This page will eventually be an amalgamated list of most of the sites dated by NTRDL and published in the 'Vernacular Architecture' journal; it has not been sorted by original publication date, by research programme, or by project. St Mary's Church is believed to have its origins in the twelfth century, though the present church dates mostly to the fourteenth century. This is one of a number of lodgings built between 1352 and 1355 by Edward III erected for a community of canons and priest vicars serving his newly established college of St George at Windsor Castle, a function that it still serves today.
This building stands in the Lower Ward of Windsor Castle, midway between the Winchester tower and the Curfew tower on the north curtain wall.
On the basis of documentary evidence it is known that the Dean's Cloister, adjacent to St George's Chapel was originally built between 1350-3. This building was originally a two-bay structure, with three lightweight principal rafter with tiebeam and collar trusses, with central fireplace, probably always of two floors plus an attic. The earliest remaining part of the building is the two bays of a once much longer east wing, thought to have been built by Sir John Radcliffe (1300-62). The present church was dedicated in AD 1321 but underwent extensive reconstruction, including the aisles and tower, about 100 years later, and so is generally described as a fifteenth-century church.
This grade 1 listed building is constructed of stone rubble to first-floor level and of cob above, and stands in the south-west corner of the churchyard, its north gable end deeply terraced into the hill slope of the site. Wagon roofs are particular feature of south-west England, there being many other examples of the type in the region (cf Lansallos, above).
It was believed that the original nave and chancel were remodelled and given new roofs in the late-fifteenth century, and that the south aisle was also altered and extended at about this time; this latter work may have advanced to a second stage to form a south chancel aisle. The nave of this grade 1 listed church is thought to have its origins in the Norman period. Dacre Hall is all that remains substantially above ground of the late twelfth-century cloistral buildings of the Augustinian Priory at Lanercost.
The castle that stands at Bolsover today is largely the result of the complete rebuild between 1608 and 1640 of the originally Norman foundation by Sir Charles Cavendish and his heir, William, the first Duke of Newcastle.
The Barley Mow public house is a fine example of the late Derbyshire Jacobean style, built with three storeys, its gabled dormers with ball finials, mullioned windows, and doorway with a heavy, slightly arched, head. Since 1983 an extensive programme of sampling and analysis has been undertaken on the timbers of the high roofs of the Cathedral (the presbytery, the choir, and the western bays).
The home of the Bampfylde family, this courtyard house is thought to be of later sixteenth century origin.
Originally this building seems to have been 'u' shaped in plan, consisting of a central range of two storeys flanked at both ends, east and west, by projecting cross-wings. Hunwick Hall is on the site of a medieval manor complex dating back to at least the latter half of the twelfth century. This building has two gables on the west front, one larger than the other, and a two-window range, double hung sashes with single vertical glazing bars. St John's Hospital and Chantry, founded by Henry I in about 1133, is located on Spitalgate Lane, to the north of Cirencester's medieval abbey precinct. This building is believed to stand within the precincts or boundary of the Cistercian Abbey founded at Kingswood in Gloucestershire in 1131. The Guesthouse is built on an island given to the Dominican friars by King Henry III in the thirteenth century, separated by the River Stour from the remainder of the Monastery buildings. The building which now forms 8-9 The Parade and 25-26 St Margaret's Street lies at the junction of the Parade and St Margaret's Street, in the centre of Canterbury. At this church there is not a 'bellframe' as such, just these two substantial moulded oak beams between which the bells simply hang.
A jack-braced, pegged oak frame with four trusses attached to the end frames with lapped dovetail joints at the sills. There are two almost identical bell frames at this site, each for two bells, one above the other, both of jack-braced construction with three trusses. This is the only surviving post-mill in Leicestershire, and one of only 48 of the type in the entire country.
Brocklesby Hall is of three storeys with parapets; the main, east, facade of two-five-two bays. The church is thought to have origins in the twelfth century, with the nave and aisles of the thirteenth century, though re-roofed in c AD 1500; the nave is covered by a fine hammerbeam roof.
Built in the late thirteenth century, the castle has seen numerous repairs and modifications through the fourteenth century. Archaeology and historical records combine to show that the site of Prudhoe Castle has been in use since the mid-eleventh century. Numbers 17 and 19 are a pair of inter-related town houses on the west side of St Mary's Chare, formerly one of the principal streets of the town of Hexham. An inverted letter 'T' in plan, the Moot Hall is a rectangular three-storied block, with a taller tower attached to the south end of each face.
Hempshill Hall has a roughcast facade, with walls of stone and brick encasing a much altered and extended double pile house. This pigeon (or dove) cote is sixty feet high and nearly thirty-one feet in diameter and is thought to be the largest of three similar buildings in Nottinghamshire. This oak bellframe for three bells is of jack-braced design, Pickford type 6.A and sits directly on the belfry floor. This is a grade II listed small country house, square in plan it has two and a half storeys and a basement of five mullion and transom windows with moulded stone frames and sills. Springfield is a through passage plan house of three rooms, originally open to the roof from end to end, and divided by low partitions. When construction at Wells Cathedral began is not certain but work was certainly in progress by 1186 with the main body of the church largely complete by 1215.
Tean Hall is a timber framed building, with a substantial 18th century brick and stone baroque extension. This gabled, grade II* listed building consists of two storeys plus attics and is of three-room lobby entry plan. The Grade II listed parish church of St Peter was rebuilt in 1843 but incorporates an earlier three-stage, battlemented tower. The Dower House was the local residence of the Camden family until a new mansion was built to the north-west of the ruined Premonstratensian Abbey in 1870.
The main building, or farmhouse, of this E-shaped sixteenth century mansion has two storeys plus an attic and is of red brick with a hipped tiled roof and casement windows with mullions and transoms. The stable is a long rectangular building, with a stone ground floor and a timber-framed first floor on three sides, fourth side being formed by the medieval curtain wall of the castle.
Apethorpe Hall is a Grade I listed country house of exceptional importance, begun in the late fifteenth century, and then enlarged and extended between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The Nottingham Tree-ring Dating Laboratory has held a leading role not only in the initial theoretical development of dendrochronology in Great Britain but in its promotion and practical application as well.
Sharpcliffe Hall is a substantial Grade II* listed, stone-built double pile building constructed of local materials. Close-up view of the increment borer, showing the slender wood core that is extracted from the trunk.
Three wood cylinders (cores) extracted from the trunk of an old Sierra juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. How many years of growth are represented in this block of Douglas fir wood (Pseudotsuga menziesii)? In the tropical rain forest, relatively few species of trees, such as teak, have visible annual rings.
Ian Tyers from the Dendrochronological Consultancy Ltd in Nottinghamshire taking some samples from the roof timbers at Castle Dairy.
New evidence has shed fascinating new light on the origins of one of Kendal’s most historic buildings. The results of tree-ring dating of roof timbers at Castle Dairy on Wildman Street has revealed that the current form of the building is at least late medieval in date – and that the original structure may date back even earlier. This contradicts some earlier theories that significant sections of the building were added much later and the new evidence is being described as a ‘hugely significant’ by archaeologists. Recent re-roofing work at the Grade I listed Castle Dairy allowed experts to carry out the tree-ring dating – known as dendrochronological dating – of the roof timbers, which are otherwise very difficult to access. As the rings in a tree (typically oak) grow they form a pattern, similar to a barcode, which is created by the variations in the year’s climate. This can then be matched to other sequences that have already been dated, allowing the precise date at which the timber was felled to be calculated.
The roof timbers at Castle Dairy gave very good samples, all of which gave a felling date in the late 1480s, showing that the building must have taken approximately its current form by that date.
Dan Elsworth, Director at Ulverston-based Greenlane Archaeology Ltd, who managed the tree-ring dating project, said: “This is hugely significant in understanding the history of the structure. The tree-ring dating was carried out by Nottinghamshire-based specialist contractor Ian Tyers and the work was funded by grants from the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, the Kendal Historical and Archaeological Society and Kendal Civic Society. It was carried out with the permission of the building’s owners, South Lakeland District Council (SLDC) and current tenants, Kendal College, with assistance from roofing contractors Maysand and the NPS Group, who managed the re-roofing project. The re-roofing project and earlier renovation work had already produced some interesting finds that shed even more light on Castle Dairy’s past. Several elaborate marks were found carved onto the roof timbers made by the original carpenters who worked on the building, providing evidence for the order in which the building was constructed. Some of the trusses over what was originally the main hall were also blackened by soot, suggesting that the ground floor was originally open to the roof and the fire was positioned in the middle of the room, in typical early medieval fashion. Several pieces of roofing material were discovered, including fragments of 19th or early 20th century local green slate, matching the material used in the recent re-roofing, and some much earlier and very thick roofing slates, also in local green slate, were found which are similar to medieval examples found during excavations on Stricklandgate. Councillor Chris Hogg, SLDC’s portfolio holder for Culture, Arts and Events, said:  “Castle Dairy is a unique building in the town, full of character and a remarkable amount of surviving historic fabric. By turning a large silver wheel, visitors to the new Perot Museum in Dallas get to a€?crack opena€? the gigantic a€?Grape Jellya€? amethyst geode to reveal the vivid purple crystalline structure inside. Hand-engraved medals clad in precious metal and embedded with fragments of the infamous Chelyabinsk meteorite will be presented to the Olympic athletes who capture the gold in their respective events on the ninth day of the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi, Russia.Only 10 meteorite medals will be awarded on February 15, the day that marks the one-year anniversary of the rare and terrifying event that saw a 55-foot, 7,000-ton space rock flash across the Russian sky and crash down with the force of 500,000 tons of TNT.
Inside Editiona€™s 4.4 million viewers will get the inside scoop today on the super-elaborate, fake-photoshoot marriage proposal that Dr. Bruno Marsa€™ electrifying Halftime Show during Sundaya€™s Super Bowl drew 115 million viewers, the largest TV audience in the history of the game. Valentinea€™s Day is this Friday, so wea€™ve decided to kick off the week with a close-up look at one of the most famous a€” and romantic a€” diamonds of all time.
Winter Olympics figure skating darling Gracie Gold always wears a very special piece of jewelry to all of her big competitions. Cy Young Award winner Justin Verlander learned a hard lesson about leaving his supermodel girlfriend Kate Upton unattended at a professional basketball game. Welcome to Music Friday when we bring you great songs with jewelry, gemstones or precious metals in the title or lyrics. Now you can capture HD video of the emotional, life-changing moment when she says, a€?Yes,a€? with an innovative engagement ring box called the Ring Cam.By simply pushing a button on the ring box, the romantic suitor can record up to 20 minutes of video in 720p high-definition format. The 2014 Sochi Olympic gold medals are 10mm thick, 100mm wide and weigh in at a hefty 531 grams, or 1.17 pounds apiece. Looking like a slightly twisted modern-day Cleopatra, pop star Katy Perry flashes an outrageous bejeweled smile and seductive wink in the teaser for a€?Dark Horse,a€? her highly anticipated music video that releases tomorrow.The videoa€™s 30-second preview introduces a€?Katy Patra,a€? the magical queen of Memphis, Egypt, who seems to have an affection for wearing colorful gemstones of uneven shapes and sizes a€” on her teeth. Welcome to Music Friday when we bring you great songs with jewelry, gemstones or precious metals in the lyrics or title. Ita€™s not what you see on Christina Aguileraa€™s new engagement ring that makes it so special. Imagine a piece of high-tech jewelry that could instantly alert your a€?protective circlea€? of a potential emergency while transmitting a map of your exact location.
While walking a trail on their property in Northern California, a couple happened upon a rusty can that was partly sticking out of the ground. For more than a century, couples throughout Northern Utah have purchased their diamond engagement rings from S. We consistently beat the prices of 50-70% off sales, so-called wholesale prices, internet sites, and student discounts. Given that publication has taken place over almost 30 years, there are variations in the format and layout. Squeezed in around a courtyard between the twelfth century great hall of Henry II palace and the Dean's cloisters these lodgings were built in timber-frame with two stories, the upper floor jettied out over the lower to create an internal cloister walk at ground level. Built in a romantic medieval style, with angled turrets and battlements, this included a new keep, known as the Little Castle, and to its southwest a Terrace Range with commanding views of the valley below.
It has been extensively extended and remodelled in the late seventeenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries until the internal courtyard is now almost completely filled. Towards the end of the seventeenth century the space between the two projecting wings was infilled turning it into a triple-gabled house. Harperley is recorded as far back as 1183, and from the fourteenth century onwards was held by the Conyers family, of the Bishop of Durham. This frame is slightly unusual in that the sills of the trusses are mortised into the sills of the end frames.
Fluted on all sides they are thought to have been reused from a previous phase of building. Unfortunately tree-ring analysis was not very successful at this site, with only one timber dating. The high degree of matching between samples from both frames points towards these being contemporary, as is suggested by structural analysis also.

The braces are less substantial than on some frames which led to it been stylistically dated to the early to mid eighteenth century, an assumption supported by tree-ring analysis. This frame is unusual in that it has two parallel pits and a transverse pit across the end, rather than the usual three parallel pit form. Originally there were three bells here and the frame has been cut down at the eastern end where the third bell was removed. It is thought to have been constructed at the beginning of the seventeenth century and rebuilt c 1730, though it has a complicated architectural history, including a major fire in the late-nineteenth century and substantial alterations in the later-twentieth century.
The earliest being two bays of a Norman arcade to the north side, the pillars having scalloped capitals.
After falling into disrepair the castle eventually came into possession of Cuthbert Carnaby in 1543, after his older brother Sir Reynold died, who immediately began a programme of repairs and alterations to the castle. It is of rendered brick with a steep pitched pantile roof, dentilated eaves and two brick coped gables. It is built of ashlar and coursed squared stone with plinth, rusticated quoins, stone bands and dressings, coved eaves cornice and hipped Collyweston slate roof with two symmetrical moulded stone ridge stacks of four linked flues each. The parlour range similarly had two storeys plus attic and was also built in red brick with a steeply pitched tiled roof, gabled at both north and south ends. Having originally been established over 30 years ago as a joint research programme between the Departments of Mathematics and Archaeology at the University of Nottingham, it is now an independent consultancy. Firstly, as is commonly known, trees (particularly oak trees, the most frequently used building timber in England) grow by adding one, and only one, growth-ring to their circumference each, and every, year.
To its front Sharpcliffe presents three short north-south gabled ranges of two-storeys-with attics, attached to a longer two-storey with attics east – west range. Wolffia using a increment borer to age-date an old sierra juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. In addition, it suggests that it may have even earlier origins as it is likely that the roof of the 1480s replaced an earlier one. The superstitious Sports Illustrated cover girl and gold medal hopeful believes an evil eye necklace given to her by a ballet teacher years ago has helped propel her to stardom.a€?I always wear my evil eye necklace to ward off bad karma. Six million American couples expect to receive or deliver a marriage proposal on Valentinea€™s Day, according to a recent survey by American Express. Today, we feature New Zealand-born teen sensation Lorde performing a€?Team,a€? a tune thata€™s been on U.S. You will find superior value at our store; we offer a 30-day money-back guarantee to back it up. Although much obscured by later extensions and adaptations much of the medieval timber framing survives today and is likely the earliest surviving example of timber-framed colligate architecture in Britain. Adjoining and at right angles to its south eastern side Sir William built the Riding School, containing an arena, harness room and forge. The oldest surviving part of the building is the east wing and the three-gabled eastern part of the north wing, along with a polygonal stair turret. Alterations to the main house were also undertaken at this time, as evidenced by the changes in the fenestration and movement of passages and doors in the surviving eastern cross-wing, now the only original surviving 'phase one' part of the Grange left.
The samples for this analysis were provided as sliced samples by the owner of the building. Due to the carving and slightly rotted surface it has been impossible to get a more precise date. However the felling date of after 1701 does not contradict the stylistic dating of mid-eighteenth century to which the bells, thought contemporary, also date from. Additionally there are later replacements to the timbers of one of the trusses between 1759-79.
Tree-ring analysis supports the hypothesis that the frame dates from the recasting of the bell in 1731.
Within the frames timbers are four curved braces that clearly come from an earlier medieval frame, no other timbers show any sign of reuse at all.
One of the samples analysed had complete sap wood and the beginnings of spring growth cells for the following year, thirteen of the over fourteen samples dated are consistent with this date, giving us the felling date above.
A Transitional period (late twelfth century) doorway pierces the south arcade, whilst the west end tower, with clasping buttress, is probably fifteenth century, as does the nave roof it is thought.
It comprise nine principal rafter trusses which are supported by aisle plates and arcade plates, these principal trusses alternating between those which are braced and those which are not, the braces themselves springing from wall posts. The earliest part of the surviving building is the hall, the chamber block and the projecting garderobe wing. They were removed and dismantled in c.1980 and are at present awaiting repair and re-hanging.
The south front has a central plain sash, flanked by a single plain sash, with two plain sashes above. The early dated timbers from the ground floor, both moulded beams, one from the kitchen and one from the cloak room, are considered reused, and do not alter the previous assignment of the hall to the late seventeenth century, with which the analysis of the roof timbers concur. The south-east range (the stables), is a similar but smaller building to the parlour range. The House and village are set within the historic Rockingham Forest, an area frequently used by royalty for hunting.
Apart from general commercial undertakings, the Laboratory has also been involved in several major research projects on buildings, the environment and ecology, and, most recently, climate change. Each new annual growth-ring is added to the outside of the previous year's growth just below the bark. Billboard Hot 100.The super halftime performance also helped to rocket 12 of Marsa€™ songs onto the iTunes Top Songs list.
Of the 13 million American couples who were likely to become engaged by the end of 2014, nearly half reported that February 14th was the day they expected to tie the knot.The survey also revealed that the average price couples expected to pay for an engagement ring was $2,311. Since the Sochi medals are composed of 525 grams of 96% pure silver and 6 grams of 99.9% pure gold, the total precious metal value is about $610. Petra chief executive Johan Dippenaar called it a€?one of the most important blue diamonds ever recovereda€? and experts had underestimated that the stone would sell for upwards of $20 million.Now Cora has the task of analyzing the structure of the angular rough diamond to determine its optimal final shape. With the release of a€?Dear Diamond,a€? romantic balladeer can be added to his resume.a€?Dear Diamonda€? will be one of the tracks on Blaqstarra€™s new three-song Trinity EP, which is set to release in March.
The discovery of the ancient zircon crystal gives scientists good reason to believe that a once-molten Earth cooled quickly and solidified at least 4.4 billion years ago.
In general, the name of the site and its location is given, as is that part of the building sampled. No 8 comprises a range of four large and two small rooms, being two storeys above a basement, with an attic storey over. The nave and chancel roofs are richly carved on their principal trusses, purlins and wallplates.
Though the school was completed prior to the Civil War, much of the present roof is a single-phase post Civil War repair.
The presence of the stair turret suggests the possibility of an originally quadangular plan for this first building.
Seen today, it has two storeys and attic to the main building, made up of a small central range and two flanking wings (east and west), all brought under a large single all-embracing roof form. As such the lab did not chose where they came from, nor was it possible to get more than a vague location for the samples. Built on a high flint plinth, it comprises fourteen bays, which are aisled on both sides and at the ends.
It was thought that these represented reused timbers in an otherwise seventeenth century frame, however in light of the analysis here, where all the dated timbers come from the late fifteenth century, it this obvious that this assumption needs reassessing.
However, recent removal of modern plaster and ceilings from what is known at the 'strong room' on the ground floor to the north-east of the house revealed a spine beam and a series of common joists and a number of lintels in the walls. The south aisle roof is dated by an inscription to 1652, and the chancel was rebuilt in 1838 and further restoration works at the church in 1875. The braces springing from the posts of the nave walls are arched, while the braces springing from the posts of the outer walls of the aisle are kneed into the junction between the principal rafter and the wall post.
The roof of the latrine block is thought to be a later replacement of a more steeply pitched, typical earlier medieval common-rafter type (as evidenced by traces in the face of the east wall of the solar block). The one sample from the west wing that dated is considered reused, as this wing is shown by construction evidence to be later than the phase one part of the building.
Tree-ring analysis would suggest that the coach house is probably slightly later than the main house, but the individual dating of the two samples gives little definite data.
The roof trusses have vertical studs between collar and tie-beam and have double trenched purlins. Analysis would suggests a major campaign of construction by its founder, Sir John Jefferay, in the 1570's with the main range possibly pre-dating the parlour and south-east ranges by a few years. Although large, impressive, and comprising several different stylistic elements presenting a complicated juxtaposition of buildings, the outline history of Apethorpe Hall, which stands to the south of the village of the same name, is relatively well known. The Laboratory maintains academic links with a number of University units, is involved with public lecture programmes, and provides advice and training to other dendrochronologists. The width of this annual growth-ring is largely, though not exclusively, determined by the weather conditions during the growth period (roughly March - September). Within the roof or attic spaces, and also the first floor, is a substantial amount of timber framing. In one station, visitors get to see minerals under different light sources and be astonished by how some specimens take on vibrant hues under ultraviolet bulbs.The $185 million Perot Museum of Nature and Science, which opened in December of 2012, is named for Ross and Margot Perot. Then, without warning, Pinckney (wearing his blue scrubs) walks right onto the set.The stunned model seems happy to see her boyfriend, but looks confused as to why he is there.
Among them was a€?Treasurea€? at #13.See Mars and his group having an Earth, Wind and Fire moment while performing a€?Treasurea€? live on NBCa€™s hit singing competition show, The Voice. It was cut into a heart shape by Parisian jeweler Atanik Eknayan in 1910 and purchased by Pierre Cartier that same year.According to the Smithsonian, Cartier set the lively blue diamond in a lily-of-the-valley brooch and sold the piece to Mrs.
In her Grammy Award winning debut single, a€?Royals,a€? she opened with the line, a€?Ia€™ve never seen a diamond in the flesh.a€? In January, that song earned Lorde four Grammy nominations and netted statues for Song of the Year and Best Pop Solo Performance.
Recent repair work to the ground floor ceiling exposed the series of east-west joists overlain by thin oak boards. The Arena roof consists of twelve tie beam trusses, in which wall-posts spring from wooden corbels set in the walls. Although no specific early historic fabric records relate directly to this roof, it was believed to date from the early fourteenth century and was thought potentially to be all of one phase.
The south front has eleven bays, with the central three projecting slightly and is now known to have been built around 1725. During the nineteenth century two fires destroyed the western cross-wing and the hall range. To the east and the west are later additions of smaller two-storey ranges, the east and west cottages, independently roofed. However, assuming that the samples are part of the original structure it would seem likely that construction took place at or very soon after the felling date above. Most of these appear to belong to the 1730 phase, but some of the lintels are probably remnants of the original hall. The roof seen today has three principal rafters trusses with purlins and nailed collars, although empty mortices for collars are obvious. From the carpentry used in construction they had previously been assigned to the mid-fourteenth century (J. The timbers of one truss at the northern end of the roof, have a number of redundant mortices, while several of the purlins appear to have been 'turned' on their edges, and also have redundant peg holes and shadow marks suggesting a re-arrangement of at least part of the roof at some point. The complications and uncertainties of the site lie in the smaller details, the multiple alterations, reuse and replacement of timbers and other materials, and the masked phasing of certain elements within the building. The Nottingham Laboratory undertakes work not only for major conservation authorities such as English Heritage and The National Trust, but also for archaeological units, local authorities, architects, developers and builders, estate managers, local history and heritage groups as well as many private individuals.
In general, good conditions produce wider rings and poor conditions produce narrower rings. The roof comprises four principal rafter trusses, each having, or at one time having, a tiebeam and a collar. It was made possible through the generosity of the Perot family and many other Dallas-area benefactors. I promise!a€™ We've been dating for over a year and have known each other for much longer,a€? she wrote.
Pinckney apologizes to the crew for interrupting the shoot, and then turns to Grant to deliver his heartfelt proposala€¦"I just wanted to tell you something. The fee includes a video editing service that combines the live Ring Cam proposal footage with background music and still photos provided by the newly engaged couple. As with the gold medal, they are made of 525 grams of 96% pure silver, but they have no gilding. Nearly three million fans have already checked out the teaser on Perrya€™s YouTube channel.The full music video promises to be filled with gemstone imagery.
Very often, master cutters will sacrifice more than half of the stonea€™s carat weight in order to yield a perfect faceted diamond.Cora is well equipped to take on the task at hand. The 41-year-old has appeared on the big screen more than 20 times.We invite you to check out the official video for "Dear Diamond" at the end of this post.
The company claims that the CuffLinc chip can last a year without needing to be charged.Trendspotters believe that wearable technology has the potential be a huge growth category.
This month, Lorde also won the prestigious BRIT Award for Best International Female Solo Artist.a€?Teama€? is the third single from Lordea€™s critically acclaimed debut album, Pure Heroine.

The t-values of any site chronology created versus the references listed are given, as is some background information about the site.
A later extension to this aisle, at its east end, was sampled and analysed but failed to date. Curved braces run from the wall posts to the tie beams, above which queen posts rise to collars hung with decorative pendants. The west wing, which closed the court, is thought to date to around 1800, although the dendrochronology has not confirmed this. However, though the development of this site is not easily deduced as yet, it seems likely that the original house had three storeys on three ranges, at least two of which were independently roofed. The barn falls into Rigold's "Class 1" type, barns with passing shores and crown post roofs. The dendrochronological evidence broadly concurs with previous dating estimates, based on stylistic and documentary sources, of 1620-30. It has only been with dedicated observation, recording, and survey by specialist teams, including the use of tree-ring dating, that the intricacies of Apethorpe have been revealed.
Thus, over the lifetime of a tree, the annual growth-rings display a climatically influenced pattern.
Some of the trusses have been filled with vertical studs (many studs being lost in times past when chimneys and other attic insertions were made). The 180,000-square-foot museum houses 11 permanent exhibitions and one traveling exhibition.
The resulting montage is a one-of-kind video keepsake.The Ring Cam concept was the result of a Hope College senior engineering project. The precious metal value is only $332.Bronze medals at Sochi weigh in at 460 grams and contain mostly copper with a bit of zinc and tin. The teaser includes an image of a beautiful heart-shaped pink diamond on a wall of hieroglyphics that splits to reveal a long shot of Katy Patra on her throne.Besides her blingy smile, the Queen is bedecked in a golden headdress embedded with red, blue and purple cabochon-cut beads.
The company has cut and sold some of the biggest diamonds in the world.Its most famous to date is the 110-carat a€?Cora Sundrop Diamond,a€? a pear-shaped stone so impressive that it had been on display at the a€?Vaulta€? in Londona€™s Natural History Museum. The ring narrows at the base [to] reflect how their bond continues to grow closer and stronger over time.a€?Rutler was confident Aguilera would love the ringa€™s vintage look because it merged key elements from two rings that she already owned and loved.
By measuring the atoms of uranium and lead in a zircon, scientists can get a tight estimate of the zircona€™s age,a€? he wrote.Valley and his team used two techniques to confirm the zircona€™s age. KEY: C = complete sapwood retained on the sample, the last measured ring date is the felling date of the timber represented.
It would appear from mortice cuts in to the two surviving tie beam trusses that at one time the arena was floored at tie-beam level. The ashlar pieces are jointed to the rafters in a similar fashion as seen elsewhere within the roof, scarcely a half lap and single pegged. Due to a number of archaic features used in its construction, such as splayed scarfs with 'keys', extra stiffening in the spandrels of the arch-braces and 'reversed assembly' in the aisles, Rigold dated the barn to around 1300. All structural evidence points to the roof and the attic floor representing a single construction phase. Furthermore, and importantly, all trees growing in the same area at the same time will be influenced by the same growing conditions and the annual growth-rings of all of them will respond in a similar, though not identical, way.Secondly, because the weather over any number of consecutive years is unique, so too is the growth-ring pattern of the tree. At some time after their construction, the trusses were altered by having new, outer, rafters placed over the original inner ones, the space between them being filled with short struts or studs. The ring was valued at $68,000, but the engagement would not last long.During the March 2011 finale of The Bachelor, Brad Womack proposed to Maynard with a cushion-cut diamond ring in a halo setting that was valued between $50,000 and $90,000.
From there, it migrated to the schoola€™s 10-week summer incubator program, where the project was refined.For the past 16 months, the six Hope College graduate have been preparing to bring the Ring Cam to market. The first measured how many radioactive uranium atoms in the crystal had decayed into lead. Chief among these changes was the reordering of floor levels and the necessitated changes in wall openings with doors and windows inserted, including arch-headed mullioned windows in the north and south walls.
In light of the dating analysis here, construction is likely to have been more than one hundred years later than previously thought. The pattern of a short period of growth, 20, 30 or even 40 consecutive years, might conceivably be repeated two or even three times in the last one thousand years. That romance, also, quickly fizzled.Maynard was briefly engaged in 2004 to NASCAR driver Ricky Hendrick. American socialite and founder of General Foods Marjorie Merriweather Post purchased the ring in 1960 and gifted it to the Smithsoniana€™s National Gem Collection in 1964.The Gemological Institute of America graded the Blue Heart as a natural fancy deep blue diamond with a clarity grade of VS2. Some observers believe Stuffa€™s public proposal could be the wake-up call Verlander needs to start his own search for Uptona€™s perfect engagement ring.
There is no precious metal in the medal and the value is less than $5.Of course, the real value of an Olympic gold medal extends far beyond that of the precious metal. Yellow diamonds occur with the presence of nitrogen.Vivid blue diamonds are highly coveted and yield top prices at auction. The image, captured from a hotel balcony, showed the couplea€™s entwined hands in the foreground and a Hawaiian beach scene in the background.Aguilera and Rutler, who revealed to People that they are expecting their first child, reportedly met on the set of a€?Burlesque,a€? the 2010 movie that starred Aguilera opposite Cher. Nearly all the coins were in pristine condition.The 1,427 gold coins, which are being called the a€?Saddle Ridge Hoard,a€? were all dated between 1847 and 1894 and coincide chronologically with Californiaa€™s Gold Rush of 1849.
The official video for a€?Teama€? has been viewed more than 23 million times.Please check out Lordea€™s live performance of a€?Teama€? during a November 2013 appearance on the Late Show With David Letterman. Note: this section is currently under construction and as such, is not yet fully comprehensive. These include a pair of crude braces fitted to one of the rafter couples and supported on an inserted tiebeam, and 'aisle purlins' on both sides of the roof. A short pattern might also be repeated at different time periods in different parts of the country because of differences in regional micro-climates. Stylistically, the stone work, the mullion windows and the form of the timber-framing suggest a mid-seventeenth century date for this building.
Rutler was a film assistant for the production.This will be Christina's second trip down the aisle and second child. This is absolutely only the beginning.a€?In fact, a recent survey conducted by the Jewelry Consumer Opinion Council revealed that 44% of respondents would be interested in jewelry with smart features, such as unlocking doors, storing passwords or keeping them safe. When did it cool off enough that life might have emerged?" Valley told CBS News.A "We have no evidence that life existed then.
During the eighteenth century the house as the family seat was abandoned in favour of a new Georgian manor and Haperley became a lower status farm entailing radical rationalisation of the building. It is less likely, however, that such problems would occur with the pattern of a longer period of growth, that is, anything in excess of 54 years or so. The largest missing shape is actually filled in partly with a transparent polycarbonate material, making this is the first medal to ever to feature this element.The medal's design represents the landscape of Sochi, with its snowy peaks and sandy beaches. It was previously thought that both the west and east cottages belonged to this building phase, although the felling dates of the roof timbers are substantially earlier. However, the dendro-dating indicates that it was constructed no more than a few years later. In essence, a short period of growth, anything less than 54 rings, is not reliable, and the longer the period of time under comparison the better. Tree-ring analysis shows that the primary phase timbers of Sharpcliffe Hall date to 1650 – 55.
Some accounts say that it was once known as the a€?Eugenie Bluea€? and owned by Empress Eugenie of France. The a€?patchwork quilta€? elements are a tribute to the various cultures and ethnicities of the Russian Federation.The front of the medals feature the Olympic rings, while the reverse side contains the name of the competition in English and the logo of the Sochi Games.
However, the presence of reused timbers of these dates elsewhere on the site should perhaps, urge caution until further investigation has been undertaken. The third principle of tree-ring dating is that, until the early- to mid-nineteenth century, builders of timber-framed houses usually obtained all the wood needed for a given structure by felling the necessary trees in a single operation from one patch of woodland, or from closely adjacent woods. The alterations, which must have been undertaken some time after this date, use timber felled ca 1627 – 31, which must, presumably, have been salvaged from somewhere else and reused here. The official name of the Games is engraved on the rim in Russian, English and French.The Olympic organizing committee reported that the production of a single medal takes an average of 18 hours. The cans were discovered at varying depths, so the couple believes they may have been buried at different times.David McCarthy, a coin expert with Kagina€™s, said hea€™s never seen coins in the condition of the Saddle Ridge Hoard. It appears from the dates that the extant roof structure dates to the second quarter of the fifteenth century, but that it incorporates at least two early twelfth century, presumably, reused timbers.
Furthermore, and contrary to popular belief, the timber was used "green" and without seasoning, and there was very little long-term storage as in timber-yards of today.
Choose a stone that is nicely proportioned with both lobes of the heart the same size.Photos by Chip Clark. National Championships, told Cosmopolitan magazine that the rules about accessories are rarely enforced and most competitors ignore them altogether. This fact has been well established from a number of studies where tree-ring dating has been undertaken in conjunction with documentary studies. This is fortunate for Gold, who wore her evil eye necklace, stud earrings and a blingy hair clip during the U.S. Olympic medal winners are automatically insured against the loss, theft or damage of their hard-earned treasures.
Thus, establishing the felling date for a group of timbers gives a very precise indication of the date of their use in a building. Nationals, which took place in Boston, only a few miles from her birthplace of Newton, Mass.The costume designer also revealed that there is a precise limit to the number of crystals that may be applied to a skater's costume. Tree-ring dating relies on obtaining the growth pattern of trees from sample timbers of unknown date by measuring the width of the annual growth-rings. Griffies told Cosmopolitan that while it may take two to four hours to construct a skating outfit, the crystals could take four to 40 hours to apply. The growth patterns of these samples of unknown date are then compared with a series of reference patterns or chronologies, the date of each ring of which is known. At the time, the couple assumed that the can might have been a place where people put flowers at a gravesite.The couple is grateful that their good fortune will allow them to stay in their home and assist their loved ones. When the growth-ring sequence of a sample cross-matches repeatedly at the same date span against a series of different relevant reference chronologies the sample can be said to be dated. The degree of cross-matching, that is the measure of similarity between sample and reference, is denoted by a "t-value"; the higher the value the greater the similarity.
The greater the similarity the greater is the probability that the patterns of samples and references have been produced by growing under the same conditions at the same time. However, rather than attempt to date each sample individually it is usual to first compare all the samples from a single building, or phase of a building, with one another, and attempt to cross-match each one with all the others from the same phase or building. When samples from the same phase do cross-match with each other they are combined at their matching positions to form what is known as a "site chronology". As with any set of data, this has the effect of reducing the anomalies of any one individual (brought about in the case of tree-rings by some non-climatic influence) and enhances the overall climatic signal. The greater the number of samples in a site chronology the greater is the climatic signal of the group and the weaker is the non-climatic input of any one individual. Furthermore, combining samples in this way to make a site chronology usually has the effect of increasing the time-span that is under comparison.
As also mentioned above, the longer the period of growth under consideration, the greater the certainty of the cross-match. Any site chronology with less than about 55 rings is generally too short for reliable dating. Having obtained a date for the site chronology as a whole, the date spans of the constituent individual samples can then be found, and from this the felling date of the trees represented may be calculated. Where a sample retains complete sapwood, that is, it has the last or outermost ring produced by the tree before it was cut, the last measured ring date is the felling date of the tree.
Depending on the date of the last sapwood ring on the other dated samples, and the amount of sapwood they have, the felling date of the other timbers represent can then be deduced.
Where the sapwood is not complete it is necessary to estimate the likely felling date of the tree. Such an estimate can be made with a high degree of reliability because oak trees generally have between 15 to 40 sapwood rings. For example, if a sample with, say, 12 sapwood rings has a last sapwood ring date of 1400, it is 95% certain that the tree represented was felled sometime between 1403 (1400+3 sapwood rings (12+3=15)) and 1428 (1400+28 sapwood rings (12+28=40)). The most common problem is with timbers having insufficient rings, and this can be found even in quite large beams (conversely, large numbers of rings can be found in surprisingly small timbers).
Currently, while elm, chestnut and pine are sometimes found in buildings, it is only oak that can be reliably dated.
Even when the right timber with the right number of rings is found some care has to be taken to establish whether the beam is original and integral to the structure or is an older piece reused or a repair or replacement beam. Finally, even buildings that provide seemingly satisfactory samples do sometimes not date, and no-one is quite sure why. It thus takes some skill on the part of the dendrochronologist to select the right timbers and to core in such a way as to obtain the best samples for dating.

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