This was a multi-year advanced course for those interested in learning The Completion Processa„? and then implementing the principles and techniques to teach the seminars and intensive experiences designed and created by Rannette Eva Nicholas. Dachau, Hamburg, Buchenwald, Ravensbrueck, Auschwitz, Birkenau, Treblinka, Majdanek, Lublin, Belsec, Sobibor. They worked with healing and forgiveness energies and forces, and interceded for the healing and freeing of the land, for the souls, for the shocking inhumanity to all concerned. At one point, they got stuck behind the Iron Curtain, without funds, and a generous businessman, Joachim Wechmann stepped in and wired them funds, turning a potential dangerous situation into one of miracles. From the concentration camps exploration and healing, some went on to Israel and Palestine - for intercession and healing through developing a direct awareness and understanding of what was going on in this very intense, injured, and abused piece of real estate and tragic humanity.
As the growth, change and evolving of their consciousness - their awareness, their understanding - and as their Spiritual wisdom expanded and evolved over the years, so did OIM - ever becoming more.
1983 to 1990 was a time of Service and Exploring the complexities and wonders of todaya€™s religious institutions.
It was a vibrant time of learning and teaching, for all involved and the places and people they encountered, touched, and were touched by.
In 1990 Rannette designed and developed the Forgiveness, Prayer, and Praise Workshop which was given in churches of many denominations - in over 30 cities in North America. The foundation of OIM, intercession, is respect for each individual and their chosen and personal relationship to the Divine - however, whatever that is or isna€™t.
This was a learning, healing, travel program, based upon seminars and events designed and created by Rannette. There was a special RR journey, a tour of about 30 people, with seminars and sightseeing to Moscow, USSR and the surrounding area, late April and early May, 1991, where Rannette intuitively got that a coup was being planned.
Another special RR journey and tour was in July, 1992 to Egypt and the wondrously magical and power places there, including the Great Pyramids, the Sphinx, Luxor, Karmac, Abu Simbel, Valley of the Kings (to name some of the places), a Nile Cruise. Metaphysical and Spiritual, Personal and Business Coaching for individuals and companies who are interested and able to integrate the complexities of the New Spirituality into their lives and their businesses. A program designed and created for individuals interested in Vision Quests and Image Development and Expansion. This is a company that serves those business owners (local, national, and international) who seek the correct business entity form and supportive services for their corporation or LLC.
Journey Supplies gives seminars in accelerated personal and spiritual growth methods that Rannette has developed and designed over the years.
Both Rannette and Dafydd have been seekers, pioneers, mapmakers, and adventurers their entire lives, actively and intensively learning, studying, healing, and evolving their consciousness. Dafydda€™s father, Ifor, took him as a young 11 year old boy to Stanford University to attend conferences on the study of galaxies and super galaxies. A real teacher is one who is constantly learning out of their participation with ideas, areas of knowledge, peers, students, and all they touch and are touched by in their lives. Rannettea€™s first trip around the world came about when the Danielsa€™ Institute for Successful Living first went to Munich, Germany to do a€?the experiencea€? as a guest of Dr.
The name of the 2nd trip came from an exercise in a€?the experiencea€? called Owning the Room where the participants would go around the Experience room and use their senses to connect and relate to the room and its contents - sight, sounds, smells, touching, and tasting. Beverly Hills & Marina del Rey, CA USA - Munich, Germany - Athens, Greece - Bombay, India - New Delhi and Agra (Taj Mahal), India - Katmandu, Nepal (Buddhist monastery, Buddhist Hermitage) - Calcutta, India - Bangkok, Thailand - Singapore, Malaysia - Sidney, Australia - Auckland, New Zealand (where Rannette saw the longest, brightest rainbow ever) ! This trip the Nicholas family went -- including their two youngsters - Anthony (5 to 7 years old ) and Agla (3 to 5 years old ) - Andrew (24 years old), Rannettea€™s oldest son, did join them in Greece.
During the OIM ministry the Nicholas family traveled to every state except Alaska - at least once, and a number of states several times.
Travels others in the OIM ministry did during this time: Canada (Toronto, Thunder Bay), Mexico, England (London area, Leicester), The Netherlands (Amsterdam.
Las Vegas, NV, San Francisco, CA, Boston, MA USA - London, UK - Isle of Man - Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Berlin, Frankfurt, Germany - Bombay, New Delhi, India - Katmandu, Nepal - Calcutta, India - Bangkok, Thailand - Singapore, Malaysia - Hong Kong - Taiwan - Honolulu, Hawaii, Las Vegas, NV USA.
Took a tour of about 35 RR students and participants to Egypt, in July, 1992, including the Nile River Cruise and meditating on the Great Pyramid on July 23rd, at the Rising of Sirius. Scotland, Scandinavia, Mongolia, Tibet, Fiji, New Zealand, Victoria Falls and a safari in Africa, Madagascar, Brazil and the Amazon River, and a cruise to Alaska. In parenthesis - example (1977 - 1991) are the years of their participation with the Nicholasa€™ educational seminars, intensive experiences, products and systems - The Daniels Institute of Successful Living, Earthplay, International College of Realities, The I Care, OIM, or Relationship Realities. William (Bill) Colson, who was the first President of the Danielsa€™ Institute of Successful Living and went on from there to become the President of the Church of Religious Science.
To further understand their world, Rannette and Dafydd Nicholas founded OIM.A  In the early years of the ministry - 1983 - 1990 - were years of service, of traveling North America and throughout the worldA  to bring hope, understanding, compassion, learning, healing, greater context, and peace to the great and small religions of the world, and to religious thought.
It was a vibrant time of learning and teaching, for all involved and the places and people they encountered, touched, and were touched by.A  OIM, and all those who participated in the many forms and ways over the years, was and is certainly a contributing and pivotal, influential and empowered participator in The Great Work of our Age.A  Thank you again -- to you all !
The foundation of OIM, intercession, is respect for each individual and their chosen and personal relationship to the Divine - however, whatever that is or isna€™t.A  Whatever name each gives it. This was a learning, healing, travel program, based upon seminars and events designed and created by Rannette.A  These were given in many cities, and in over 30 European countries - such as Italy, Monaco, Norway, Austria, Switzerland.
Journey Supplies gives seminars in accelerated personal and spiritual growth methods that Rannette has developed and designed over the years.A  -- The Spiritual Journey requires supplies. Both Rannette and Dafydd have been seekers, pioneers, mapmakers, and adventurers their entire lives, actively and intensively learning, studying, healing, and evolving their consciousness.A  This began for Rannette with the work of her father and working logistics for his seminars from the young age of 9, to Edgar Cayce in the home of her mother, Maria Montessoria€™s context of learning and methods - through her sister Victoria, to meeting Dafydd, a fellow and active student of Objectivism and Libertarian, then traveling North America andA  the world (four trips around the world, as well as living in Europe at different times), to discovering the work of Lazaris and intensively and consistently working with Lazaris, the Lazaris events, and materials.
A real teacher is one who is constantly learning out of their participation with ideas, areas of knowledge, peers, students, and all they touch and are touched by in their lives.A  It is not one who has studied and memorized and then teaches others to memorize to remember and spout an agreed upon belief. This trip the Nicholas family went -- including their two youngsters - Anthony (5 to 7 years old ) and Agla (3 to 5 years old )A  - Andrew (24 years old), Rannettea€™s oldest son, did join them in Greece.A A  There were ministry get togethers, teachings, seminars during this time, in various locations in Europe, as well as in Greece, Israel, Egypt, and India. During the OIM ministry the Nicholas family traveled to every state except Alaska - at least once, and a number of states several times.A  Also a number of times to Canada and Mexico - to Monterrey, Mexico. Travels others in the OIM ministry did during this time: Canada (Toronto, Thunder Bay), Mexico,A  England (London area, Leicester), The Netherlands (Amsterdam.
Las Vegas, NV, San Francisco, CA, Boston, MA USA - London, UK - Isle of Man - Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Berlin, Frankfurt, Germany -A  Bombay, New Delhi, India - Katmandu, Nepal - Calcutta, India - Bangkok, Thailand - Singapore, Malaysia -A  Hong Kong - Taiwan - Honolulu, Hawaii, Las Vegas, NV USA. The Greek army pretended to sail away and left on the shore a huge, hollow wooden horse as an apparent victory gift. The underworld has successfully dispatched many human targets by beautifully wrapping a bomb as a gift with an ornate bow and paper that explodes when opened. About halfway to my destination, I caught a ride with a kind, middle-aged Pentecostal lady who was very pleased to hear of my recent conversion.
And not wanting to be deprived of something so important, I began a very deep search into the controversial subject of tongues.
I also recognize that even among charismatics there are vast differences of interpretation regarding the gift of tongues, so forgive me if I generalize at times. Rather, it would be an instantaneous gift to fluently preach in a previously unfamiliar language. If we look at these three cases, we should find a clearer picture of this controversial gift. And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting.
It was not a gift of hearing given to the listeners, but rather a gift of the Spirit given to enable the believers to speak (Acts 2:4).
And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. History also tells us that the servants in a Roman home could be from anywhere in the world.
In other words, they spoke languages they had not formerly known in a way that could be understood. When the Holy Spirit came upon these 12 Ephesian men, Paul recognized that they were prophesying, or preaching, in new languages. The place was shaken and they were filled with the Holy Spirit, but because there were no foreigners present, the gift of tongues was absent. The Corinthian church obviously had a specific, temporary problem because Paul's second letter to Corinth never even mentions tongues. Because the Corinthian church was a melting pot of many different nationalities, its services often became chaotic and confusing. But the Scriptures teach that some of the gifts are more important than others and that we should focus on the most important ones. They would have us think that a Christian who does not speak in tongues is a second-class citizen. But these same preachers would have us believe that the fruit of the Spirit is tongues or that every person who is filled with the Holy Spirit will speak in tongues.
This modern manifestation of tongues finds its roots not in the Bible, but rather in ancient pagan spiritualistic rituals. The weird sounds the priestess muttered were then interpreted by a priest, who usually spoke in verse. The Indians would eat the hallucinogenic peyote, then sit in a circle and chant and pound drums for hours. Eventually some of the people would become possessed by their gods and begin speaking the eerie languages of the spirit world. Many of the African slaves who were brought to America and forced to accept Christianity were unable to read the Bible for themselves.
The reason God gives us His Spirit is to restore in us His image-not to rob us of all dignity and self control! I have spoken in tongues for years and know it is from God!" As Christians, we should never base our conclusions on how we feel. Revelation is telling us that in the last days, God's people are to be called out of Babylon and its confusing counterfeit religious systems. Peck - PAPYRUS OF NES MIN THE PAPYRUS OF NES-MIN: AN EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEADDetroit Institute of Arts Acc. Theirs has been an inspired partnership and loving relationship - in work, with family, and in creative endeavors spanning the globe in content and context. Ranald Daniels, had one of the largest motivation institutes in Southern California in the 1950a€™s.
There were special readings and talismans for the 35 + participants from Atun-Re (channeled by Kevin Reyerson) and Torah (channeled by Shawn Randall).
Henning von der Osten, the noted psychologist, one of her students from Southern California. Ranald Daniels was a friend of Ernest Holmes, founder of the Church of Religious Science, and in the 1950a€™s they, and a couple others, had weekly luncheon get togethers.
Henning von der Osten, the esteemed German Psychologist who first introduced Rannette and her work to his German clients. This was in preparation for the accelerating changes and evolution of human consciousness that was coming in the 1990a€™s and the early decades of the 21st Century. These were often unsung heros of their religious home.A  Unsung and unknown, they provided unique services to those around them. There were special readings and talismans for the 35 + participants from Atun-Re (channeled by Kevin Reyerson) and Torah (channeled by Shawn Randall).A  The highlight of the trip was celebrating the Rising of Sirius, at the moments just before and during the rise of the sun, on July 23rd, at the east face of the Great Pyramid, with a transformative Lazaris meditation that proved transcendent.
Some of these that Journey Supplies LLC provides are crystals and FES, Flower Essence Services. They would take pictures, large crowds would gather, and then give the photo to the person, who would burst out in big smiles. Today the devil is using a counterfeit gift of the Spirit -a pagan form of the gift of tongues- to gain access to the church of God and destroy it from within. How could the apostles go out preaching to all the world when they spoke only one or two languages? And there appeared unto them cloven [divided] tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them.
Now when this was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language. God chose this timely opportunity to bestow this gift of tongues upon the disciples so they could preach to the visiting Jews in their native languages. It is not called the gift of ears for the listeners, but the gift of tongues for the speakers. Because there were obvious language barriers at this meeting, Peter likely began to preach through an interpreter. Most likely they spoke in languages common throughout the Roman Empire, since that would be practical for spreading the Gospel.


Evidently some of the members would pray, testify, or preach in languages unknown to the others present.
Consequently, if there is no interpreter, the speaker is simply speaking into the air and the only ones present who know what is being said are God and himself. But Paul makes it clear that different gifts are given to different people, and no one is expected to have all the gifts.
Yet out of more than 50 examples in the Bible where God filled His people with the Spirit, only three times is tongues connected with the experience.
I used to wonder why, if this was a message from God, wouldn't He give it to us in English the first time. Before long, several were spasmodically muttering as they experienced their tormenting visions. See Acts 28:3-6.) For people to hunt down and pick up deadly snakes in order to prove that they have the Holy Spirit is, in reality, tempting God! From there, leaders continued to refine the doctrines and make them more attractive and palatable to other mainline Christians.
The dominant, repetitious rhythms and syncopated beat disarm the higher reasoning powers and put the subconscious mind in a hypnotic state. Some of these charismatic churches go so far as to say that the Bible is the old letter, and that messages which come through tongues are fresh revelations of the Spirit and therefore more dependable. And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues" (verses 2, 4). There are some basic requirements for receiving this most precious gift of the Holy Spirit. Rannette took it over in 1973 and began her own creative and power filled, life changing, and the evolving of consciousness work: the experience and The Completion Processa„?.
Ifor also took him to concerts, camping, and over the years they built a 12 inch telescope and analog computers.
Sinon, a Greek spy inside Troy, persuaded the Trojans to bring the horse within the city walls, saying that to do so would mysteriously make Troy invincible. After all, Jesus' disciples were very bright, even though most of them were not formally educated. And they were all amazed and marvelled, saying one to another, Behold, are not all these which speak Galilaeans? At least 15 different language groups were represented in the crowd that day (Acts 2:9-11)! Furthermore, the sign was not ears of fire on the listeners, but tongues of fire on the ones preaching.
But when the Holy Ghost fell upon Cornelius and his household, the Jews with Peter could understand the Gentiles speaking in languages other than their native tongues. Luke does not say that they received a form of tongues different from the first two examples, so we must assume that it was the same type of gift given at Pentecost. This is why Paul commanded that if they spoke in a tongue unknown to the majority, they should remain silent unless there was someone there to interpret or translate (1 Corinthians 14:28). Clearly, the entire purpose of tongues is to cross language barriers and communicate the gospel! Today the charismatic churches are by far the most popular among the Native Americans because it is such an easy and natural transition from their old religions. A true Christian should be willing to surrender every cherished view and practice on the altar of God's will and forsake any practice that may be questionable-no matter how popular, accepted, or beloved among other Christians. He was encouraged to begin his own businesses very young - including newspaper routes and a lawn mower business. These were given internationally by many Experience and Seminar Leaders, trained and managed by Rannette and Dafydd. In order to fulfill the great commission, He promised to give them a unique gift from the Holy Spirit.
In other words, it's not polite to speak in a language that your audience cannot understand. I will pray with the spirit, and I will pray with the understanding also: I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also. Delphi was also sacred to Dionysus, the god associated with wine, fertility, and sensual dance, and to the nine Muses, patron goddesses of music. There are some things that are highly esteemed among men but are an abomination in the sight of God (Luke 16:15). Remember that the confusion of tongues at Babel was not a blessing of the Spirit, but rather a curse for their rebellion. After killing the Trojan guards, they opened the gates to the waiting Greek soldiers, and Troy was captured and burned.
It was a miraculous, supernatural ability to speak foreign languages they had not formerly studied or known for the purpose of spreading the Gospel. Then, after Pentecost, they in turn carried their new faith home to their respective countries. Listen to these plain statements from the apostle: "Now, brethren, if I come unto you speaking with tongues, what shall I profit you, except I shall speak to you either by revelation, or by knowledge, or by prophesying, or by doctrine? Else when thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, seeing he understandeth not what thou sayest" (1 Corinthians 14:15,16)?
And even things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped? It doubtless would have been includedA in the tomb as a part of the group of documents mentioned. These were not preserved "instead ofA the more usual Book of the Dead" but probably interred in addition to it. So likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue words easy to be understood, how shall it be known what is spoken?
A A THEREFORE, MAN IS MADE IN THE IMAGE OF GOD FOR THE SOLE PURPOSE OF CONTAINING THE CONTENT OF GOD; THUS, WITHOUT RECEIVING GOD IN OUR SPIRIT, WE CANNOT EXPRESS GOD AS CONFIRMED IN 2 COR.
Personal and Business Coaching -- Proven Reality Creation Techniques and Methods, Metaphysical, Spiritual, Other Lives, Spiritual Ancestry, Relationship, Family Relationships, Team Building, the New Energies, Opening and Expanding Creativity, Resonance and Presence Magic, Future Self and Visioning, Longevity and healing arts. The notion that a civilization developed and maintained a complex writtenA language based on a system of pictures holds a fascination that is undiminished today. AlthoughA there were numerous examples of carved hieroglyphic inscriptions in the collection, for manyA years the DIA lacked an important example of ancient writing on papyrus. Yet in the church I had rather speak five words with my understanding, that by my voice I might teach others also, than ten thousand words in an unknown tongue.
A few fragmentaryA pieces of text of late date, in terms of the history of Egypt, were all the museum had to show forA this important medium for the transmission of art, commerce, and religion. If any man speak in an unknown tongue, let it be by two, or at the most by three, and that by course; and let one interpret. It has amply been demonstrated in the literature on the history of EgyptianA art that linear abstraction and the necessary skill in draftsmanship were the underlying principlesA and the basis for all of the visual arts in Egyptian civilization.In 1972 Richard A.
UNLIKE IN THE NATURAL BIOGRAPHY, THERE IS NO CONDEMNATION OR FEAR OF SIN AND DEATHBECAUSE, IN CHRIST, THERE IS LIFE,LIBERTY, AND JUSTICE FOR ALL.
The pieces were treated and mounted in the museum's conservation laboratory and placed on exhibition in fragmentary condition. The hope persisted that a better-preserved and typical ink drawing or painted section from a Book of the Dead might be found for the collection, but it wasA not until 1988 that this was realized in a manner as welcome as it was totally unexpected. The object that was offered to the museum, the Book of the Dead of Nes-min, was a virtually complete example of a papyrus replete with carefully executed drawings of high artistic quality.To many people today, the Book of the Dead is considered the classic example of anA ancient Egyptian religious document.
It is a text that is easily accessible to the general publicA because it has been translated and published in a number of versions, the most popular probablyA being that of Sir E. A far better modern comparison would be with the older formA of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, which was also a compilation of texts and prayers andA contained spells to ward off evil influences.
Surprisingly, nothing ofA the kind is preserved in the most famous of all the pyramids from earlier in Dynasty 4 (26tha€“25thA centuries). During a period of decline after Dynasty 4, the kings of Egypt sought to insure theirA immortality through the addition of engraved prayers and spells to their tomb-pyramids.
The daily recitations to be made on behalf of the king's spirit in the temple associated withA his pyramid are also included.Later, during the Middle Kingdom, particularly Dynasties 9 to 11 (22nda€“21st centuries), many of the prayers and spells originally reserved for royalty were somewhat "democratized" and were allowed for the use of members of the nobility. Rather than being carved on the walls of tombs, these texts were written or painted on the inside walls of box-shaped coffins for the deceased, giving these the appearance of small tomb chambers (fig.
MOST IMPORTANTLY, IT IS A LOVE STORY THAT REVEALS THE HEART OF GOD THROUGH THE PERSON OF HIS SON, JESUS. MOST IMPORTANTLY, IT IS A LOVE STORY THAT REVEALS THE HEART OF GODA THROUGH THE PERSON OF HIS SON, JESUS.
65.394The original Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom were supplemented with other material, often including spells to ward off hunger and thirst as well as specific evils or dangers that the spirit might encounter. These painted compilations of text and spells, for obvious reasons, have been named Coffin Texts. In their number and variety, the texts also add a great deal to our knowledge of the development of Egyptian religious thought, particularly concerning the rising importance of the god Osiris as the protector of the dead.Beginning during the New Kingdom, as a part of the development of religious beliefs, the new and expanded corpus of texts became available to a larger segment of the population, dependent, however, on what an individual was able to afford. This last major phase in the development of funerary texts is the collection of prayers and spells popularly called the Book of the Dead (the proper title was something along the lines of the book of "going forth [from the tomb] by day"). THEREFORE, A PERSON MUST HAVE FIRST PLACED THEIR FAITH IN CHRIST FOR SALVATION BEFORE TAKING COMMUNION (MATT. THEREFORE, A PERSON MUST HAVE FIRST PLACED THEIR FAITH IN CHRIST FOR SALVATION BEFOREA TAKINGA COMMUNION (MATT.
It was traditionally written on papyrus, although selected passages are found on tomb walls and on some specific funerary objects, as will be discussed below. It was often augmented by a series of illustrations or vignettes mainly related to the various "chapters" (more properly, "spells"). There exist a number of forms or compilations, varying considerably in completeness, that make up the Book of the Dead.
Some examples were produced in the expectation of purchase, with the name and titles of the deceased to be added in designated blank spaces. In various forms, the Book of the Dead was in use in ancient Egypt for almost 1,500 years.It is a common misconception that the numbering system used in modern publications to designate the spells is ancient. On the contrary, it was devised by Richard Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, in the early nineteenth century.
The names assigned to the various spells are generally derived from the titles or labels used to designate them in the text. These were typically written in red pigment to set them off from the rest of the text, which was written in black ink, an example of the most ancient application of a visual differentiation that has come to be called "rubrics" (deriving from the Latin word for the color red) to designate headings in a religious text.The religious matter dealt with in the Book of the Dead is the result of a long evolutionary process and is extremely varied.
It includes hymns in praise of Re, the sun god, as well as other hymns or prayers addressed to Osiris, the ruler and judge of the spirits of the deceased.
There are several sections that deal with the concept of the spirit acquiring the freedom and ability to leave the tomb "by day" or in "triumph over enemies" and in various magical forms or manifestations. They also guard against dangers, as exemplified by serpents and crocodiles.We know the Book of the Dead mainly from examples written on papyrus, the most familiar material, but two of the spells were regularly inscribed on specific funerary objects. One of these is spell 30b, which is found engraved on a special class of amulet called a heart scarab.
This was traditionally made of green stone and intended to be wrapped on the mummy over the heart, which, unlike the other internal organs, was left in place in the body (fig. 73.81 The text of the heart scarab addresses the heart of the deceased and pleads that it not rise up and witness against the spirit and influence the weighing of the heart in the balance of judgment.
The other frequently found text is spell 6, which is written, impressed, or inscribed on shawabtis, the mummy-form funerary figures intended to magically supply the spirit with workmen (fig.
When it was acquired by the museum, it had been cut into twenty-four sections, generally separated at logical junctures that did not significantly harm the text or the drawings.
After acquisition by the museum, the papyrus was treated, some of the sections were reunited for the sake of visual clarity and continuity, and each of the parts was remounted and framed in a standard frame size.5Such rolls of papyrus have sometimes been found broken or otherwise spoiled by mishandling and unrolling without proper care. Only one vignette, a scene of four ibis-headed figures at four doors, appears to have been intentionally mutilated, as a complete figure has been removed.
Otherwise, the condition of the document is generally good, although the top edge has suffered somewhat and has a ragged appearance.
Nes-min had the title of Prophet (priest) of Neferhotep, a somewhat obscure Egyptian deity who was the object of a cult in the region of Hu (known to the Greeks as Diospolis Parva) in Middle Egypt during the late period. He was also a priest of Amun-re at the Temple of Karnak at Thebes, and he counted among his other distinctions the rank of phyle leader, responsible for a contingent (or shift) of priests.


Thus his social status would have been such that he could afford a Book of the Dead of good quality and considerable size. It is known from the "colophon" he added to the Bremner-Rhind papyrus (discussed below) in the British Museum, London, that he had more than twenty priestly and other official titles to his credit. These include priesthoods in the service of the gods Amun, Khonsu, Min, Osiris, Isis, Nephtys, Horus, and Hathor, in addition to that of Neferhotep. We know little about the man Nes-min beyond the names of his parents, the titles he held, and the choice of religious texts he took with him to his tomb, but there is one additional and important bit of evidence about him provided by one of those documents.It was not the usual Egyptian custom to include the year, month, or day in a religious text such as the Book of the Dead, in contrast to personal letters or state, legal, and commercial documents, where a recorded date might have been important. The determination of a period or date for the execution of an example of a religious text is usually based on the linguistic, calligraphic, or artistic style.
It is generally only when an individual is not only named but also can be identified with some certainty by titles and family relationships or some genealogical notation that a more exact date can be established for a particular document. Nes-mina€™s Book of the Dead, however, can be said to be as precisely dated as almost any funerary papyrus in existence.
This individual is well known in the Egyptological literature because other papyri belonging to him have been identified and well published in the past.6 In the Detroit papyrus, Nes-mina€™s father and mother are mentioned by name7 as are some of his somewhat unusual titles, so that we can identify him with great certainty as the owner of two other papyri in the British Museum (BM10208 and BM10209), which give him some of the same titles and the same genealogy. Furthermore, he was the author of the so-called colophon of the Bremner-Rhind papyrus (BM10188). These are the documents, consisting mainly of prayers, mentioned in the quotation at the beginning of this article. The identification of Nes-min with this last papyrus is particularly important because it is dated to year 12 in the reign of Alexander IV, the posthumous son of Alexander the Great, or 306a€“305 B.C.
The logical conclusion is simply that if Nes-min was a mature man alive in 306a€“305, his Book of the Dead was certainly made during the first half of the third century B.C.
According to Mosher, the contents of the Detroit papyrus of Nes-min are somewhat typical for a Book of the Dead made late in Egyptian history, at the very beginning of the Ptolemaic Period.
He has pointed out that this papyrus contains 148 of the 165 spells that had come to be standard in the Late Period codification of the corpus. He also observed that some of the texts are abbreviated, but that this is not to be considered a fault, because even some indication of a particular spell was deemed to be more effective than omitting it completely.The text of the document is written in hieratic script, a cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, although some of the larger vignettes have texts written in a more formal hieroglyphic hand. In the shape and simplification of individual signs, the cursive script shows the influence and limitations of the reed pen employed to produce it, but it was faster and easier to write and well adapted to a papyrus surface. The relationship of hieratic to the formal hieroglyphic style of writing is roughly comparable to that of modern cursive writing to block printing or printed type. He was a master draftsman with a command of Egyptian standard requirements and proportion and was immensely skilled in the handling of pen and ink, as is shown by the fine and consistent quality of line throughout the whole document. The figures have been slightly abbreviated in a stylized manner for which parallels can be found in other papyri of the same time.The Book of the Dead of Nes-min is a rich collection of vignettes meant to accompany the various spells of the text. They range in size and complexity from large, multifigured examples to the smallest drawings accompanying short spells. A number of them are exquisite little masterpieces in their own right and show the ability of the artist to capture the look and spirit of human and animal life within the strictures of the rules of Egyptian art. Among these, the drawings of birds should be particularly noted; the standard method of representing the various birds is adhered to but the individuality of types is recognized (see fig.
5).A The tiny drawings at the top edge of the papyrus, which act almost as a continuous frieze, contain many examples of meticulously detailed renderings. These include the ubiquitous images of the deceased, priests and officiants, the gods, and numerous offerings for the good of the spirit of Nes-min.Of all of the vignettes included in any version of the Book of the Dead, probably the most familiar and most often reproduced is the Weighing of the Heart scene representing the individual judgment of the deceased (fig. 6).A Typically, as in the Detroit papyrus, the deceased is led into the Hall of Judgment by the god Thoth, the patron deity of scribes and writing, who is represented as ibis-headed.
Nes-min is shown on the far right, accompanied by the goddess Ma'at, the female personification of truth and order, who is identified by the ostrich feather hieroglyph on her head.
It is significant that Nes-min not only holds the same feather (twice) in attestation to his adherence to the notion of truthfulness but also wears an amulet of the goddess on a cord around his neck.
Before him he is able to witness the weighing of his heart in the scale against the feather of Ma'at. Jackal- and falcon-headed deities assist in the process of weighing, while a baboon, an animal sacred to Thoth, perches at the top of the scale. Ammit, the devouring monster, waits atop a shrine-shaped pedestal to consume the heart if it is found wanting in the balance. He is accompanied by images of the "Four Sons of Horus," who emerge from a lotus blossom, symbolic of rebirth.
The whole action takes place under the attention of forty-onea€”or forty-two, the standard number, when Osiris is counteda€”assessors of the dead, each holding, again, the ostrich feather of Ma'at.
The list of transgressions is so detailed and so revealing that it has been compared to the morality espoused in the commandments of the Judeo-Christian tradition or the moral strictures of other religions.
In essence, it gives the modern reader a clear idea of what would have been considered a moral and correct way of life in ancient Egypt. The rubric preceding this lengthy passage tells us that it is to be uttered upon the spirit's arrival at the hall of justice, at the time of the weighing of the heart or the individual judgment.The drawing style in the Book of the Dead of Nes-min is well exemplified by the execution of this vignette of the Weighing of the Heart. The individual figures appear to be tall and graceful and exhibit an inner coherence of form that tended to gradually weaken during the following Ptolemaic Period, although the treatment of some anatomical parts here prefigures the later style, particularly in some apparently awkward combinations. The linear delineation of figures and parts of figures is done with great care, subtlety, and accuracy and in considerable minute detail.
One rather curious peculiarity of the drawing style is the use of an "overlap" in which lines cross or intersect in a manner that almost suggests inadequate prior planning and the consequent necessity for overdrawing.
This can be seen particularly in the arms of the figure of Nes-min as they cross his torso and in the detail of the column capitals of the architecture framing the scene of judgment. The overall design and arrangement were carefully thought out; the composition is well balanced, with adequate space allotted to each of the participants in the drama. This distinguishes it from other examples of the Book of the Dead where text and figures vie for space in a crowded format.In most Books of the Dead of the Late Period, there are only a select number of vignettes done on a large scale. These include the Weighing of the Heart scene discussed above and a few other formulaic images. A further example of such emphasis in the Detroit papyrus is the composite scene in which Nes-min is depicted carrying out a variety of agricultural activities in the two center registers (fig.
7).A On the right he cuts grain with a curved sickle and on the left drives cattle, which will tread on and thresh it.
In the next lower register an earlier part of the cycle is depicted in which Nes-min plows the field and sows the grain. The accompanying text reads (in paraphrase), "I plow and I reap in the field of offerings and I am content with the gods." This is a part of the illustration for spell 110, an elaborate homage to the gods that seeks to guarantee the continued good of the spirit of the deceased.
The stylized representation of farm activities was standard for this spell in the Book of the Dead and had no direct reference to the occupation of the deceased; nor were these images included to suggest that it would be his fate to labor as a common field hand in the next world. The agricultural cycle of plowing, sowing, reaping, and threshing was seemingly employed as a graphic image of the progression of the seasons, the cycle of beginning and completion, and the continuation of life in which the deceased aspired to participate for eternity.The variety as well as the quality of illustrations in this Book of the Dead is further exemplified by a vignette with two distinct parts (fig. The falcon-headed figure is Sokar-Osiris, a conflation of the qualities of Osiris and Sokar, a falcon-headed god of the necropolis.
The goddess next to him is the personification of the West (Imnt), the land of the blessed.
Sokar-Osiris is depicted with the typical mummy form and crown associated with images of Osiris. One of the interesting aspects of the grouping of these three figures is the result of a standard mode of representation found in all two-dimensional art of ancient Egypt. Although the goddess is shown as if she were standing behind the god, she is actually meant to be seen as standing on his right side and thus accompanying him in a position of equality.The left-hand section of this vignette contains three separate elements that generally appear together and accompany spell 148.
These are: the Seven Celestial Cows with the Bull of Heaven, the Four Rudders, and the Four Sons of Horus.
Through each of these somewhat disparate agencies, an appeal for the protection of the spirit is made or implied. All of these elements are enclosed in an architectural framework resembling a shrine.Although this Book of the Dead was generally executed with care and skill, the artist has inconsistently treated the two ends of this shrine-like structure. The right side may be unfinished, but it actually looks as if there was a change of design or a lapse of memory from one end of the enclosure to the other, so that the two ends do not match and possibly belong to different types of architectural structures. This was a relatively small mistake, hardly noticeable and hardly affecting the appearance of the composition, but it does underscore the notion that such texts were executed by fallible individuals.
Seemingly the product of a careful and meticulous craftsman, the Detroit papyrus is remarkably free of infelicities of design. As such, it can take its place with other important examples of the genre representing one of the last phases in a long tradition of religious literature that has been preserved from ancient Egypt.When the Detroit papyrus was acquired for the collection of the museum from the New York art market, it had virtually no provenance provided for it other than that it had been known by some Egyptologists to have been in Europe for a number of years. In an effort to determine its recent history, a series of inquiries was made among scholars who have made a particular study of Egyptian papyri of the Late and Ptolemaic Periods, and no satisfactory information was obtained beyond a vague memory on the part of some who recalled it as being in an old German or French collection.
The connection provided by the "colophon" of the Bremner-Rhind papyrus may provide a suggestion of its possible modern history, if not solid evidence as to its source.R. Faulkner takes issue with the designation "colophon" for the notation presumably written by Nes-min on the Bremner-Rhind papyrus, since it does not actually date the production of the manuscript or identify the person who wrote it, as a colophon, by definition, is intended to.
10 The date given is the year in which this additional note was made in a handwriting completely different from the original text. The long list of sacerdotal titles associated with Nes-min and the names of his father and mother in the "colophon" are of utmost importance for the identification of the precise owner of the Detroit papyrus. It is this genealogical evidence, as noted above, by which the Detroit Book of the Dead can be securely connected with the Bremner-Rhind papyrus.11The Bremner-Rhind papyrus is identified by the names of former owners, as is customary in museum nomenclature. Alexander Henry Rhind was a Scottish lawyer who traveled to Egypt for his health in 1855a€“56 and 1856a€“57.12 As did many other educated Europeans who went there for medical reasons, he undertook excavations in the Theban area (modern Luxor).
Through excavation or purchase he acquired a large collection of antiquities, which he eventually bequeathed to the National Museum of Antiquities, now the Royal Scottish Museum, in Edinburgh.13 Rhind was very much ahead of his time in that he recognized the importance of recording the context and the finding locations of the objects he excavated.
After Rhinda€™s death, Bremner sold the papyrus that jointly bears their names, with others, to the British Museum. 15 Why these objects did not go with the rest of Rhinda€™s collection to Edinburgh is not clear, but the fact that an important papyrus such as the Bremner-Rhind was not included in the bequest suggests that there may have been otherwise unrecognized material in the Rhind collection that was excluded as well. It is thus probable, but impossible to prove, that the Detroit papyrus was a part of the Rhind collection and may have been directed elsewhere, possibly to a private collector.
If this is true, it has remained unidentified as such, as the papyrus for the most part has gone unpublished for more than a hundred years. It should be noted, however, that Faulkner said, Nothing definite is known of the provenance of the [Bremner-Rhind] manuscript, but the presumed last owner, the priest Nesmin who wrote the "Colophon," appears to have been a Theban, judging by the priestly titles he bore.
Although there is no direct evidence bearing on the point, it seems probable that the papyrus came from his tomb, and it would be interesting to know in what circumstances a book which appears to have been written originally for a temple library came into the private possession of a member of the priesthood.16It would be as interesting to know where Rhind acquired the Bremner-Rhind papyrus and the other papyri related to Nes-min, since it is possible that the Detroit papyrus may have come from the same source. In 1964, in pursuit of material for her study of the two other papyri from the Rhind collection, F.
In contrast to these monuments, it is to the papyri of ancient Egypt, as to the clay tablets of Mesopotamia, that we must turn to witness the earliest stages of the recording of human thought and memory in a portable form.
Alessandro Roccati has used the material from the tomb of Nes-min as an example of care and concern for important texts to the point that they were included among the furnishings for the spirit of the deceased.
Limme, "Un 'Prince Ramesside' FantA?me," in Aegyptus Museis Rediviva: Miscellanea in Honorem Hermanni de Meulenaere (Brussels, 1993), 114 n. Budge, The Book of the Dead (The Papyrus of Ani), 1890, 1894, 1913 (with various additions and emendations).4For more up-to-date background material and translations of the Book of the Dead, see R. Haikal, Two Hieratic Funerary Papyri of Nesmin, Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca 14 (Brussels, 1970).W. Herman De Meulenare, Seminarie voor Egyptologie, Rijksuniversiteit-Gent; it was verified by Malcolm Mosher. I offer my thanks to all of these scholars, but particularly to Carol Andrews, who was the first to point out the connection to me.12W. Uphill, Who Was Who in Egyptology (London, 1972), 247a€“4813Two instances of gifts of large collection of antiquities from Rhind are listed in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, but there is no indication about material going elsewhere. Letter to author from the Department of History and Applied Art, National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, May 26, 1999 (DIA curatorial files).14Brian M. BENSON IN EGYPT EGYPT IN TIN PAN ALLEY IMAGES OF CLEOPATRA IN FILM LESSONS FROM HISTORY MARGARET BENSON PAPYRUS OF NES MIN THE RAPE OF LUXOR SONNINI PAPYRUS OF NES MIN THE PAPYRUS OF NES-MIN: AN EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEADDetroit Institute of Arts Acc. The pieces were treated and mounted in the museum's conservation laboratory and placed on exhibition in fragmentary condition.



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