Darth was a title given to the Dark Lords of the Sith Order, which preceded a moniker different from the birth name. Last week, the couple shared a romantic dinner at the Nashville restaurant Flyte where they celebrated their fourth wedding anniversary.
And that wasn't the only night for partying: On June 20, they had a joint celebration for Kidman's 43rd birthday and Father's Day.
One thing that has been very consistent about Albert Raymond Mortona€™s documents is that he invariably listed his mothera€™s name as Ida Louise Easley. We searched for twenty-five years to find any record of this woman, other than those listed by Raymond, and were infuriatingly unsuccessfula€¦ until June 2012.
Ida Louise Easley was born in Oct 1856 (according to the 1900 census for Winslow, Navajo, AZ) in Macoupin County, Illinois. She was thirteen years old in the 1870 Federal census for Chetopa, Neosho Co., KS and still living with her parents and siblings at that time. We find her (at age 18) still residing with her siblings in the 1875 Kansas state census, in Neosho Co. In the 1880 Federal census for Lincoln, Neosho, Kansas, we find Aaron and Ida Bonham with a new set of twin boys, just a few months old, Clarence and Lawrence, born in early 1880. At about the same time, Aaron Bonhama€™s parents had settled in Franklin Co., Kansas, about 80 miles to the north.
After this time, we can find no document to indicate that Aaron Bonham was still alive, but neither can we prove that he had died.
Aaron and Ida could have divorced, she then quickly married Ira Morton in the fall of 1885 (after the census) and they could have had a son, Raymond, the following year--Sept 1886.
Aaron could have been away for an extended period and Ida could have met Ira Morton and had a child out of wedlock before Aarona€™s return. Now, keeping that dilemma in mind, leta€™s proceed with the other documents that we have been able to find for Ida L.
Note that at the time of this marriage, she was still going by the name of a€?Bonhama€? -- not Morton. The 1890 Federal census would have been very helpful to us here, but unfortunately, it was destroyed.
We would never have thought to search for this record under the names of a€?Holmesa€? without first finding the record of her marriage--above. In the very same year, and census, for the same county, we find that by the time the census taker had moved on to the home of Martha Bonham (the widowed mother of Aaron Bonham--and mother-in-law of Ida L. Now, this census was just a very short time after the previous exhibit (above) but here, Ray is listed as being 10 years old, and with the surname of a€?Bonham.a€? It is the same young boy. Even though Raya€™s mother had moved west, to Arizona, Ray continued to live with Martha Bonham.
The question must arise, that if Ray was born a€?out of wed-locka€? while Marthaa€™s daughter-in-law was still married to her son, Aaron, one might think that of all of the children, Ray may have been the least likely of the children for Martha Bonham to take into her home to raise. Whether Ray was actually going by the Bonham name, as indicated above, or whether the census taker once again made an assumption of that, is not known. In the 1905 KS State census we again find this family still living in Stafford Co., KS with Frank Bonham now showing as the head of the household, and Martha was still alive at age 78, but Ray is no longer living with them.
It is interesting that Ida stated that her parent were born in KY, because in prior census records she had always correctly stated they were born in Tennessee.
In the 1920 Federal census for Bakersfield, Kern Co., CA we find the family still in this community. Note that Margaret Bonham Kelly had named her oldest son, William Raymond Kelly, with his middle name being a remembrance of her younger brother, Albert Raymond Morton. We have heard that Ida Louise Easley Bonham (Morton) Holmes Hamilton passed away in Bakersfield, CA in the 1930s but we do not have a specific date for her death at this time. Note that at the time of this marriage, she was still going by the name of a€?Bonhama€? -- not Morton.A  This adds credence to the supposition that she may not have actually married Ira H.
DESCRIPTION: The maps of Andrea Bianco (Bianchi), along with those of Walsperger (1448), the Catalan-Estense map of 1450, the Borgia map, the Genoese map of 1457, and Fra Mauroa€™s map of 1459 (see #245, #246 and #249), form the beginnings of a transition period, away from the circular, Jerusalem-centered religious depictions of the earlier medieval mappaemundi, and toward those that were to form the Renaissance period of cartography.
However, biblical sources still predominate, especially for the land areas toward the edges of the map.
The Andrea Bianco world map locates the earthly paradise beside Cape Comorin, with the four rivers flowing through the center of India. Following custom, Marignolli notes that the river Gyon (Gihon), after passing through Ceylon, encircles the land of Ethiopia and flows into Egypt.
Other Old Testament stories to be commemorated were the fortunes of Noaha€™s Ark, the punishment of Lota€™s wife, the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the sojourn in Egypt and the Exodus. Andrea Bianco described himself on his chart of 1448 as comito di galia [a senior officer on a galley], and official documents survive that link him with almost annual galley sailings throughout the period 1437-51. The atlas of 1436 comprises ten leaves of vellum, measuring 29 x 38 cm., in an 18th century binding.
To this he appended his world map in the old circular style as well as a copy of Ptolemya€™s world map This juxtaposition of portolan theory, wheeled map tradition, and Ptolemaic theory signals that Bianco was an acute thinker about global geography and interested in stimulating the thinking of his contemporaries. The circular world map shows an island in the same place as the Dicolzi of the Vienna-Klosterneuburg corpus, and on it is the notation a€?griffons and girfalcons.a€? However, this mapa€™s treatment of Gog and Magog is different from that on any other map. In its general character the circular world map faithfully reproduces the pattern introduced by Fra Paolino and Petrus Vesconte (#228) over a century earlier, augmented only by the representation of northwest Africa and the Atlantic islands borrowed from Biancoa€™s charts. The circular world map is oriented to the East, surrounded by a blue rim representing not the ocean (which is green) but the heavens, as we can see from the stars painted on it.
Not surprisingly, the map borrows the coastal forms from the sea charts, and the vernacular winds, whose lines divide it into eight pie-shaped section. The mappamundi is the only map in the atlas to have sea monsters, and they are all in the southern ocean, at the edge of the world far from Europe: there we see a two-tailed siren and two winged dragons. The correctness of this interpretation is confirmed by the presence of a figure who can only be Judas on an island near this abyss: in the Nauigatio sancti Brendani abbatis, St Brendan while sailing in the Atlantic encounters an entrance to Hell, and nearby, Judas alone on an island, and Judas tells Brendan that he is allowed to escape Hell and rest on the island on Sundays and church holidays. This circular medieval mappaemundi had placed the world in its universal context, frequently including the structure of the four elements, the nine spheres, and the ordering of time by the motions of the moon and the sun. Wittkower, Rudolf, a€?Marvels of the East: A Study in the History of Monsters,a€? Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942), note 6 on p.


Detail showing (on the left) Mary of the Christ child, and (on the right) the southern portion of Africa with hanging man and sea monsters.
A Ptolemaic map of the world, from the tenth page of the ten-sheet atlas by Venetian cartographer Andrea Bianco, dated 1436. The first five charts are drawn and colored in the usual portolan style, with strongly accented coastlines; they are on a common scale, and oriented with south to the top (as indicated by the writing of names and legends not on the coasts). Over dinner the lovebirds got cozy in an intimate corner of the restaurant – which is a Nashville favorite frequented by stars such as Shania Twain, Gwyneth Paltrow and Taylor Swift.
Easley Bonham--the twins who died when just a few months old, and the four living children, three of which (# 1, 2 & 4) all claim that Aaron Bonham was their father, but #3 (Raymond) always claimed that his father was Ira Morton. Aaron and Ida could have divorced, she then quickly married Ira Morton in the fall of 1885 (after the census) and they could have had a son, Raymond, the following year--Sept 1886.A  We know Ira died in 1888, and Ida could have been reconciled to Aaron and remarried him with Bernice born to them in 1888.
Aaron may have died in about 1884.A  Ida could have married Ira Morton in the fall of 1885 (after the census) and then had both Raymond (1886) and Bernice (1888) prior to Iraa€™s death on 12 Dec. The maps mentioned above are ones that began to assimilate the new discoveries into the Ptolemaic framework (Book I, #119), thereby abandoning the form and format of the earlier maps. The clerical hold on scholarship was responsible for two of the most conspicuous features of the typical world map: (1) the prominence given to biblical topics and topography and, (2) the survival of certain traditions at a time when fresh knowledge was making them untenable or at least demanding their modification.
John Marignolli, who reached Ceylon in the 14th century, describes a glorious mountain (probably Adama€™s Peak) barely forty miles from paradise, according to the natives. Such a belief is based on the ancient theory of subterranean watercourses flowing deep in the earth, under oceans and between continents. However, of all the topics to be given pictorial expression, few enjoyed a wider vogue than those concerning the lands of Gog and Magog which are also displayed on Biancoa€™s map.
The Archives of the Republic record his certification, at various dates between 1437 and 1451, as ammiraglio and uomo di consiglio in ships plying the trade routes to Tana [Black Sea], Flanders, Beirut and Alexandria, Rumania, and Barbary. These are the atlas of ten leaves, with nine charts or maps, dated 1436 and preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice, and the nautical chart of 1448, preserved in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan. Until 1813, when it came to the Biblioteca Marciana, it was in the possession of the Venetian family of Contarini, and there is no evidence that it ever left Venice, where Bianco seems to have executed and signed it. Description of the Rule of Marteloio (la raxon de marteloio) for resolving the course, with the a€?circle and squarea€?, two tables and two other diagrams; to the right a windrose. FOURTH CHART: coasts of Spain and Portugal, NW Africa, and Atlantic islands (Azores, Madeira, Cape Verde Islands, Antillia, Satanaxio ).
SEVENTH CHART, on a smaller scale: all the coasts of Europe and NW Africa comprised in the previous six charts. The sixth chart is drawn in somewhat different style, with the coastlines traced in smooth broad curves, suggesting less detailed knowledge or information from hearsay.
The incongruous appearance of a circular mappamundi of archaic design and a Ptolemaic world map in this company has prompted the suspicion that one or both may have been added to the atlas at a later date. Bianco depicts this land as an extension of Asia that juts out into the blue border surrounding his map, as if beyond the middle of da€™Aillya€™s equinoctial circle (#238). Neither in design nor in content does its author seem to have sought novelty; there is no attempt at originality of design as in Pirrus de Nohaa€™s world map (#239), or at conscientious scrutiny of sources, as in the maps of Leardo and Fra Mauro. The landmass of the earth is shrunk considerably within its frame in order to increase the size of the ocean and to include the polar regions. Despite dire warnings, a small ship drawn with loving detail is advancing bravely around the southern coast of Africa. The dragons are in what looks initially like a bay, but the feature is actually intended to represent an underwater abyss at the southern end of Africa: the wave pattern at the southern edge of this feature indicates that the dragons are underwater. Biancoa€™s transfer of this entrance to Hell to the southern tip of Africa is surprising, particularly as some authors and cartographers had located the Terrestrial Paradise in the same area. The three continents of the then-known world were associated with the biblical distribution of the lands to the sons of Noah (Book II, #205). Since the traditional frame no longer held the new discoveries in the 15th century it became a practical impossibility to center the maps on Jerusalem. The Terrestrial Paradise, for instance, forms an almost constant component of the mappamundi, and what could be more natural? And from the height, the water falling from the fountain of paradise divides into four rivers that flow through the country. As mentioned above, this belief, as old as Pindar, was later revived by Christian writers to explain the rivers of paradise flowing into the world from some remote point in the east. In the north of Asia, on a peninsula that stretches far out into the sea, are the words a€?Gog Magog chest Alexander gie ne roccon ecarleire de tribus iudeorona€? [Gog and Magog of the Jewish tribes whom Alexander enclosed in the rocks (mountains) ages ago]. That was the only year in the period 1445-51 for which his destination is not independently documented. The latter is the primary cartographic authority (since no Portuguese charts of this period are extant) for the Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic and of the African coast up to the year 1445, extending southward to Cape Verde. The seventh chart embraces the a€?normal portolani areaa€?, with some extension to the north (from the sixth chart) and to the south and west (from the fourth chart). The similarity of the handwriting in these two maps and in the rest of the atlas, however, leaves little doubt that they were executed at the same time as the other charts, or else a little later and certainly at the same time as one another.
Rather than dismiss Bianco as a€?a casual and untutored cartographera€?, it is tempting to speculate that in adding the two world maps to his atlas he was deliberately presenting side-by-side the old world picture and the new, the geographical lore of the Christian Middle Ages and the lately discovered geography of Ptolemy; just as 16th century editors of the Geographia printed a modern world map, based on experience, alongside the traditional maps of the Ptolemaic atlas.
Because of this mapa€™s early date, there is no record of the Portuguese voyages, but in Biancoa€™s 1448 chart, their progress in west Africa is duly noted. The legend between the dragons is usually transcribed as nidus abimalion, but without adequate explanation. But his location of an underwater nest of monsters, including sea monsters, at the southern end of the world (which is what he represents, whatever the precise interpretation of the text) is a startling innovation that defies ready explanation. The classical heritage was marked by the surrounding twelve winds, as well as the dominance of geographical names harking back to ancient times.
Andrea Bianco was followed in 1459 by Fra Mauro, who made his famous planisphere for Alphonso IV of Portugal (#249). The legend of Antillia (or Antilia), also known as the Isle of Seven Cities, originated in an old Iberian legend about seven bishops from the eighth century who fled Muslim conquerors by fleeing westward to the island.
This is one of the first Ptolemaic maps made since the recovery and Latin translation of Ptolemy's work in the early 15th century.


The Andrea Biancoa€™s mappamundi, made in Venice in 1436, forms part of an atlas, which also includes nautical instructions, a series of sea charts, and a Ptolemaic world map. No orthodox Christian in the Middle Ages doubted the existence of this original home of mankind as a fact of contemporary history. Gog and Magog begin at this time, following the trend established by the 12th century in popular exegesis, to be confused on world maps with Jews, especially the Ten Lost Tribes.
This chart, which has been frequently reproduced, has been the subject of much discussion in regard to its representation of the Azores and of islands shown at the southern edge of the chart, two off Cape Verde (conjecturally identified as the Cape Verde Islands) and ixola otenticha.
The geographical delineations in this and in the circular world map agree on the whole with those in the six special charts and seem to be generalizations from them. However, it does not appear that Bianco clearly understood or intended this map as a global representation in the same sense as da€™Ailly did his Seventh Figure.
The first Latin translation of Ptolemya€™s Greek text was completed by the Florentine Jacopo da€™Angiolo in 1406, and the maps were turned into Latin soon after. To the south of this promontory lies a long gulf, and on the peninsula nearby is the Garden of Eden, with Adam and Eve standing on either side of the tree, and the four rivers flowing to the west. Bianco frequently ends words with a€?-ona€? where a€?-urna€? would be normal in Latin, e.g. While current events and newly founded cities were not excluded from the maps, historical sites were equally important: the cities of Troy and Carthage, the sites of ancient battles, the exploits of Alexander, the progress of the empires from east to west.
Andrea Bianco included the island in his map of 1436, but it was omitted in his later map of 1448.
Many writers devote long chapters to the description of its delights, though none from first-hand enjoyment of them. And on that river excellent craftsmen have their dwellings, occupying wooden houses, especially weavers of silk and gold brocade Banaras?), in such numbers, as in my opinion do not exist in the whole of Italy. Three ships were certainly fitted out by the Venetian Senate in February 1448, two of them intending to call at London.
While Biancoa€™s meridian line passes through the same area as da€™Aillya€™s, his equatorial line passes through Greece, Italy, and Spain, far north of the true global equator. Biancoa€™s copy of the Ptolemaic world map, made in Venice in 1436, testifies to the diffusion of the Latin manuscripts of the Geographia and has a possible relevance to the Ptolemaic echoes in the nomenclature of the Vinland Map (#243), few and faint though they are.
Of special significance was biblical history, and the most complete mappaemundi covered it all, from the Creation through the Incarnation to the Last Judgment, important sites such as the barns of Joseph, the sites connected with the life of Christ, the missions of the apostles, and the bishopric of Saint Augustine, set forth the sacred story in spatial terms.
The existence of the island on maps has been used for theories of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact and some say may represent the American landmass.
These transitional maps are often circular, with a well-defined Mediterranean and Black Sea area directly derived from the portolan [nautical] charts. Even Mandeville, the most romantic geographer of the age, confesses that he had not visited it on account of his unworthiness, but that he had derived his information about it from trustworthy men. Presumably Bianco drew the chart ashore during the three and a half months allotted for cargo loading and customs clearance. The curious mixture of wheel-map tradition with global projection theory is further emphasized in the west. The Indian Ocean is open to the east and crowded with islands, while Africa extends far to the east, bounding the ocean on the south.
Asia is almost entirely taken up by an array of enthroned kings, flanked by what appear to be their entourages.
Thus, according to Van Duzer we are to understand nidus abimalion as nidus abimalium, and the phrase evidently means a€?nest of the creatures of the abyss,a€? though abimalium is not attested in other sources (compare the French abime, a€?abyssa€?).
Bianco is also recorded as having collaborated with Fra Mauro at Murano on his celebrated world map (#249), as payments made to him between 1448 and 1459 testify. There Bianco apparently gives explicit attention to da€™Aillya€™s ocean problem by showing the full extent of the ocean to the global horizon.
The holy land is illustrated by Mary holding the infant Jesus on her lap with the three wise men in attendance, and Jesus is also shown being baptized by John in the river Jordan. The cartographic signs and generalization are similar in style to those of the portolan charts, as is the network of rhumb lines radiating from the center of the map. This is a device that appears again below and seems to be part of a transitional phase in which consideration was being given to the situation or the world continent relative to the global ocean.
In the north, marked off by a half-circle, we read that it is terribly cold and that every-one born in that region is a savage. It is almost as though all of Biancoa€™s pent-up creativity is unleashed after drawing the more restrained sea charts. 1389) also assigns a terrestrial position to Purgatory, possibly on the authority of Dante who tell us that the Earthly Paradise was situated in the Southern Hemisphere on the summit of the mount of Purgatory, antipodal to Jerusalem. The South Pole is described as a€?nidus alli maliona€? [nest of all evil], and there is a man hanging from a gallows, as well as several sea monsters. Typical of the circumstantial descriptions of this earthly Eden are those coming from the pens of Gervase of Tilbury and Ranulf Higden (#232), who based their statements mainly on the opinions of the early Fathers, Augustine, Basil and Ambrose. But the authority upon whom the mapmakers relied mostly was Isidore (Book II, #205), whose statement that Paradise was a€?hedged about on all sides by a long wall of flame .
The vitality of the tradition was so great that this Garden of Delights, with its four westward flowing rivers, was still being located in the Far East long after the travels of Odoric and the Polos had demonstrated the impossibility of any such hydrographical anomaly, and the moral difficulties in the way of the identification of Cathay [China] with Paradise.
The embarrassment arising from the knowledge that the sources of the rivers were mutually remote was banished by assuming that each of the streams, upon leaving Paradise, went underground and reappeared at their respective sources.
Comorin, is prominently displayed on Biancoa€™s 1436 world map, with four rivers shown flowing through the center of India, one to the north of the Caspian, near Agrican, that is Astrakan [the Volga], a second into the south of the Caspian, near Jilan [Araxes?], a third into the Gulf of Scanderoon [Orontes?], while the fourth river is the Euphrates.
The physical existence of the Earthly Eden was believed by many people, long after the Middle Ages; its location was still an academic issue when Bishop Huet of Avranches wrote his Tractatus de Situ Paradisi Terrestrii in the 18th century.



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