A Document Type Definition or DTD will reference, in computer-readable language, the formal specification that applies to a HTML document i.e. Extensible Markup Language (XML): XML is a W3C recommended markup language designed to allow the software- and hardware-independent sharing of data.
Generally, information about how to display data within an XML document will not be found within the document itself but rather, within a separate, referenced style sheet. A document is well-formed if complies with the syntax rules of the particular specification. Although XML data is written and stored in plain text, it is recognisable by many different types of application which means that data can be shared by incompatible systems.
Within the HTML 4.01 specification there are 3 DTDs, strict, transitional and frameset, which support different elements.


This has lead to many new XML-based languages being developed to deal with specific types of data, for example, the TEI Encoding Language.
However, if this doesn’t happen in an HTML document most HTML browsers will be very forgiving and display the document anyway whereas an XML application will reject the document in these circumstances. In addition to developing guidelines for the representation of text in digital forms, the TEI has developed a specific encoding scheme in a formal markup language. For HTML or XML documents to be declared valid they should comply with the relevant DTD (or schema in the case of XML). Most of the elements allowed in transitional but not in strict relate to presentational elements. In its latest version this uses XML syntax with almost 500 elements in order to be able to adequately encode documents from any time period or in any language.


Again, for HTML, an invalid document will still be readable by a browser whereas an XML document will not be displayed by a browser if regarded as invalid. This is to encourage the separation of the presentation from the main document and into a separate style sheet in strict HTML 4.01 and is why many presentation elements have been deprecated. Whilst deprecated elements are still supported currently, they may become obsolete in later versions of HTML.



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