7.1 The role of grammar in ELT ? The value of grammar in foreign language teaching has been a focus of debate for decades, and no conclusion is in sight. It is generally believed that ? Grammar teaching is less important for children than for adults; ? Grammar teaching is less important in listening and reading than in writing. The guided discovery method ? The guided discovery method is similar to the inductive method in that the students are induced to discover rules by themselves but different in that the process of the discovery is carefully guided and assisted by the teacher and the rules are then elicited and taught explicitly. In the guided discovery method, students are presented with contextualized scenarios illustrating a specific structure. Teaching grammar using listening as input ? Ellis(2002b) suggests the following procedures for teaching grammar using listening as input. Synthesis approach ? Pennington(2002) (p.107) proposes a synthesis approach to grammar pedagogy. Mechanical practice Mechanical practice involves activities that are aimed at form accuracy. Substitute the underlined part with the proper forms of the given words: green lawn clean house pretty garden nice flowers Mrs Green has the largest house in town.
Meaningful practice ? In meaningful practice the focus is on the production, comprehension or exchange of meaning, though the students “keep an eye on” the way newly learned structures are used in the process. A teaching practice task for you ? Suppose you have just presented the simple past tense to a group of Junior 2 students. MA IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING NYME BTK 2011 FOKI LIVIA Teaching Grammar and Language Functions.
Definitions “Grammar is a set of rules that define how words are combined or changed to form acceptable units of meaning within language.” Ur, A Course in Language Teaching.
Communicative Competence Chomsky’s competence: The native speaker's perfect knowledge of the grammatical rules, lexis and the sound system knowing what is grammatically correct. Theories and approaches related to grammar teaching The Grammar Translation Method “grammar translation approaches the language first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules, followed by application of this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language.
Theories and approaches related to grammar teaching The Audiolingual Method Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills, grammar explanation is not given.
Theories and approaches related to grammar teaching The Communicative Approach Distinction is made between acquisition and learning.
Processes involved in grammar teaching and learning Noticing conscious intake of new language noticing is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge: conscious intake of new language noticing the form is facilitated when the input is meaningful to the learner Inductive and deductive approach inductive approach the rule is inferred through some form of guided discovery.
Processes involved in grammar teaching and learning Declarative and procedural knowledge Declarative knowledge (explicit) is available to consciousness and can be used as a set of instructions to guide behaviour through interpretative, problem-solving or analogy-forming procedures Procedural knowledge (implicit) is not conscious and only comes about by repeated use of declarative knowledge in productions Input and intake Input: language resources, textbooks, materials, and classroom discourse that are used to initiate the language learning process.
Principles of teaching grammar ? Grammar should be taught frequently and in little bits with a lot of recycling and revision ? Grammar should be taught systematically with enough flexibility to react to learners' needs.
HISTORIA DE LA EVOLUCION DE LA DIDACTICA DE LAS LENGUAS EXTRANJERAS: DE LOS METODOS DE GRAMATICA- TRADUCCION A LOS ENFOQUES ACTUALES. Applied Linguistics to Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Unit 4: Foreign Language Knowledge and Course Planning Evdokia Karavas School of Philosophy.
English Language Teaching Methodology ED 535 Unit Tow Current Teaching Approaches and Models.
Approaches, methods, procedures, and techniques ? Approach : this refers to “theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Communicative Competence Is a term which was appeared firstly in Hymes’ article, “on communicative competence” Is.
Applied Linguistics to Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Unit 8: Recent Developments in Language Teaching Pedagogy Evdokia Karavas School of Philosophy.


Audio-Lingual Approach Ally Voronova, Syntax and Morphology for Applied Linguists March 5 th, 2012. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.
Lets take the word should – a modal verb which can have different meanings depending on the context. Stage 1 class discussion about unemployment The teacher asks questions and maximizes student talking time (STT).
The model sentence You should wear a suit now has a context, and the function of giving friendly advice.
Tips to formulate concept questions First analyse the language and its meaning within the given context. Plan them in advance – until you have more experience and confidence, they will not be easy to think of on the spot. Task For each of the following language items think of a context, define the meaning, and devise concept questions and expected answers. The students must hear you say the model sentence several times naturally and then be given the chance to say it to themselves. 4.Have an obvious target – a model sentence which will be a logical conclusion to your context build. Review The meaning, form and pronunciation of new language needs to be covered, and communicative practice should be given, too. Yahoo , Facebook , Facebook , Twitter , Twitter , Google+ , Google+ , Myspace , Myspace , Linkedin , Linkedin , Odnoklassniki , Odnoklassniki , Vkontakte , Vkontakte , Google , Google , Yahoo , Yahoo , Rambler , Rambler , Yandex , Yandex , Gmail , Gmail , Yahoo! Designers Manufacturers , ??????? ????????? - ?????????? ???????????? , Gorgian Wikipedia - Free Encyclopedia , ????????? ?????? ????????? , Cambridje Dictionary Online , ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? , Oxford Advenced Learner's Online Dictionar? , ??????????? ?????? - moazrovne,net, ???
105) ? In the inductive method, the teacher induces the learners to realise grammar rules without any form of explicit explanation. Students are then guided to discover the underlying rule of the structure as well as its meaning in context followed by explicit teaching and learning of the targeted structure. You want to buy some fruit, you want to post a letter, and you also want to see a movie at night. Hymes ? communicative competence The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language in order to form grammatically correct sentences but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom. It hence views language learning as consisting of little more than memorizing rules and facts in order to understand and manipulate the morphology and syntax of the foreign language” (Richards and Rogers,1986:3). This approach is contrasted with traditional approaches to the teaching of grammar, in which the goal is to instill correct grammatical patterns and habits directly. Intake :that part of the input that has actually been processed and turned to knowledge of some kind. Practice comprises a series of activities which can be seen as progressing on a control cline. Introduction Natural Approach: Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell developed the "Natural Approach" in.
Edward Anthony’s (1965) Approach is the level at which assumptions and beliefs about language and language learning.
An abstract system of rules whereby a persons mastery of their native language can be explained (dictionary definition) rules of the language does not equal only tenses or verb forms grammar is language and how we use it.
Situational presentation refines the context and thus the meaning by building a situation around the model sentence.


What the teacher has done is: - illustrated meaning by means of a pictorial situation and - introduced a model sentence containing the target language (subject+should+base verb – this is the form).
Situational presentations are controlled and effective ways to introduce language at certain levels. Highlight the sentence from the text that focuses on the grammar point, including the concept questions, pronunciation, and form (MPF) and develop other examples. The teacher observes what is known and not known, making a list of problem areas for later clarification. For example, in teaching the “too … to…” structure, the teacher holds a picture of a heavy box labeled 200kg and asks the class to look at the picture. The next student takes the result of the sentence, reforms it into another condition and suggests a further result.
Problems occur in contexts where the availability of the communicative use of the language is limited, and exams require a high level of grammatical accuracy. At the controlled end the focus is on the form, at the free end the focus is on the meaning Controlled practice-drilling Free practice 3. In term ‘interlanguage’ was coined by the American linguist, Larry Slinker, in recognation of the fact that L2. The teacher elicits from the students how John should appear when he goes for the interview (appropriate clothes, shaved, hair combed etc.) Then the teacher shows a picture of how and highlights his dirty shoes, uncombed hair, unshaven face, and casual clothes. If possible, the teacher could also have a picture of someone wearing a suit to make the contrast with Johns clothes and to make it clearer to the students what the teacher is thinking.
This is a crucial part of the lesson as it is where you need to focus on the target language and check understanding. This test is really a discovery task rather than what could be perceived as an intimidating test.
With the next few examples, the teacher can pause to wait for the students to produce the target structure and write them again on the blackboard. The more exposure to or production of language the learners have, the more likely they are to learn. At this point the teacher is testing to see if any students are familiar with the language being presented. Teachers need to be clear in their own minds of the meaning of the target language, how it is formed, and how it is spoken.
After this, the teacher draws students’ attention to the structure and let students discover the rules of the key structure as well as its meaning. 3.Build the context slowly and clearly – guide the students and keep them involved throughout. Students can now create their own story using the grammar focus, or complete other related activities.
The teacher then highlights the structure with colored chalks on the blackboard followed by students’ practice of it with some prompts provided.



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