, mathematical and astronomical subjects dating mainly from the 13th to the 15th centuries. The map on folio 132r can be described as of the T - O type, but its construction has been modified. Also as in many maps of the T-O genre, the centre is occupied by the Holy City of Jerusalem, which is shown with its six gates, each inscribed with its name in Armenian. In both shape and arrangement, the city sign is akin to that on the Hereford mapparnundi, c.1290 (#226), although it lacks the enclosing crenulated walls of the Hereford map sign.
As shown in the following Table, in addition to Jerusalem, twenty-seven place- names are found on the map.
The inscription to the left of the stem of the T, below the triangle formed by three dots, reads, Ays koghms Eropa [This side is Europe]. The Red Sea [Karmir] dzov; only the word sea is legible on the map) is shown as a bold open circle on the borders of Africa and Asia.
The division between Europe and Asia, normally marked with the horizontal crossbar of the T, here is demarcated with a single red line and is more complex.
In keeping with T-O maps in general, the greater part of the Armenian map is allocated to Asia, inscribed Ays koghms Asia [This side is Asia]. In the east, in the upper part of the map close to the Ocean are the names Khaytai [China] and Zaytun [Zaytun], another Chinese trading port city.
The presence of these toponyms in the area between Europe and China bears witness to the importance of these towns and provinces in trade and commerce between East and West and is perhaps indicative of the period of the mapa€™s creation. There is nothing, then, untoward in the inclusion on the Armenian map of Sara (Sarai), a city founded only in the 1240s by Batu Khan, the grandson of Mongol leader Gangiz Khan, who took over the territory of southern Russia and its Turkic speaking peoples during the early 13th century. Khachaturian also proposed that based on palaeographic evidence, the map was made in the Cilician Kingdom of Armenia during the Crusades, unfortunately not specifying which Crusade. Caffa, the first town listed in the row of toponyms along the northeastern periphery of the map, was only a small Crimean seaside town until the 13th century.
The presence of the name Caffa on the map is a strong indication that the map was made during the citya€™s heyday, namely in the 14th century.
Since, in my view, the map has to postdate both the establishment of Sarai-Batu and Sarai-Berke (New Sarai, established 1257-1266) and the time when Caffa became an important conurbation, it cannot be dated to earlier than the third quarter of the 13th century. While the majority of T-O maps produced in the Christian West depict Armenia, Mount Ararat and Noaha€™s Ark, this Armenian mapmaker has chosen not to mention any of these Armenian features. In the end, the absence of reference on the Armenian map to Armenia itself or to any of its immediate neighbors, such as Persia and Assyria, is more puzzling. The existence of this Armenian language T-O map, though, may be owed simply to the curiosity of an individual whose interest in Western maps and literature would have been a sufficient reason for him to create a map of his own in line with those of the Western mapmakers of the time, leaving us an Armenian map as remarkable for its uniqueness as for the hints it gives of the interconnections underlying the T-O maps and the mappaemundi of the West. This is a very late example of a T-O world map, probably made in Bruges in 1482 for King Edward IV, the founder of the old Royal Library. 205CT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm dia, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut. 205CCDiagram map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 9th century, 24 cm square, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 210, f. 205DD Isidore mappamundi, unknown, 11th century, 26 cm dia, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 10058, f. 205ET-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, Santarem s Atlas compose de mappemondes . 205GG Circular Plan of Jerusalem, unknown, 13th century, 26 cm diameter, British Library, Additional MS.
205HT-O Sallust map from Bellum Jugurthinum, unknown, 14th century, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice, Fond.
205HH Reverse T-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 12th century, 19 cm diameter, Cathedral Curch of Exeter, MS. 205JJT-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 9th century, 12.5 cm diameter, Burgerbibliothek, Bern, Codex 417, fol.
205LLSallust T-O map from De bello Jugurthino, West oriented, unknown, 6.8 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS. 205MT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 8th century, 22 X 29 cm, Vatican Library, MS Vat.
205MM Sallust T-O map with symmetrical rivers, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, MS.
205NSallust T-O map, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge MS.
205OT-O Sallust map, unknown, 13th century, 4.3 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS Lat.
205QT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm diameter, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut. 205TT-O and -V maps from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 12th century, 7.2 cm diameter, BnF, Manuscrits (Latin 10293 fol.
205TTT-O world map by Chatillon, Gautier de Chatillon, 13th century, 7 cm diameter, Bodleian Library, MS Bod.
205V1Gauthier de Chatillon mappimundi, Alexandreis, Gauthier de Chatillon, 13th century, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Francais 11334, fol. 205WY-O map from Macrobiusa€™ Commentarium in somnium Scipionis, unknown, 12th century, 8.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS.
205YT-O map from MS of Commentary on the Apocalypse of Saint John (Beatus), unknown, 11th century, 4.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS.
205ZT-O map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 12th century, 8.1 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. For the next few years I followed their progress, cutting out match reports and sticking them into an album, until I was old enough to venture off to see them in the flesh. After that, I was hooked - finding one way or another to make it to the East Midlands from wherever I happened to be over the next half a century.
The first highlight came in the mid-70s when manager Jimmy Bloomfield put together a side of all the talents, including Keith Weller, Frank Worthington and, my personal favourite, winger Len Glover. His methods were unconventional - there was the "ostrich" jibe at a reporter in a press conference, the touch-line tangle with a Crystal Palace player and then - after an unsavoury incident on a pre-season tour in Thailand involving his son (one of the team's youth players) - Pearson was unceremoniously fired by the club's Thai owners.
That was it, we all feared - a feeling hardly dissipated with the appointment of Claudio Ranieri as the new manager.
The six women and three men reached their finding of unawful killing, by a seven to two majority, following the longest jury proceedings in British legal history. Jurors decided that police planning errors "caused or contributed" to the dangerous situation that developed on the day of the disaster.
They had been told by the coroner they could only return a finding of unlawful killing if they were satisfied that match commander, Chief Superintendent David Duckenfield, owed a duty of care to those who died in the disaster, and that he was in breach of that duty of care. They would also need to be sure that his breach of duty caused the deaths and that it amounted to "gross negligence". Mr Duckenfield gave an order shortly before kick-off to open an exit gate at Sheffield Wednesday's football stadium, allowing around 2,000 fans to flood into the already packed central pens behind the goal.
Some 96 Liverpool supporters were subsequently crushed in what is Britain's worst sporting disaster.
Fans had gathered for the FA Cup semi-final against Nottingham Forest, which had to be abandoned.


The hearings in Warrington have lasted two years, with the jury hearing evidence from around 1,000 witnesses. Dozens of relatives of the victims have attended each of the more than 300 days the court has sat at Bridgewater Place on the Cheshire town's Birchwood Park business park. The 1991 accidental deaths verdicts from the original inquests were quashed following the 2012 Hillsborough Independent Panel report after a long campaign by the families of the dead. Wood's long-term manager and friend, Phil McIntyre, said: "Victoria has been a part of our lives as a friend, devoted mother and national treasure for 30 years. Wood was well known for her comedy series Victoria Wood: As Seen On TV, as well as her role in sitcom Dinnerladies and her TV special Victoria Wood With All The Trimmings. In 2006, she won two Bafta awards for acting and writing for her drama Housewife, 49, an adaptation of the diaries of Nella Last. Wood, who got her showbusiness break as a winner on New Faces, won two other Baftas earlier in her career, both for best light entertainment performance. Victoria Wood As Seen On TV also won the Bafta for best entertainment programme in 1986, 1987 and 1988, while An Audience With Victoria Wood won the same award in 1989.
Wood's live comedy was often interspersed with her own compositions and she frequently played the piano. Jack Dee tweeted: "I feel privileged to have known and worked with the great Victoria Wood.
Her list of designs includes famous buildings such as the London Aquatics Centre for the 2012 Olympic Games, the Maxxi Museum in Italy, the Guangzhou Opera House in China and the Heydar Aliyev Centre in Azerbaijan. Born in Baghdad in 1950, she studied mathematics at the American University of Beirut before starting her design journey in 1972 at the Architectural Association in London.
More than 40 years later, the Royal Institute Of British Architects (Riba) announced Dame Zaha as the recipient of its prestigious 2016 Royal Gold Medal, approved personally by the Queen.
Awarded since 1848, previous Royal Gold Medallists include Frank Gehry, Norman Foster and Frank Lloyd Wright. Dame Zaha grew up in the Iraqi capital and displayed her individualism at an early age by designing her bedroom when she was nine.
Born to a Sunni Muslim family - her father was a politician and her mother was a housewife - she was taught by Roman Catholic nuns. By 1979 she had established her own practice in London - Zaha Hadid Architects - garnering a reputation across the world for her trail-blazing theoretical works, including The Peak in Hong Kong, the Kurfurstendamm office building in Berlin and the Cardiff Bay Opera House in Wales. She won acclaim in Scotland for designing the popular Riverside Museum in Glasgow, known for its distinctive roof structure. Her first major built commission was the Vitra Fire Station in Weil Am Rhein, Germany, in 1993. Other awards include the Republic of France's Commandeur de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres and Japan's Praemium Imperiale.In 2012, Dame Zaha was honoured in the Queen's Birthday Honours list for services to architecture. She was awarded an honorary degree from Goldsmiths to recognise her inventive approach and eagerness to challenge conventions in September 2014.
In an open letter to ministers and chief medical officers, they describe rugby as a "high-impact collision sport" and say the risks of injuries to under-18s "are high and injuries are often serious". The letter says contact rugby is compulsory in many secondary schools from the age of 11 and that most injuries occur during "contact or collision, such as the tackle and the scrum". The letter says concussion is a common injury, with a risk of depression, memory loss and diminished verbal abilities.
It also says injuries can result in "significant time loss from school" and criticises the government's drive to increase the playing of rugby in English state schools. One of the signatories, Professor Allyson Pollock from Queen Mary University of London, said: "Children are being left exposed to serious and catastrophic risk of injury.
Prof Pollock, a prominent public health doctor, became interested in rugby safety after her son Hamish was badly injured while playing the sport as a 14-year-old. He ended up concussed after his cheekbone was shattered during a collision with another player's knee. She was told by doctors that his injuries were akin to what happened to people when they were propelled through windscreens in car crashes. Another teenage rugby player, Ben Robinson, from Carrickfergus, Co Antrim, died in 2011 after suffering concussion in a collision.
The Rugby Football Union (RFU) said that "high quality coaching, officiating, medical support and appropriate player behaviour" helped to reduce the risk of injury.
It said rugby in English schools or clubs could be played as either a contact or a non-contact sport. An RFU spokesman said young players were being given longer to master the basics of the game before contact was introduced.
The Department for Education said it expected schools to "be aware of the risks associated with sporting activities and to provide a safe environment for pupils".
Indeed, Turkey could serve as a model to be emulated by any nation which finds refugees from any of the four corners of the world standing at its doors.In 1992, Turkish Jewry celebrated not only the anniversary of this gracious welcome, but also the remarkable spirit of tolerance and acceptance which has characterized the whole Jewish experience in Turkey. In 1537 the Jews expelled from Apulia (Italy) after the city fell under Papal control, in 1542 those expelled from Bohemia by King Ferdinand found a safe haven in the Ottoman Empire.
In the early 19th century, Abraham de Camondo established a modern school, "La Escola", causing a serious conflict between conservative and secular rabbis which was only settled by the intervention of Sultan Abdulaziz in 1864. In 1926, on the eve of Turkey's adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the Jewish Community renounced its minority status on personal rights.During the tragic days of World War II, Turkey managed to maintain its neutrality. The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2.500 in Izmir and other smaller groups located in Adana, Ankara, Antakya, Bursa, Canakkale, Kirklareli etc. La Buena Esperansa and La Puerta del Oriente started in Izmir in 1843 and Or Israelwas first published in Istanbul ten years later. The Community cannot levy taxes, but can request donations.Two Jewish hospitals, the 98 bed Or-Ahayim in Istanbul and the 22 bed KaratasHospital in Izmir, serve the Community. An essential prelude to any visit to any synagogue in Turkey is contact with the Jewish Heritage tour company in Istanbul .
Jewish communities were invited to take up residence at HaskA¶y on the eastern bank of the Golden Horn. Indeed, Turkey could serve as a model to be emulated by any nation which finds refugees from any of the four corners of the world standing at its doors. The events being planned - symposiums, conferences, concerts, exhibitions, films and books, restoration of ancient Synagogues etc - commemorated the longevity and prosperity of the Jewish community.
When the Ottomans captured Bursa in 1326 and made it their capital, they found a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule. In fact, from the early 15th century on, the Ottomans actively encouraged Jewish immigration. In 1537 the Jews expelled from Apulia (Italy) after the city fell under Papal control, in 1542 those expelled from Bohemia by King Ferdinand found a safe haven in the Ottoman Empire. Four Turkish cities: Istanbul, Izmir, Safed and Salonica became the centres of Sephardic Jewry. In 1493, only one year after their expulsion from Spain, David & Samuel ibn Nahmias established the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul. As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces. In 1926, on the eve of Turkey's adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the Jewish Community renounced its minority status on personal rights. As early as 1933 Ataturk invited numbers of prominent German Jewish professors to flee Nazi Germany and settle in Turkey. The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2.500 in Izmir and other smaller groups located in Adana, Ankara, Antakya, Bursa, Canakkale, Kirklareli etc. Additionally, the Community maintains in Istanbul a school complex including elementary and secondary schools for around 700 students.
La Buena Esperansa and La Puerta del Oriente started in Izmir in 1843 and Or Israelwas first published in Istanbul ten years later. Both cities have homes for the aged (Moshav Zekinim) and several welfare associations to assist the poor, the sick, the needy children and orphans.
The city is probably the world's most important financial center, and one of the most important cultural centers of the Western world.
Each borough elects a Borough President, but under the current city charter, the Borough President's powers are limited--he or she has a small discretionary budget to spend on projects within the borough. The population of the City of New York is more than eight million (2000 US Census), with the population of the entire metropolitan area at around 20 million. Residents generally refer to New York City (or just Manhattan) as "New York" or "the city". In fact, the city has a high crime rate compared to the United States of America at large, but a relatively low rate compared to other North American cities. Bloomberg had come to prominence as an expert on Wall Street, which had brought him great wealth, but the mayoralty is his first political office. His bid for United States Senator from New York State was aborted by treatment for cancer and controversy over his affair with Judith Nathan.
That town, at the southern tip of Manhattan, was called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam), and was the main city of the Dutch colony of New Netherlands. The British renamed the colony New York, after James II of England, who sponsored the takeover and who was at that time the Duke of York. Patrick's Day was celebrated in New York City for the first time at the Crown and Thistle Tavern on March 17, 1756.
By 1835 Manhattan overtook Philadelphia as the most populous city and established itself as the financial and mercantile capital of the western hemisphere. The song gave its name to a film directed by Martin Scorsese (see New York, New York (film)[?]). A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustos accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Ottoman Period,1299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands.
In fact, from the early 15th century on, the Ottomans actively encouraged Jewish immigration.
Another Portuguese Marrano, Alvaro Mendes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan.Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire. When the Ottomans captured Bursa in 1326 and made it their capital, they found a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule.
They find a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule.The Jews greet the Ottomans as saviours. Some Jews and other non-Muslims are forced to work in labour camps to pay off debts to the Government.
Louis Fishman is assistant professor of Middle East history at Brooklyn College City University of New York.
According to such mythologies the Germans emerged suddenly from a crack in the eartha€™s surface. As with the story of Cronos and his son Zeus, the king feared that when they reached adulthood the twins would seize his position.
Natural resources in the area provided timber, clay, straw, and abundant fish for the construction of houses and protective walls and for food. They migrated into northern Italy and in the 6th century moved south from Tuscany northern Italy to the Tiber. The Senate functioned as an advisory council to the king, and the assembly had matters referred to it for popular input, which the king could accept or ignore.
The citizens were divided into centuries (100 citizens) and 35 tribes, 4 major tribes in the city of Rome (urban dwellers) and 31 rural tribes (farmers, landowners). The Senate began during the Roman monarchy, then gained additional power in the Republic, but with the advent of the Empire, declined in its power and influence.
In two months they amazingly built over 300 war ships and trained 10,000 marines to combat Carthage. A series of heartless and corrupt kings led to a social and political chaos so bad that in 64 BC Rome had to step in and conquer the area in order to quell the confusion. A series of assassinations, grabs for power, and appointments of individuals by the Senate outside the normal rules of the constitution, caused a crisis.
When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him.
Cleopatra presumed that after Julius returned to Rome he would call for her and her son to join him there. This action by the Senate and the perceived arrogance of Julius greatly alarmed a group in the Senate led by Julius Brutus.
It was not simply because of his personal attributes or that he was the nephew of Julius that caused the Senate to include Octavian. Perhaps the geographic separation would enable the second triumvirate succeed where the first had failed. To make matters worse, Antony was married to the sister of Octavian and Octavian, in turn, was married to the sister of Marc Antony! The countryside was divided between several factions.The Hellenized Jews had become European in their dress, language, and culture. The Zealots also dressed as women to disguise themselves and plunged daggers into rivals on the streets of Jerusalem.
Furthermore, Jewish worship had so declined that prostitutes, according to Josephus the Jewish historian of the Roman Empire and school mate of Titus, were plying their trade inside the temple walls! He placed three legions around the western sides of the city and a fourth on the east on i??the Mount of Olives.
Josephus states that the stench of the dead on crosses was so great that legionnaires became sick at the odor.
This was Goda€™s judgement upon a people who rejected him, although he presented himself to them as their Messiah. The Julian Calendar provided the names of the months used world-wide and served as Europea€™s unified calendar until 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII developed the Gregorian Calendar. February is the only month that is 28 days long in common years and 29 days long in leap years.
Public restrooms and public baths were also introduced by the Romans, although public toilets were present earlier in Greece, also.
Arches could support heavier loads than columns and flat roofs by distributing the weight downward through each segment of the archa€™s construction. Most famous of Roman domed buildings was the Pantheon in Rome, the temple dedicated to the worship and honoring of a€?all the gods,a€? which is what the word a€?pantheona€? means in Greek.
After Trajan, Christians became progressively accepted and many were appointed to positions in government and the military, and many others held important positions as teachers and professors. Marc Anthony despised Octavian and spent most of his time in Egypt with the Eastern troops. He became the first bona fide Emperor and the second of six in the Julian line to rule Rome.
When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him.A  However, Julius had a personal rule -- no leader defeated by Julius would be put to death. Actium was a naval battle, pitting the forces of Octavian and Rome against those of Marc Antony and the Egyptian forces of Cleopatra. From this it is quite evident that the two parts, Europe and Africa, occupy half of the world and that Asia alone occupies the other half. Proceeding to a systematic description of the countries of the world, of Asia Isidore says that it is bounded in the east by Lake Maeotis [Sea of Azov] and the river Tanais [the river Don]. Other maps give definite localities for the Twelve Tribes of Israel and the abiding places of the Twelve Apostles.
The most closely related or influenced maps of the T-Oa€™s are those that accompany manuscripts of Sallusta€™s works and may have originally been drawn to illustrate a passage from Sallusta€™s De bello Jugurthino which, like Isidorea€™s treatise, also attempted to briefly describe the countries of the world. Both accounts appear bound in one manuscript that was copied and used as a textbook of history for almost a millennium.
The sea is boisterous, and deficient in harbors; the soil is fertile in corn, and good for pasturage, but unproductive of trees. The name of Medes the Libyans gradually corrupted changing It in their barbarous tongue, into Moors.
Many copies of this map mention the name of Armenians in North Africa, along with the names of the Medes and the Persians These were probably the forbearers of the first T-O maps, as we know them today. Some of these include basic T-O maps, which show the continents, including the names of some countries and peoples. The copy dates from the ninth or tenth century and is drawn on vellum and taken from a Sallust manuscript now in the University of Leipzig in Germany. In the area of Europe there are no legends, only the city of Roma is represented with a vignette of a castle and its name, attesting to the importance of the power of Rome in the Empire.
Affrica contains 24 legends, which include cities of Harran, Cartage [Cartage] plus four other cities. The left arm of the T is inscribed Tanais, but the right arm, which should have borne the name Nilus, is only connected to the Nile at the right extremity, where the Nilus is shown as a vertical line. There are 15 toponyms and the countries of Phoenicea, Carthago, Ethiopia, Numidia and mountains of Catabatmon are shown. This area is divided first into the lands of Judea, Galilee, and Palestine, and further by the names of seven of the Twelve Tribes. One of the most interesting features of this map is its highly abstract form: it is mostly comprised of straight lines with only a few concessions to irregular geographical forms.
Most puzzling is that the label for Europe crosses what would normally be the Mediterranean. The division of the earth among the sons of Noah, Noaha€™s ark, seven of the twelve tribal territories of the land of Israel, Jericho and the city of refuge (Joshua 20) for those guilty of involuntary manslaughter under Hebrew law, all come from Jewish history. These divisions are treated rather casually, however, for the label EVROPA straddles the boundary between Europe and Africa; locations in the Holy Land are indifferently assigned to Asia and Africa, and Athens and Achaia are placed in Asia. Running horizontally across the middle of the map, and dividing Asia from Africa and Europe, is a band labeled HIERVSALEM. Europe in principle occupies the left hand side of the lower half of the map, but the label EVROPA actually straddles the vertical divider. Great Britain, Ireland and Thule are represented at or over the edge of the orbis and in the northern rather than western quadrant.
The prominence given to Jerusalem, together with the double representation of the Cross (once on its own, and once on Mount Zion), is a case in point.
Evelyn Edson, on the other hand, argues that MS 17a€™s mappamundi is one of a small group of complex maps directly inspired by computus themes.
A famous and often reproduced world map in a manuscript of the short version of Mansela€™s book, which was probably made by Simom Marmion in about 1460, illustrates the division of the world among the three sons of Noah. Mansela€™s description includes ancient places such as Carthage and Delos, biblical places such as Babylon and Judaea, and lands of contemporary importance such as Westphalia and Gascony. Of course that is the easy conclusion, but it is rendered very plausible if we look at the names of some of the islands in the circumfluent oceana€”golgavatas terra, lapides presiosa (for lapides pretiosi, a€?precious stonesa€?), habundans terra, illa deserta, tamaria, alphaua terra, and illa arcana, for examplea€”which are quite clearly invented.
It immediately precedes the prologue to Book IV, which includes a regional description of the world in alphabetical order. Among these manuscripts are many illustrated works on astrology and astronomy as well as some on geography, but virtually nothing contains a map. The circular legend around the city reads The city of Jerusalem populated in ancient and recent times by the Israelites [the Armenian phrase reads Bnakui hin yev nor avrinatz qaghaq I[sra] letzotz vor e Yerusaghem].
It also resembles the plan of Jerusalem in another Armenian manuscript in the Matenadaran, the much later MS 1770 which dates from 1589. This is shown by the pair of vertical red lines that descend from Jerusalem in the center to the outer Ocean and represent the Mediterranean, which is identified only by the word Sea. Between the inscription and the Mediterranean, that is in western Africa, is a small circle which, being inland, can only denote a lake.
It is outlined in black, colored solidly in red and interrupted as if to indicate the traditional crossing of the Israelites as they fled from Egypt. Two black lines, drawn at right angles to each other and to the red lines of the continental division and the Mediterranean, indicate the Aegean and Black Seas.
In the north, following the curve of the encircling Ocean, and on the borders of Europe and Asia, is written Rusq [Russia]. Zaytun was the Arabic name given to the port of Quanzhou or Tseu-Tung in the province of Fujian, China.
It may also be that this is the earliest Christian map on which the toponyms Caffa, Azov, Sarai, Zaytun and Khansai are found. The geographer Mkrdich Khachaturiana€™s suggestion that the map dates from 1206 is unlikely to be correct. The Flemish Franciscan William de Rubruck (1220-1293), who in 1253 travelled to the region, stated that [Sarah] Batu was one of the most important cities of the region. It is hardly possible to date a manuscript precisely based on palaeography alone, and, furthermore, the script used on the map is similar to that in a manuscript produced in Caffa in 1445 (Matenadaran, MS 8963), which is another collection of astrological and scientific subjects, with diagrams and calendars. Only after Genoese merchants had leased it from the Mongols, was it transformed into a flourishing commercial centre, trading with the East and rivaling the Venetian- controlled city of Tanais on the Sea of Azov. Such a date would fit the suggestion that the Armenian mapmaker, who was most likely to have been a monk, either saw or was told about contemporary Italian T-O maps in Caffa, a city not only administered by the Genoese, but also to all intents and purposes functioning as an Italian city, and one of the most suitably located Armenian communities for intellectual as well as commercial contact with the West. Hovhannes Hovhannisian, the other Armenian geographer who has studied the map, argues that the presence of the commercial centers of Khorazm [Oxiana] and Sarai are indicative of the period when the Mongols had close connections with Khorazm (that is, from the 1240s to the 1360s), and this explains the rationale behind his dating the map to as late as 1360. Other biblical events and places are shown on the map, however: Jerusalem, the giving of the Tablets of the Law to Moses, Mount Sinai and the Red Sea. While the Hereford mappamundi, c.1290 (#226) and the Sawley map, 1180 (#215) each show a monastic establishment, the references to these have been placed on the banks of the Nile.
It can plausibly be deduced, that the author was familiar with Central Asia since current trends in commercial and political relations are well represented by the depiction of the Silk Road cities and major trading centers such as Baghdad, Damascus, Constantinople and Venice. A sumptuous example of Flemish illumination illustrating an encyclopedic work, it embodies the spirit of medieval civilization. As a lifelong supporter of Leicester City, I can vouch for the fact that following the Foxes is consistently a story of promotion followed - a few years later - by inevitable relegation. I just missed the last time Leicester were in a position to win the top league title - in 1962-3 - when they became known as the "Ice Kings", as their groundsman managed to keep their pitch playable while other clubs suffered a series of postponements through a bitterly cold winter. But they stumbled on the run-in, finishing fourth and losing the Cup Final to Manchester United.
Growing up in rural Lincolnshire in a family with no particular sporting interest, I had not really noticed football, until there was a buzz around the primary school playground. I vividly remember my first home game, in December 1968, travelling with a coachful of Manchester United supporters (them again) to Filbert Street to see Leicester win 2-1 against a team including Best, Law and Charlton. He put together a rag-bag side of scrappers who consistently played above themselves, finishing in the Premiership top 10 for four successive seasons and twice winning the League Cup. O'Neill went to Celtic and it all fell apart, ending in administration in 2002 and relegation down to the third tier for the first time in our history in 2008.
Gary Lineker - the club's most high-profile supporter - famously tweeted: "Claudio Ranieri? But on Saturday 6 February it began to seem possible - a 3-1 win at Manchester City, the Barcelona of the Premier League, with Mahrez at his brilliant best. They also concluded that the fans had died "as a result of crushing" and that fan behaviour did not cause or contribute to the tragedy.
In 1997, she was made an OBE in the Queen's Birthday Honours and was then made a CBE in 2008. The first was for Victoria Wood: As Seen On TV in 1986 and An Audience With Victoria Wood in 1989.
She has twice won the UK's most prestigious architecture award, the Riba Stirling Prize - in 2010 for the Maxxi Museum in Rome, and in 2011 for the Evelyn Grace Academy in London. The events being planned - symposiums, conferences, concerts, exhibitions, films and books, restoration of ancient Synagogues etc - commemorated the longevity and prosperity of the Jewish community. Another Portuguese Marrano, Alvaro Mendes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan.Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire. As early as 1933 Ataturk invited numbers of prominent German Jewish professors to flee Nazi Germany and settle in Turkey. Now one newspaper survives: SALOM (Shalom), a fourteen to sixteen pages weekly in Turkish with one page in Judeo-Spanish. Both cities have homes for the aged (Moshav Zekinim) and several welfare associations to assist the poor, the sick, the needy children and orphans.
A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustos accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Ottoman Period,299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands. Under Sultan Beyazit II ( 1481-1512 ) Jews persecuted in Spain and Portugal were encouraged to establish themselves in the Ottoman Empire.
As a whole, the celebration aimed to demonstrate the richness and security of life Jews have found in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic over seven centuries, and showed that indeed it is not impossible for people of different creeds to live together peacefully under one flag. Another Portuguese Marrano, Alvaro Mendes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan.Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire. Shlomo haLevi Alkabescomposed the Lekhah Dodi a hymn which welcomes the Sabbath according to both Sephardic and Ashkenazi ritual.
The same year the Takkanot haKehilla (By-laws of the Jewish Community) was published, defining the structure of the Jewish community. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was elected president, the Caliphate was abolished and a secular constitution was adopted. Before and during the war years, these scholars contributed a great deal to the development of the Turkish university system. Fifty Lay Counsellors look after the secular affairs of the Community and an Executive Committee of fourteen runs the daily matters.
Now one newspaper survives: SALOM (Shalom), a fourteen to sixteen pages weekly in Turkish with one page in Judeo-Spanish.
There are several Jewish professors teaching at the Universities of Istanbul and Ankara, and many Turkish Jews are prominent in business, industry, liberal professions and journalism. The United Nations headquarters is in New York City, giving some credence to the city's self-designation as "capital of the world".
In addition, New York has been growing safer for most of the last decade--FBI data indicate that the murder rate in 2000 was the lowest since 1967. Bloomberg had been a Democrat until only a short time earlier, but switched to the Republican Party to run for mayor, in order to avoid a crowded Democratic primary. He handled the aftermath of the World Trade Center disaster well, providing much-needed leadership, and greatly increased his popularity. The Dutch origins can still be seen in many names in New York City, such as Brooklyn (from Breukelen), Harlem (from Haarlem), The Bronx (from Pieter Bronck) and Staten Island. The city grew northward, and remained the largest and most important city in the colony of New York.
This holiday has since become a yearly city-wide celebration that is famous around the world as the St.
A nearly pure form of capitalism created a large upper-middle and upper class, but its need for manpower encouraged immigration on an unprecedented scale, with mixed results. They are officially recognised as dhimmi,a protected non-Muslim community.,1326 The Ottoman capture Bursa and make in their capital.
A letter sent by Rabbi Yitzhak Sarfati (from Edirne) to Jewish communities in Europe in the first part of the century"invited his co-religionists to leave the torments they were enduring in Christiandom and to seek safety and prosperity in Turkey". (3)When Mehmet II "the Conqueror" took Constantinople in 1453, he encountered an oppressed Romaniot (Byzantine) Jewish community which welcomed him with enthusiasm.
In 1493, only one year after their expulsion from Spain, David & Samuel ibn Nahmias established the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul. Fifty Lay Counsellors look after the secular affairs of the Community and an Executive Committee of fourteen runs the daily matters.
Eventually he converts to Islam with his Jewish followers creating a new sect by accepting Islam outwardly but practising a new type of ' Sabbatean Judaism ' eventually leaving the realm of the Jewish community. A Turkish militant Islamic group claims responsibility for the attacks but the level of sophistication suggest involvement of international terror organizations.
Many primitive tribes believe that a totem animal was their ancient ancestor, hence the totem poles among the Alaskan tribes.
When they arrived at the Tiber and the early settlements around present-day Rome, they cleared the mud huts of the original inhabitants, dug canals for irrigation and draining of swamps, and organized cattle herding into a sustainable industry. Rome with its navy invaded Carthage, burned it to the ground, and poured salt onto the soil so that a city could never again be built there. To the south in Attica and the Peloponnese the Attican League rose in rebellion against the Roman invaders, but were quickly defeated. This is but one of several times that God used pagan armies as his tool to bring justice to evil kings and kingdoms. Brutus was a close friend of Julius and had fought with him at Pharsalus against Pompey, but he was alarmed at the power grab by Julius To protect the Republic against a dictatorship, Brutus and others in the Senate made a bloody plan.
Roman culture had so idealized the military that it was inconceivable for anyone but military leaders to be appointed to the triumvirate.
The fact was that Octavian had marched on Rome and demanded that the Senate appoint him as one of the consuls!
He was a well-qualified leader and was the emperor who ordered the census which caused Joseph and Mary to travel to Bethlehem. He was then succeeded by his brother, Domitian, who many saw as a weaker candidate because he lacked the military zeal of his father and brother.
Vespasian with 60,000 Roman legionnaires worked his way south through Syria, Samaria, and northern Judah, systematically wiping out all resistance to Romea€™s authority. In protest, many of the faithful, a probably led by the men who should legally have become high priest, left Jerusalem for Masada in the south east.
When the Passover season arrived, Titus a€?politelya€? allowed the thousands of pilgrims to enter the city, but then refused to allow them to leave.
When it was discovered that some attempted to escape after having swallowed the gold jewelry and coins, the Romans hired Arabs to slit the stomachs of those who attempted to flee in order to seek for the hidden gold. But it was a further evidence of the truthfulness of the message of Jesus, that in him alone is found the forgiveness of sins and the free gift of eternal life.
Some were fed by manmade reservoirs, one of the earliest, large scale attempts to manage natural resources. There are at least 333 terms that are literally the same in spelling and meaning in both Latin and English. He placed two other men under Maximian and himself as junior partners, so-to-speak -- Constantius in Gaul as a junior partner under Maximian, and Galerius in the east under Diocletian, giving to them the title Augustus.
But for this study, the following are listed as emperors and lines of emperors that are worth remembering. Lepidus foolishly attempted to take authority over Octaviana€™s troops and was expelled by Octavian from the triumvirate. The former were made into two parts because the Great Sea (called the Mediterranean) enters from the Ocean between them and cuts them apart . His treatment of the habitable earth enables one to arrive fairly easily at the scope of his knowledge. During his mission there he was involved in various rebellions and conflicts with neighboring powers and has left accounts of his activities. In his Jugurthine War Sallust writes about Africa, describing its geographic location and climatic conditions, as well as its demography where he narrates how the Armenian mercenaries settled in North Africa and intermingling with the Libyan tribes, gave rise to the peoples that inhabit the region today.
Since they are about the history of northern Africa, this particular area is shown in more detail. In Europe only the name of the continent and two countries of Italia and Hyspania are shown. Near the Nile the land is described as Exusta [parched], a reference to the southern parched areas.
Jerusalem was the focus of that Conquest for more than two centuries of Crusaders, and it would remain the center of attention on maps until the invention of printing and the publication of Ptolemy in the 1470s. The whole is illustrated by instructive diagrams, including five world maps: two T-O centers of rotae, two zonal maps, and one larger, more detailed map. Another oddity is that Achaia, where St Andrew [preached] is in Southeast Asia, far from Athens, the preaching site of Paul. These are the usual numbers for the descendants of Shem and Ham, but the source of the numbers for Armenia and why this country is singled out are not clear. There is no attempt at cartographic realism: this is a diagram containing a list of places.
ASIA MAIOR: glossed QVOD SVNT SEPTVAGINTA DVE GENTES ORTE, and beneath this De Sem gentes XXVI. In the Europe zone, reading from top to bottom and left to right are: Terra macedonum, Campania, Italia, ROMA, tiberis flumen, Tuscia, mons Ethna, sicilia, KARTAGO MAGNA. These independent maps tend to occupy the full width of the page, or the page in its entirety. Anna-Dorothea von den Brincken claims that this map is the first to position Jerusalem in the centre of the world, and not at its eastern extremity. A mappamundi with identical arrangement and legends appears in the Peterborough Computus (Harley 3667 fol.
The British Isles and Ireland were little corners of the outer margins of the orbis terrarum, which further served to marginalize the deviant computus of the island churches. But the ADAM device, to say nothing of its proximity to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram both in MS 17 and in the Peterborough computus, argue forcefully for its derivation from Byrhtferth or his milieu. In this category she includes oikumene maps, often quite large, such as the one in Vatican City BAV 6018 fols. Another world map in a manuscript of the long version of the book, this one created c.1480, for this map contains large and prominent sea monsters in the circumfluent ocean. His aim was to show how Rome developed from a small town to a global empire, almost every corner of which had been penetrated by Christianity before the empire passed to the Franks. In fact none of the islands in the circumfluent ocean which are discussed by Mansela€”Grande-Bretagne, iles Fortunees, Gales, Irlande, Orcades, Escosse, Thanatos, Taprobane, Thule, and Islandea€”appears on this map. The oldest geographical work originates from as early as the fifth century and is titled in Armenian Ashkharhatzuytz or Mirror of the World. The horizontal arms of the letter T (stretching north and south from Jerusalem at the centre) are not represented by the rivers Tanais (Don) and Nile, as in conventional T-O maps, but by single red lines ruled, it would seem, to demarcate Asia from Europe and from Africa.


The considerable prominence given to Jerusalem can be explained by the fact that the Armenian Church had, and still has, close ties with the Holy City and is one of the four custodians of the Holy Places, with a church, seminary and religious order active since the 5th century. Outside the double-circle frame of the map are the names of the four cardinal directions Hyusis, Harav, Arevelq and Arevmutq, and the word Dzov [Sea] is written seven times. Further in from the Ocean two cities are named, Kostandnupolis [Constantinople] and Venejia [Venice]. Indeed, that is how it is identified, with the phrase Ays dzovis anunn Tuman [This Sea is named Tuman]. The legend that appears to refer to the Crossing of the Red Sea is worn and partly illegible. A gap in the horizontal line for the Aegean, filled with the name Kostandnupolis [Constantinople], seems to imply that the line also represents the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosporus.
Zaytun and Khansai appear on the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#246) as Ciutat de Zaytun and Ciutat de Cansay, respectively; Fra Mauroa€™s map of 1459 (#249) contains these toponyms as Cayton and Chansay. His conjecture was based on the assumption that all the toponyms on the map are contemporary with the time of its creation. This posed a problem for Khachaturian, however, and he therefore had to insist that the toponym Sara related not to Sarai-Batu but to some other location, perhaps a putative island in the Caspian Sea, even though the Caspian is neither mentioned on the map nor has it ever had an inhabited island named Sara.
Looking at the toponyms shown on the map, the question arises why a Cilician-Armenian mapmaker would have included the names of cities along the distant northern Silk Road, instead of the toponyms in his locality. The earliest mention of Caffa in Armenian literature dates from the middle of the 13th century.
In Rouben Galichiana€™s view, the most creditable hypothesis is that the map was created between the late-13th and mid-14th centuries, or even slightly later, which is in line with Hovhannisiana€™s proposal. The legend to the southeast of Palestine, between Mount Sinai and the Nile reads Takhtak orinatz zor yet[ur] a[stua]tz Movs[es]i, which translates Tablets of law that God gave Moses. The Armenian language has several different words that mean monastery, among them liana, menastan and ananpat. It may also be suggested that the mapmaker was a native of the region, very likely from 14th century Caffa, then one of the most important Armenian cultural centers and the source of a large number of manuscripts of that date.
He got us back into the Premier League where, last season, he presided over the greatest of great escapes from relegation.
There was the Jamie Vardy record run of scoring in 11 successive league games (the record-breaker coming against Manchester United), the magic of Mahrez, the irrepressible Kanté, our indomitable centre-backs Huth and Morgan.
But now, with three games to go, they need just three points to make the fairy-tale become reality. As a whole, the celebration aimed to demonstrate the richness and security of life Jews have found in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic over seven centuries, and showed that indeed it is not impossible for people of different creeds to live together peacefully under one flag.
The historian Josephus Flavius relates that Aristotle "met Jewish people with whom he had an exchange of views during his trip across Asia Minor."Ancient synagogue ruins have been found in Sardis, Miletus, Priene, Phocee, etc.
The Pope had no other alternative than to release them, the Ottoman Empire being the "Super Power" of those days.y 1477, Jewish households in Istanbul numbered 1647 or 11% of the total. Jewish women such as Dona Gracia Mendes Nasi "La Seniora" and Esther Kyra exercised considerable influence in the Court.In the free air of the Ottoman Empire, Jewish literature flourished.
As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces.World War I brought to an end the glory of the Ottoman Empire. Before and during the war years, these scholars contributed a great deal to the development of the Turkish university system. There are about 100 Karaites, an independent group who does not accept the authority of the Chief Rabbi.Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi.
They are officially recognised as dhimmi,a protected non-Muslim community.1326 The Ottoman capture Bursa and make in their capital.
Eventually he converts to Islam with his Jewish followers creating a new sect by accepting Islam outwardly but practising a new type of ' Sabbatean Judaism ' eventually leaving the realm of the Jewish community.1839 - 1876 The Tanzimat reforms lead to the application of news laws,bringing equality to all Ottoman citizens,regardless of religion.
Over time Judeo-Spanish would be phased out and Turkish takes hold as the Jewish communities mother tongue.1933 Turkey recruits German Jewish academics facing Nazi discriminative policies in order to strengthen Istanbul and Ankara universities.
A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustus accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.
Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until nineteen forties. During World War II Turkey served as a safe passage for many Jews fleeing the horrors of the Nazism.
There are about 100 Karaites, an independent group who does not accept the authority of the Chief Rabbi. Representatives of Jewish foundations and institutions meet four times a year as a so-called ??think tank??
Some of them are very old, especially Ahrida Synagogue in the Balat area, which dates from middle15th century. Holiday Party, Office Party, Christmas Party, Divorce Party, Cast Party, Many Types Of Events And Parties. The island of Manhattan was in some measure self-selected as a future metropolis by its extraordinary natural harbor formed by New York Bay (actually an arm of the Atlantic Ocean), the East River (actually a tidal strait) and the Hudson River, all of which are confluent at the southern tip, from which all later development spread. The famed melting pot was brought into being, from which multitudes have since arisen in the successful pursuit of the "American Dream". Eventually he converts to Islam with his Jewish followers creating a new sect by accepting Islam outwardly but practising a new type of ' Sabbatean Judaism ' eventually leaving the realm of the Jewish community.,1839 - 1876 The Tanzimat reforms lead to the application of news laws,bringing equality to all Ottoman citizens,regardless of religion. In the early 19th century, Abraham de Camondo established a modern school, "La Escola", causing a serious conflict between conservative and secular rabbis which was only settled by the intervention of Sultan Abdulaziz in 1864.
Representatives of Jewish foundations and institutions meet four times a year as a so-called ??think tank?? Some of them are very old, especially Ahrida Synagogue in the Balat area, which dates from middle15th century. As a whole, the celebration aimed to demonstrate the richness and security of life Jews have found in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic over seven centuries, and showed that indeed it is not impossible for people of different creeds to live together peacefully under one flag.,A History Predating 1492 The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews.
Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until nineteen forties.Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there. The leading city of the rebellious Attican League, Corinth, was burned to the ground by the Romans. For many years the plebians, out of loyalty to the Republic, overlooked the need for social reforms, but with the influx of slaves things were about to change.
The three arbitrarily chose themselves to take the power in what was basically a military coup.
Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€? by the Senate in 44 B.C.
Second, he secretly stole the private will of Anthony and made its terms known to the Senate. They secured Roman control of Britain and strengthened the borders with the Germanic tribes.
The Zealots tended to be hot-headed nationalists bent on independence, not only from Rome, but also from what was perceived to me a corrupt priesthood. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities, and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem. Some believe these were the Essenes who kept the Dead Sea Scrolls along the shores of the Dead Sea. This put enormous strains on the food and water supplies and virtually broke down all health and sanitation systems. Expansion into the Balkans, Spain, Britain, Gaul, Persia, and North Africa produced the greatest era of Romanization. The road networks were built throughout Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, including the famed Apian Way that connected major cities and military bases in Italy with Rome. The idea was that when either Diocletian or Maximian would die or retire, the junior partners would become the next emperors. Upon arriving in Egypt and learning about Pompeya€™s death, Julius put to death the assassins of Pompey.
Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€?A  by the Senate in 44 B.C. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities,A  and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem.
These maps are taken from various manuscript copies of Sallusts works some of them dating from as late as the 13th and the 14th centuries, when they were still in use as textbooks by historians and scholars.
The fourth line from the center bottom, near mount Athlas reads Medi - Armeni, a reference to the Armenians and Medes having settled in the area. In Asia beside the name of the continent, river Nilus, Egypt and Mare Rubrum [Red Sea] are mentioned, while the tall rising tower bears the legend Jrslm [Jerusalem]. These are the people, that according to Sallust settled in North Africa, giving rise to the North African tribes of today. Its heavily biblical content is also unusual: note Hierusalem on the central axis with the cross and Mt. Of the sons of Noah, Shem is found in Asia and Ham in Africa, as usual, but Japheth stands next to Shem in Asia, instead of Europe.
In the centre, at the juncture of the horizontal and vertical dividing bands, is an omega-shape with a cross in the centre, labeled beneath Mons syon. The only place names in the Africa zone are at the very top, and two of them, TERRA IVDA, and PALESTINA, may have been intended as part of the central band (B above).
They absorbed significant amounts of text into the schematic frame, such as lists of the provinces of the inhabited world. She associates this with the piety of the First Crusade, and the attention given to the Cross would support this claim. 8v), a manuscript very closely related to MS 17 in space and time; and the Peterborough computus also contains the only other extant copy of Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram (#205Z13).
Moreover, in Book 5 of the Historia ecclesiastica, Bede follows up his account of Adomnan of Ionaa€™s reception of the Roman Easter with a paraphrase of his De locis sanctis: now it is Jerusalem, not Rome, which is the center of the world, but the link between computistical orthodoxy and the universality of the Church in space is still the underlying message.
The map (shown below) is in a chapter on the a€?Provinces du monde,a€? but there is almost no connection between the map and the list of provinces in the chapter. The legend hic sunt dragones, a€?Here there are dragonsa€?, sounds like a legend that would appear on many medieval mapsa€”such is our tendency to associate monsters with medieval mapsa€”but in fact it appears on only one other cartographic object, namely the Hunt-Lenox globe of c.1510 (Book IV, #314), where on the southeastern coast of Asia there is a legend that reads HC SVNT DRACONES. The prominent sea monsters on the map are thus invented dangers, rather than being based on the descriptions of sea monsters in a bestiary or encyclopedia, and the labels, like those on the islands, are attempts to convey an authority and accuracy which in fact are absent.
Under the letter a€?Aa€™, for example, we read first about Asia and Assyria, then Arabia, Armenia and Albania. One full and almost sixty abridged manuscript copies of this work have survived, thirty-three of which are in the Matenadaran. Only the northern end of the single red line might be considered to represent the river Tanais, the traditional divide between Europe and Asia. It may be worth bearing in mind that for the first four centuries of Christianity it was predominantly an Asiatic and North African religion, and that the Christian world was not divided into a Latin West and a predominantly Byzantine East until after the Council of Ephesus in 431. In Section 11, containing a text related to the Old Testament, there is circular plan of the city of Jerusalem (fol. Because the encircling Ocean touches two sides of paper, the words Hyusis [North] and Harav [South] have had to be split. West of this water body, an unnamed river is shown by a pair of parallel red lines bearing the simple inscription Sea. North of Constantinople, the vertical black line, inscribed only as Sea, represents the Black Sea. According to Ibn-Battuta, this was the largest port [he] had ever seen, which could easily accommodate more than 100 large Chinese junks.
Furthermore he claimed that since Mardin appears prominently on the map, it must have been made before the conquest of that city by the Arabs, in the early 13th century. By the middle of the 14th century, when numerous monastic scriptoria were in operation, the majority of Caffaa€™s population of 70,000 were Armenian.
Arguably, the lack of any references to Armenia itself could be attributed to the fact that he lived far from his homeland and felt no particular affinity with it. The Mediterranean Sea is not shown and only the black African faces convey a hint of reality.
Half a century later, 8070 Jewish houses were listed in the city.The Life of Ottoman Jews For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain. During World War II Turkey served as a safe passage for many Jews fleeing the horrors of the Nazism. 1934 As a result of pogroms in Edirne and Canakkale the majority of the Jews A±f Thrace migrate to Istanbul. They will ask you to complete a form giving details of a reference your adress in Turkey and the dates and times you wish to visit particular synagogues,ISTANBUL,After the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in1453 , Sultan Mehmet II ( the Conqueor 1451-1481 ) encouraged immigration to repopulate the city. While the Jewish communities of Greece were wiped out almost completely by Hitler, the Turkish Jews remained secure.
The 15th and 16th century Haskoy and Kuzguncuk cemeteries in Istanbul are still in use today.
Have The Jellin Girls Introduce You To Other Great People In New York City's Top Night Clubs. Also of prime importance was the presence of deep fresh water aquifers near the southern tip, especially the Collect Pond[?]. But countless others failed to rise, or entire generations were forced to plough themselves under for their children or grandchildren to rise. The 15th and 16th century Haskoy and Kuzguncuk cemeteries in Istanbul are still in use today.,??The Museum of Turkish Jews?? When they reached maturity, Romulus murdered Remus (a memory of Cain and Abel?) and formed the community of Rome.
The three were Julius Caesar from his assignment in England, Pompey from his station in Spain, and Crassus in his station from Syria. In order to prevent armed revolutions in Rome, generals returning to Rome were forbidden to allow their troops to cross the Rubicon en mass. Antonya€™s will provided for large land grants in Italy for the children he had sired with Cleopatra. The dating of the writing of the Book of Revelation by John while on Patmos determines whether the book was written prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.
They passed new tax codes to restore the Roman treasury and increased the silver base for the Roman currency. The civil war was directed not only at Rome, but was conducted within Jerusalem by one faction against the other.
The goal was to prevent chaos at the death of an emperor and to provide orderly succession of leadership. Christians were required to make sacrifices to the gods or face imprisonment, exile, or death.
Cleopatra, according to legend used a poisonous snake in her bed to inflict the fatal wound.
Most of them die by the gradual decay of age, except such as perish by the sword or beasts of prey, for disease finds but few victims. The page is composed with the map above and a week-day table arranged under the arches below.
Athens, Ephesus, Achaia, and Caesarea are mentioned specifically as sites where the apostles preached. The only significant difference between the Peterborough version of the map and the one found in MS 17 is that MS 17 alone contains the marginal note on Asia maior. A map of the Macrobian type also appears in the Abbonian computus manuscript Berlin 138 fol. Adam, Eve, and the serpent are in Eden at the top (east) of the map, with the rivers of Paradise flowing downward from it to the west (the river Jordan is labeled).
Heads symbolizing the four principal winds surround the habitable world, on which a number of historical or encyclopedic features are portrayed, such as the Tower of Babel, the Trees of the Sun and the Moon, the river Jordan, Jerusalem with Mount Calvary, the Red Sea, Rome, and some of the monstrous races.
These monsters, though invented, nonetheless have their effect, and render the circumfluent ocean a place of terrors, in contrast to the apparently peaceful buildings of the inhabited world. The original Ashkharhatzuytz is attributed by some to the 5th century Armenian historian Movses Khorenatzi, while others believe that it is the work of the 7th century scientist and astronomer Anania Shirakatzi. Two vertical parallel red lines (running from Jerusalem to the western edge of the map) represent the unnamed Mediterranean Sea that separates Africa and Europe. Christianity had reached Armenia through the preaching of the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus. 392r), which is similar to the plan of the same city drawn in the centre of the world map of MS 1242. The significance of the two circles is made clear by the note, also on the outside, The all encompassing ocean, which is in this shape.
Venice was an important entrepot for Armenian merchants, and Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the most important religious and political centre outside Jerusalem. These lines, drawn almost at right angles to the Mediterranean, connect with the outer Ocean.
Misr is the Arabic name of Egypt, used also in old Armenian, which the mapmaker has chosen to employ in conjunction with the later-day Armenian name of the country. The northern extremity of the red line dividing Europe and Asia, beyond the eastern end of the Black Sea, must also stand for the Sea of Azov (for which there is no place-name) and the river Tanais.
Sarai refers to the capital of the Mongols; it is either Sarai-Batu (Old Sarai), built in 1240s, or Sarai-Berke [New Sarai], dating from around 1260. These are doubtful lines of argument; information took time to be disseminated, and maps were only slowly updated. In addition, two legends in Palestine read Yekin anapatn [Came to the monastery] and Yekin Ye[rusaghe]m sakavq [A few came to Je[rusale]m]. The monastery on the Armenian map is not named but is defined as ananpat, which suggests a conscious choice, since on the Hereford map the whole legend reads Monasteria Sancti Antonii in deserto. Shlomo haLevi Alkabescomposed the Lekhah Dodi a hymn which welcomes the Sabbath according to both Sephardic and Ashkenazi ritual. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was elected president, the Caliphate was abolished and a secular constitution was adopted. While the Jewish communities of Greece were wiped out almost completely by Hitler, the Turkish Jews remained secure. Holiday Party, Office Party, Christmas Party, Divorce Party, Cast Party, Many Types Of Events And N.Y. In the mid-1800s these antipodes could be found in the fabulously rich stretches of lower Broadway (wealth that would later take up residence on Fifth Avenue[?]) and the almost unbelievably squalid enclave of Five Points (abject poverty later to take up residence in the Lower East Side[?]). As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces.,,World War I brought to an end the glory of the Ottoman Empire. The king was replaced by two consuls who were elected by the populace annually (the idea was you cana€™t trust one ruler or hea€™ll attempt to rule absolutely, and cana€™t allow him to serve for long periods of time or he will rule forever!), and the Senate was given expanded powers (rather than being merely an advisory group as they were under the former monarchy). General Hannibal of Carthage, during the second of the three Punic Wars invaded Italy, crossing the Alps with his troops, including a unit of 37 elephants. Crassus had earlier gained fame for having defeated the slave revolt in Italy led by the slave Spartacus. I tell you the truth, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened. Her death placed the vast wealth of Egypt at Romea€™s disposal and Egypt voluntarily became a province of the Roman Empire.
Uniting these two gives us Garden of Delight; for it is planted with every kind of wood and fruit-bearing tree, having also the tree of life. Several of the districts are rich in gold and precious stones but are rarely approached by man owing to the ferocity of the Griffens . Animals of a venomous nature they have in great numbers, Africa, then, was originally occupied by the Getulians and Libyans, rude and uncivilized tribes, who subsisted on the flesh of wild animals, or like cattle, on the herbage of the soil. Place names are almost entirely omitted from Africa and Asia Major, and a note in the upper right adds a€?[Asia] Major has in the east Alexandria and Pamphiliaa€?. The only places without a biblical link of some kind are in Italy (Sicily, Mount Etna, Tuscany, Campania), Constantinople and Britain, Ireland and Thule. However, the Peterborough map does not represent Mount Sion as a round a€?hilla€? with a cross, but as a triangle, and spells IERUSALEM without MS 17a€™s initial H. When these Greek names for the cardinal directions are read as if making the sign of the cross, that is, east-west-north-south, their initial letters spell ADAM. Jerusalem stands out at the center of the world and is labeled, as are Calvary, Babylon, the Red Sea, and Rome; the Trees of the Sun and Moon visited by Alexander the Great are also easy to identify. As this manuscript is the only one of the long version of the work that contains a world map, it seems likely that the map was the result of a specific request by the patron commissioning the manuscript, namely Philippe II Sans Terre (1438-1497).
The text also retains Isidorea€™s distinction between the Fortunate Islands and the earthly paradise and repeats the belief that Enoch and Elijah dwelt in the Garden and that the noise of the waters of Paradise falling to earth from a such a great height caused the local population to be born deaf. The text is based on the work of Pappus of Alexandria (late third or early 4th century AD), but the chapters relating to Armenia and neighboring countries have been expanded. In accordance with the Western Christian T-O maps, the Armenian map is oriented with East at the top.
It became the state religion in 301, after the conversion of King Tigran III, which makes the Armenian Church one of the oldest Christian entities.
Although made in geographically widely separate locations, a common source or tradition may be suspected, especially were the Armenian map to prove to have been made before the end of the 13th century, which would place all these maps to within one hundred to one hundred fifty years of each other. The term Sea, it should be noted, as used on the Armenian T-O map, refers any substantial body of water, whether it be an ocean, sea, lake or river. One of these is located at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean Sea, within the parallel lines, whereas the other two lie just to the north of the lines.
On the other (eastern) side of the legend indicating Africa a large red circle contains the legend Paravon yev zorqn Yegiptosi [Pharaoh and the army of Egypt]. Directly south of the Red Sea, near the shores of the surrounding Ocean, lies Ethiopia, named Hapash.
The 13th century traveler Marco Polo mentions Zai-tun and Kin-sai as being important cities, trading with Japan (Zipangu), as well as with the Arabs and Persians.
Moreover, in the case of the Western mappaemundi the very essence of the map was the inclusion of old (historical as well as biblical) information together with contemporary places and events.
Since the two Western maps and the Armenian map seem to have been made within one hundred and one hundred fifty years of each other, we can see the reference on the respective maps as further confirmation of the possibility of a common source. A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustus accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest. In 1493, only one year after their expulsion from Spain, David & Sauel ibn Nahmias established the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul.
First, it filled the tribes and Council with newcomers who were not content to allow the status quo to continue. Those who accept the early date under Nero interpret Revelation to apply primarily to the destruction of Jerusalem, the temple and sacrificial system, and ultimately the downfall of the Roman Empire, and do not see the book addressing primarily things which are to happen wo thousand or more years in the future. They were controlled neither by customs, laws, nor the authority of any ruler, they wandered about, without fixed habitations and slept in the abodes to which night drove them. These islands, the only ones represented, break the frame of the map, perhaps as a burst of patriotism on the part of the scribes.
The popularity of this ancient conceit was primarily due to St Augustine, who compared Adama€™s progeny filling the earth and the sons of Noah re-populating the globe. A list map using the T-O form as a symbolic frame for displaying the names of provinces in Asia, Africa and Europe appears in Cotton Vitellius A.XII, fol. But otherwise the mapa€™s geography is vague; it presents much of the earth as a a€?jumblea€? of land and water.
Adam and Eve, the tree and the serpent are shown within an ornate architectural frame, as if to emphasize the uniqueness and splendor of the Garden. But once he had been assigned this task, the artist seems to have given his fancy free rein. A later version of the Ashkharhatzuytz by the 13th century historian and geographer Vartan Areveltzi is also extant in multiple copies (MS 3119, 4184 and others). Armenian Christianity's ties with the Latin churches were severed in 554 over irreconcilable doctrinal differences.
The city plan in the 16th century MS 1770 also would seem to have been derived from the same common source or tradition.
Similarly the term Land does not denote a territory as such, but is placed wherever there is a significant gap between neighboring toponyms. The Nile is placed well inside Asia, where a vertical (easta€”west) red line running from close to the eastern Ocean towards the Red Sea bears the legend Ays dzovis anun Nil asen [This Sea is named Nile]. Although the whole representation may be highly schematic, the way that the Aegean Sea is depicted as branching off from the Mediterranean to the west of Jerusalem and the easta€”west alignment of Black Sea, shown at right angles to the northern end of the Aegean near Constantinople, presents a more faithful picture of reality than many other T-O maps.
Then comes Ashkharq Hndkatz [Lands of the Indians], followed well to the southeast by Hndkastan [Hindustan or India]. It was usual for medieval maps, in short, to depict conditions in existence some time before their creation. In Istanbul the new immigrants settled mostly near the Balat quarter on the western bank of the Golden Horn where a Jewish community had existed since Byzantine times. Additionally, the Community maintains in Istanbul a school complex including elementary and secondary schools for around 700 students. All officials served one-year terms, except during times of emergency, so that no one person could gain power over his fellow citizens. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bring Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war.
Some believe also that Nero was the emperor who sent John the Apostle to exile on the island of Patmos where he composed the Book of Revelation. Those who accept the late date for the book view it as a prophecy about things to happen at the end of the age. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bringA  Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war.
From the middle of the Garden a spring gushes forth to water the whole grove and, dividing up, it provides the source of four rivers [see #205C and Q]. The northern (left) half of the cross bar represented the river Tanais [Don], and the southern (right) half of the cross bar represented the river Nile. But after Hercules, as the Africans think, perished in Spain, his army, which was composed of various nations, having lost its leader, and many candidates severalty claiming the command of it, was speedily dispersed. Around the circle of the map the cardinal directions are ostentatiously given in Greek and glossed in Latin: for example, Anathole vel oriens vel eoi, in the east. Like MS 17a€™s image, it gives considerable prominence to the circumambient ocean, as well as to the islands of Britain, Ireland and Thule: its creator seems to have been especially concerned to situate his own region with respect to the extremes of the world, both to the east and to the west. It should also be noted that a second, incomplete copy of this map is found in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 265, p. It appears in Bedea€™s commentary on Genesis, and is prominently featured in Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram. 29r) in which only the northern temperate zone -- the oikumene or inhabited world -- is treated like a map, while the remainder of the disk is occupied solely by text. From Paradise the four rivers flow out to give life to the earth and to establish a mysterious yet material connection between paradise and the human realm. Both the earlier and the later versions display the influence of Ptolemy, and as in the case of Ptolemy, no maps accompany these manuscripts. By adding the word Land between the toponyms, the mapmaker has tried to show that although these towns are widely separated and distant from each other, they constitute a chain of cities along a route that can only be the Silk Road. In the Middle Ages, the designation India was used loosely to refer to the lands east of Persia, Media and the Middle East. Jews also settled in villages along the western shore of the Bosphorus.GALATA,The area around the Galata Tower in Beyoglu is of prime interest to visitors touring the Jewish interest sites.
Turkish is the language of instruction, and Hebrew is taught 3 to 5 hours a week.,While younger Jews speak Turkish as their native language, the over-70-years-old generation is more at home speaking in French or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino).
Over time a constitution was adopted that featured an early form of separation of powers and a system of checks and balances. Approach to this place was barred to man after his sin, for now it is hedged about on all sides by a sword-like flame [romphaea flamma], that is to say that it is surrounded by a wall of fire that reaches almost to the sky.
Of its constituent troops the Medes, Persians and Armenians having sailed over Into Africa, occupied the parts nearest to our sea.
A note to one side says, Maior habet in oriente alexandriam pamphiliam, a reference to Asia Major at the top of the map. Kartago Magna, which could be Cartagena in Spain as Cartago appears elsewhere on the map, is another non-biblical site. It is very close to such contemporary elaborations of the Sallust map as Vatican City, BAV Reg. Insular writers were particularly attracted to this theme, because they associated the conversion of their lands, at the very edge of the known world, with the fulfillment of Christa€™s command to take to Gospel to the ends of the earth. 64, underscores the magnetic attraction of these two ways of listing the inhabitants of the world, and how innovative MS 17 was in fusing them. In his book, Mansel described Paradise as a wonderful region surpassing all other earthly lands, fit for mana€™s initial perfection, surrounded by a wall of fire and situated on an exceptionally high mountain that reached the sphere of the moon. So here Lands of the Indians most probably refer to the northern and western neighbors of India, such as Persia and its neighboring countries, while Hndkastan denotes India proper. Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until nineteen forties.Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there.
Salahattin Ulkumen, Consul General at Rhodes in 1943-1944, was recognized by the Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile "Hassid Umot ha'Olam" in June 1990. The neighborhood has bustling street life the synagogues have great historical and artictic value,and all sites are within easy walking distance of one another.BALAT,This is another of the quarters in which Jews were settled after their expulsion from Spain enlarging a community which had lived here since Byzantine times.
Turkey continues to be a shelter, a haven for all those who have to flee the dogmatism, intolerance and persecution.
The Best Singles events in New York City Now internet Audio Personals Help Make Connections 24 hrs A Day! Englanda€™s geographic position may have made it especially sensitive to this apocalyptic dimension: the second of two notes on chronology in Oxford Bodleian Library Auct.
The manuscript is dated to the last quarter of the 11th century, and this addition to the second half of the 12th century but the hand of the map bears an extraordinarily close resemblance to that of Scribe A of MS 17, and the palaeographical indicators point to a date closer to 1100.
This fulfillment would be the climax of history, and would usher in the last days; hence the world-maps included in the Apocalypse commentary of Beatus of Liebana were essentially maps illustrating the preaching of the apostles to the gentes descended from Noaha€™s three sons, but expanded to encompass the whole world and the entirety of the world-age (#207).
Its presence in the manuscript raises questions about how such an essentially non-Armenian-style map came to be made by an Armenian, and when, considering that this is the only T-O type map bearing Armenian inscriptions known to exist. Turkey continues to be a shelter, a haven for all those who have to flee the dogmatism, intolerance and persecution. Some of them are very old, especially Ahrida Synagogue in the Balat area, which dates from middle15th century.
Now one newspaper survives: SALOM (Shalom), a fourteen to sixteen pages weekly in Turkish with one page in Judeo-Spanish. In every part of their body they are lions, and in wings and head are like eagles, and they are fierce enemies of horses. The frame of the map, a double circle, was drawn in drypoint, and at the right and left upper corners of the page are two smaller drypoint circles. Indeed, mappaemundi have a pronounced historical dimension: they are found in association with chronicles more frequently than in scientific works, and as illustrations of sacred history, they were infused with an allegorical vision of time.
The 15th and 16th century Haskoy and Kuzguncuk cemeteries in Istanbul are still in use today.??The Museum of Turkish Jews?? Though it once has as many as nineteen synagogues,only two of importance remain the famous Ahrida and the neighboring Yanbol. 82v, a manuscript contemporary with MS 17, adopts a four-ages scheme somewhat like that found in the dating clause on fol. Hence this world map is a logical addition to a manuscript devoted to the reckoning of time. Edson tentatively suggests a comparison to the maps of the Holy Land created by the Talmudic scholar Rashi to expound the sacred text; however, MS 17a€™s map does not illustrate a text. 3v, but the fourth age, instead of ending in the annus praesens, runs from the Incarnation ad iter ierusalem, as if this event closed the series of years and ushered in the end times. In fact, the only bodies of water to be named on this map are the rivers Jordan, Euphrates and Tiber. In this respect, MS 17a€™s map is an integral part of a monastic encyclopedia, in which the study of the world and time is itself a serious discipline. A letter sent by Rabbi Yitzhak Sarfati (from Edirne) to Jewish communities in Europe in the first part of the century"invited his co-religionists to leave the torments they were enduring in Christiandom and to seek safety and prosperity in Turkey".
Today Ortakoy has become part of the Istanbul metropolis and is a fashionable place to live winter or summer.
Mr. Salahattin Ulkumen, Consul General at Rhodes in 1943-1944, was recognized by the Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile "Hassid Umot ha'Olam" in June 1990. The land of Hyrcania, bordering Scythia to the west, has many tribes wandering far afield on account of the unfruitfulness of their lands. XII): the latter is of exceptional interest in that the map shares the page with a schema of the divisions of philosophy not dissimilar to the one on fol.
Turkish is the language of instruction, and Hebrew is taught 3 to 5 hours a week.While younger Jews speak Turkish as their native language, the over-70-years-old generation is more at home speaking in French or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino). Though the Jewish orphanage here is gone and the Historic ETZ Ahayim Synagogue building burnt in 1941 and there is stilla synagogue here and many order historic Ottoman sites in the vicinity.PRINCESS ISLANDS,Some historians say the Princes' Islands ,a half hour's voyage southeast of Istanbul in the Sea of Marmara were named for their use as a place of exile for wayward or inconvinent Byzantine princes. The interpolated Biblical references include the ark of Noah in Armenia, and cities such as Athens and Caesarea that are explicitly connected with the missionary activity of the apostles.



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