The symptoms of viral meningitis are similar to those for bacterial meningitis, which can be fatal. Meningitis is the name given to a form of infection of membranes called the meninges which surround the brain and spinal cord.
Bacterial meningitis is one of the most common types of meningitis and constitutes approximately 85% of cases of meningitis. The bacteria responsible to cause Bacterial Meningitis are very commonly found in our surroundings. There are times when Bacterial Meningitis occurs for no specific reason and at other times it occurs after a head trauma or after an infection when the immune system is compromised.
It may also occur in adults who have some risk factors for Bacterial Meningitis like individuals abusing alcohol, prone to chronic nose and ear infections, have experienced a head trauma or have suffered from a bout of pneumococcal pneumonia. It is imperative for a person who experiences signs and symptoms of Bacterial Meningitis to contact a medical provider. Generally, Bacterial Meningitis is not contagious but it is encouraged that anyone who has been in close contact with an infected individual to seek preventative treatment. Bacterial meningitis is defined by an intense inflammation of the meninges caused by bacteria.
Children under the age of five face a high risk of contracting meningitis-related infections. Both conditions of sepsis and meningitis are extremely serious and require immediate medical treatment.
Patients who have a suppressed immune system may be subject to sepsis poisoning after suffering an open wound or infection. Meningitis is an inflammation of the outer protective layers of the brain and spinal cord, usually caused by infection.
Along with high fever, if the person’s case of meningitis is serious, then he or she can experience seizures.
If the person displays positive symptoms for this sign; which is a person lying down supine with his hips and knees flexed at 90 degrees, then it is a clear sign of meningitis because this symptom is rarely found in other diseases. During meningitis infection, swelling occurs in the brain that causes confusion, memory loss, lack of focus, insomnia, dizziness, lethargy and even difficulty in waking up. Confusion depicts the puzzled state of mind wherein the person finds it difficult to diffentiate between dream and reality. Other complications include swelling of the brain tissue with the pressure created inside the skull increasing. It is typically caused by an infection due to microorganisms like bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa. Viral Meningitis is the most common form of meningitis infection caused by different viruses, like mosquito-borne viruses.
A specific type of streptococci bacteria, known as Group B streptococci resides in the vagina and is the main cause of meningitis infection in newborns and premature babies, in the first week of their very existence.
Children under the age bracket of 5 years and who have not received proper vaccinations are likely to be infected with meningitis caused due to Haemophilus influenza type B bacterium.
Meningitis in older children due to bacterial growth is also quite common and is caused deu to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitides infection. People with weaker immune system are at higher risk of meningitis caused due to bacterial infection. People who have suffered some form of trauma that has resulted in skull damage are at higher risks of suffering meningitis. Although uncommon, medical cases like mastoiditis or otitis media, along with some form of infection in head or neck can also lead to meningitis. It is potentially life threatening and can lead to death if medical advice is not taken at the right time. The most common and worrisome cause of this is an infection within the cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid enclosed by the meninges) from a virus or bacteria. In newborns and infants, the classic symptoms (fever, headache, and neck stiffness) may be absent or difficult to notice.
Now, as a result of the protection offered by current childhood vaccines, bacterial meningitis is more commonly diagnosed among pre-teens and young adults. As a result, college students living in dormitories, military personnel and children in childcare facilities are at an increased risk.
Dairy farmers, ranchers, and other people who work with domestic animals are at an increased risk of contracting listeriosis.
Enteroviruses can also be spread through respiratory secretions (saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus) of an infected person. If meningitis is suspected, samples of blood or cerebrospinal fluid are collected using a simple lumbar puncture, and sent to the laboratory for testing. Growing the bacteria in the laboratory is important for confirming the presence of bacteria and for identifying the specific type of bacteria that is causing the infection. Antibiotics do not help viral infections, so they are not useful in the treatment of viral meningitis.
A normal functioning brain helps us do our daily routine work, helps us to think, and do things in a proper fashion.
An intravenous antibiotic with corticosteroid to calm down the inflammation may be given even prior to the results of all the tests conducted on the individual. Sepsis involves an infection, typically bacterial in nature, which is present throughout the bloodstream. Although these conditions have differences involving location of infection, both typically will require hospitalization.

This may include patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or a patient receiving chemotherapy. With viral meningitis, antibiotics are not effective, and therefore the disease needs to run its course with the patient receiving adequate rest and fluid intake.
The only sure way to properly diagnose a case of spinal meningitis is by examining a sample of spinal fluid. Headache is caused due to swelling and inflammation of the membranes, surrounding the spine and neck.
Fever is mainly caused because when the meningitis infection invades the body, the immune system immeditaley reacts by raising the body temperature. However, according to the recent findings, typically 44-66% of cases with meningitis infection, report these three symptoms.
Photophobia is the intolerance to bright light while phonophobia is the intolerance to loud noise. If you feel more confused most of the times, and also face any of the above mentioned symptoms of meningitis, it is crucial to see your doctor first. In some cases, it evenst results in acute memory loss and the patient tends to forget even important milestones in their life like marriage or children. With the ongoing developemt, the conditions might get severe, interfering with the digestive functions. This can lead to the brain herniating through the skull, causing symptoms like losing consciousness and abnormal posturing.
The most common meningitis causing bacteria are Haemophilus influenza type b, Streptococcus pneumonia and Neisseria meningitidis bacteria. Furthermore, Escherichia coli, a bacterium that resides in the digestive tract can even cause meningitis in new born babies. Pseudomonas and Staphylococci are common meningitis causing bacteria in adults whose immune system is not functioning normally. It is found that people with cochlear implant are more likely to get pneumococcal meningitis. The treatment constitutes a wide spectrum of antibiotics and prior to which a confirmatory test is conducted to identify the cause and type. Instead the infant may appear to be slow or inactive, irritable, vomiting or feeding poorly. Sometimes the bacteria that cause meningitis have spread to other people who have had close or prolonged contact with a patient with meningitis caused by N. Other viruses, such as mumps and varicella-zoster virus, may also be spread through direct or indirect contact with saliva, sputum, or mucus of an infected person.
It is important to know the specific cause of meningitis because the severity of illness and the treatment will differ depending on the cause.
If bacterial meningitis is suspected, initial treatment with ceftriaxone and vancomycin is recommended.
The length of treatment depends on the status of the immune system and the type of fungus that caused the infection. One cannot imagine living a life without an appropriately functioning brain but there are unfortunate cases where the brain starts functioning abnormally as a result of infections. Meningitis can be acute with rapid onset of symptoms, chronic which lasts for a few months, or mild.
This infection can result in swelling of the tissues around the brain hence interfering with appropriate blood flow and may result in paralysis or stroke. In instances where someone has undergone a brain or a spinal surgery may put that person at higher risk of getting bacterial meningitis.
In some instances, there may be swelling of the head due to fluid buildup around the skull. Bacterial meningitis can be cured successfully if diagnosed and treated early but if allowed to progress it may cause permanent damage in the form of seizures, mental impairment, and paralysis which might be life-long. This is because both conditions involve toxin-producing microbes that may be fatal if the patient does not receive proper care. The exception to this is bacterial meningitis, which always needs to be treated with antibiotics. The inflammation is usually caused due to infection from virus, bacteria or other microorganisms. During meningitis infection, children and adults experience headache during the early stages, however this symptom is completely absent in young babies, below the age of 2. In most cases, like in bacterial meningitis, the patient only shows only one or two of these three symptoms. They occur from extreme pressure areas in the brain tissues and inflammation of brain tissues. This is because, in extreme cases of meningitis like bacterial meningitis the situation can worsen quickly and may lead to permanent damage.
Excessive blood clotting may obstruct blood flow completely and is an extremely serious point and should be kept with a close eye on.
During viral meningitis the illness and other symptoms get resolved in a week’s time, without causing any complications. Meningitis infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis bacteria is referred as ‘meningococcal meningitis while meningitis infection resulting from Streptococcus pneumonia is referred as pneumococcal meningitis.
Also during epidemic conditions, newborns cal also get affected by meningitis caused due to Listeria monocytogenes infection. Also patients who have undergone major surgery and had to implant cerebral shunt or toher such device are more likely to suffer with meningitis.

According to some recent findings , children with hearing loss have 5 times more chances of developing meningitis as compared to those children with normal hearing.
During fungal meningitis, the patient normally experiences headache and fever for few weeks of infection. Some of the common meningitis causing parasitic pathogens are Gnathostoma spinigerum, Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Schistosoma.
Often people suffering from this disease show very low level of consciousness and have to be administered with mechanical ventilation. Bacterial meningitis can be fulminant, meaning, the infection can escalate within a few hours to rapidly become life threatening. In young children, doctors also look at the child’s reflexes, which can also be a sign of meningitis. Contact with an infected person may increase your chance of becoming infected with the virus that made them sick; however you will have a small chance of developing meningitis as a complication of the illness. People with certain medical conditions like diabetes, cancer, or HIV are at higher risk of fungal meningitis. In the case of bacterial meningitis, for example, antibiotics can help prevent severe illness and reduce the spread of infection from person to person. Appropriate antibiotic treatment of the most common types of bacterial meningitis should reduce the risk of dying from meningitis to below 15%, although the risk is higher among the elderly. A hospital stay may be necessary in more severe cases or for people with weak immune systems. For people with immune systems that do not function well because of other conditions, like AIDS, diabetes, or cancer, longer treatment is needed. One such infection is Bacterial Meningitis in which there is swelling of tissues around the brain as a result of a bacterial infection, which can be a potentially life-threatening condition and needs immediate medical attention. Immediate medical attention needs to be sought if an individual experiences signs or symptoms of meningitis.
Patients affected with sepsis will invariably need a course of antibiotics to treat the infection.
Extracted from the spinal region of the patient, this fluid is examined under a high-powered laboratory microscope. A culture will be performed on the patient's blood to see if the bacteria-causing agents are present, indicating sepsis.
The inflammation takes place in the membrane that covers the brain and the spine and dude to its proximity to the brain; it is considered life threatening and hence is a condition of medical emergency. Fever during meningitis os most of the time mistaken as one of symptoms of common flu or illness.
This makes identification of the disease difficult, causing a delay in the start of treatment. When the bacteria multiples in the blood, it releases toxins that damages the blood vessels.
In such a state the body gets deprived of important nutrients, vitamins and minerals and also affects the immune system.
This form of meningitis is highly contagious and is transferred from the discharge from throat or nose. Bacteria such as pseudomonas and staphylococci causes meningitis by infecting through the medium if such devices. The most common meningitis caused by Cryptococcous neoformans fungi is referred as Cryptococcal Meningits. You may also get fungal meningitis after taking medications that suppress your immune system. In this article, we will discuss about various causes of Bacterial Meningitis and how an individual, who unfortunately has this disease, should go about getting treated. Technicians look for a strain of bacteria present in the spinal fluid that is known to cause meningitis.
The headache that you expereicne during meningitis can turn out to be slightly different that is experienced under normal conditions. Bacterial meningitis is however life-threatening and therefore it becomes important to identify as early as possible.
Some of the other fungal pathogens that cause meningitis are Histoplasma capsulatum, Candida species, Coccidiodes immitis and Blastomyces dermatitidis. There are chronic forms of meningeal infection that are not as immediately dangerous but that still require evaluation and treatment. Examples of these medications include steroids (such as prednisone), medications given after organ transplantation, or anti-TNF medications, which are sometimes given for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or other autoimmune conditions.
If this is not treated quickly enough, it can further give rise to various more complications.
Rash causes due to meningitis infection can easily be tested at home with the help of the Glass Tumbler Test. It can lead to long term complications like permanent deafness, epilepsy, deficit in cognitive fields and hydrocephalus.

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