B = the lower limit of anthropogenic modification to the bisona€™s caudal groove, which doubles as the right hip of a womana€™s pelvis. H = the 1st and 2nd shifts in contour that cause the area above to be read as a bas-relief of a bison. The main art panel, which was largely discovered by one of GERSARa€™s founders, Christian Wagneur, in 1981, consists of two walls, divided from the ceiling by deep creases, that meet in a corner. The only problem was that the bilaterally symmetrical composition had another type of engraving, which was in no way suggested by the cavea€™s topography a€“ a finely incised horse on the right a€?thigha€? - with nothing, as far as we knew from the Museuma€™s photograph, to echo it on the left.
Racing from one speculation to another, I also wondered why such a symmetrical composition had been left lop-sided a€“ with an engraved animal on one a€?thigha€? but nothing on the other. I mentioned my concern about the compositiona€™s lack of balance to Laurent, the author of a GERSAR monograph on another important cave 1, and suggested that we should be looking for the remnants of a second animal on the left.
I immediately retrieved my friends and showed them the remains of the horsea€™s head and neck.
Another photo, in white diode light, showing the relationship between the cavea€™s identified art panel and the deep, sinuous, nearly vertical incision on the right.
In fact, the second horse was almost certainly found by Wagneur shortly after he noticed the complete one. But that does not affect the storya€™s point, which sets the stage for the proposal of another image by showing how the recognition of compositional gaps or inconsistencies can lead to the rediscovery of an obscured element. Once the deeply incised groove and flaking were seen as the bisona€™s rear, truly completing it, it also became obvious how lifelike the bison would have appeared if it had been draped with a pelt or painted with pigments that were abraded away on this ridge of the cave floor. Even though Ia€™ve been to the site many times since and tried to find some other reading that can account for the deep incision, flaking, pecking and polishing, nothing seems quite as reasonable to me as this new interpretation, meaning that there could truly be a vulva with hips and a nearly life-size sculpture of a bison - composed of natural relief, a partially chipped contour, pecked and polished musculature, and a deeply chiseled and smoothed rear incision - sprawled in a cave in the Massif de Fontainebleau. In the first of two planned articles about aspects of this paper, Andrew Howley of National Geographic reported on the papera€™s revelation of one of the worlda€™s oldest known optical illusions: a sculpture from Canecaude, which has eyes on either side of a crescent. Please click on the following thumbnail photos, which Ia€™ve used as icons, to see the web pages or PDFs described in the captions.
The deep incision that forms the outline of the right hip and rear of the postulated bison. Traces of anthropogenic modification in and around the groove include the removal of large flakes around its summit (FN), creating the artificial platform where the top of the deep incision starts, as well as signs of incising (IN) and chipping (Ch) within the groove itself, giving it a stepped morphology with a double bevel and saw-toothed right edge.
PDF: An historic sign, possible Mesolithic menhir, DStretch, and problems in dating rock art to the Sauveterrian in the Massif de Fontainebleau. Peck - PAPYRUS OF NES MIN THE PAPYRUS OF NES-MIN: AN EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEADDetroit Institute of Arts Acc. The center of the proposed bisona€™s back is also marked by a series of light parallel incisions, but they are not as clearly anthropogenic as the two motifs marking the dorsal line (E) or the 4 incisions over the ribcage. During a visit to the cave with my friend, Laurent Valois, a member of GERSAR - the association dedicated to studying the regiona€™s rock art a€“ we examined all the elements that we knew of from a photograph on display at the Regional Museum of Prehistory in Nemours, France. These natural fissures originally tapered downwards into the corner, creating the impression of a vulva between thighs. But the panel also includes a deep incision on the right that has been dismissed until now as a mere framing device. Even though this animal was faint, eroded, and just 32.5 cm long from muzzle to tail, one could just make out its mouth, nostril, eye, mane, graceful back and belly lines, and four legs. Parts of it had exfoliated, destroying the original surface, while the rest was so stippled and pocked from weathering that it was hard to distinguish the rounded trace of a washed-out incision.
Although the incision and flaked zone above it have been previously dismissed as a framing device, as we look to the right, wea€™ll see that they are actually the caudal groove and sculpted contour of a largely a€?readymadea€? sculpture of a 190 cm long reclining bison, which appears to be life-size in the small chamber. In 1984, Georges Nelh recorded that one could a€?distinguish another, very effaced curvilinear line belonging to the head of a second equinea€? a€?to the left of the fissuresa€? (Nehl 1984 p.
The same approach that led me to re-find the horse head applies to a third, much bigger animal that I missed that very same day a€“ even though one of its elements - a long sinuous line to the right of the clearer horse - also bothered me from the start. If the same artist had also produced the vulva, which used the same method and technique, then the image a€“ quite possibly of an animal - that would be suggested by the adjacent contours would be captured with the same succinctness a€“ a concision typical of Upper Paleolithic art. The furrowa€™s stepped cross-section and saw-tooth right edge indicate that the groove was incised on two occasions, giving it a double bevel, and finally scraped along the right edge, knocking off a succession of chips. First, it was obvious that the sinuous line was the mirror image of the edge of the left wall, so that the two formed the naturalistic contours of a womana€™s two hips. Oddly enough, the much later prehistoric art in a cavity just two meters away is unusual in having representations of 2 quadrupeds on a similarly raised section of the floor. Jean Clottes for publication and presentation at the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO) Congress on Pleistocene art in the World, which was held in France from September 6-11, 2010. The one above the curve turns it into a mammotha€™s tusk while the eye below the crescent turns it into a bisona€™s horn.
The central zone of the above photograph shows these changes for the section under the a€?abdomena€?. Supernatural Pregnancies: Common features and new ideas concerning Upper Paleolithic feminine imagery. The dark rivulet formed by water dripping through the ceiling of this more elevated tunnel can be seen here flowing from the right into the hollow at center left, where the water sinks a€?mysteriouslya€? into a porous or fissured section of the floor, from which the water reappears on the opposite side of the partition on the left, through the vulvar incisions. Jean Clottes for publication and presentation at the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO) Congress on Pleistocene art in the World, which was held in France fromA  September 6-11, 2010.
The dark rivulet formed by water dripping through the ceiling of this more elevated tunnel can be seen here flowing from the right into the hollow at center left, where the water sinks a€?mysteriouslya€? into aA  porous or fissured section of the floor, from which the water reappears on the opposite side of the partition on the left, through the vulvar incisions. One of the first priorities of the work was a complete examination of all previous exploration and excavation in the precinct, particularly that of Margaret Benson carried out in 1895-7. There was even a vertical gully eroded down the center, creating the impression of a vaginal slit.
In one of its two figurative readings, it is a kind of frame, since its curve forms a right hip, which mirrors the line formed by the visual limit of the wall to the left of the vulva, which naturally becomes the left hip, with the vulva in the middle. Like the rest of the elongated animal, the legs were so naturalistic, despite their spindly stylization, that they had fine details like hocks and were even shown in perspective. The empty a€?thigha€? was so eroded, though, because of its greater proximity to the closest entrance and elements, that a lightly incised motif might have been largely erased. The line, which took the path of another existing crack, is just as deeply incised as the ones forming the vulva, making it an important compositional element in a figurative ensemble. The hammered and flaked zone at the top of the incision was done to remove stone that reached the ceiling, breaking the desired contour of a bisona€™s rump. The bestial odalisque was naturalistic down to a bearded chin, hump in the right place behind the head, perfect sway in the back, concave ventral line, and, of course, the deeply incised groove that now made sense either as the back of the rear leg or as the bisona€™s tail. The ventral line of the proposed bison is similar, since it is suggested by a concretionary line and change in relief rather than the a€?overkilla€? of an additional incision.
The contour of the proposed back that is highlighted in red does not require any highlighting on-site because the rock seen above the contour in a photo is actually 2 to 3 meters farther away, a fact picked up in the cave by our stereoscopic vision. This feature, which is reported here for the first time and reminds one of a€?miraculousa€? statues of our own period that seem to sweat or bleed, may link the vulva thematically to water despite the cavea€™s distance from the nearest stream or river. The vulva was a a€?readymadea€? with such a suggestive mineral concretion over the incised triangle that there had been no need to illustrate pubic hair. Another notable feature is the fact that water dripping from the ceiling in the tunnel beyond the engraved wall forms a rivulet that runs two meters down into a small hollow, where it disappears oddly instead of forming a pool. I couldna€™t help but wonder whether some Upper Paleolithic women had such elegant horses tattooed on the inside of their legs. On close inspection, the area one third of the way down the picture on the right shows signs of pecking and polishing to make the haunch curve in the manner of a living bisona€™s. The top of its rump had been enhanced by the removal of a visually disruptive extension to the ceiling (see the detail) that had broken the otherwise perfect line of its back.
There are many cases where it can be shown that the addition of an artificial line where a feature was already suggested by a natural contour was avoided by the makers of Paleolithic imagery, apparently because they felt that the artifice was superfluous and wanted their works to grow from and merge with the surrounding rock. Furthermore, when the dorsal line was traced onto a clear plastic sheet laid directly over the rock from the perspective a person in front of the vulva, it was noted by an observer in the upper chamber, beyond the a€?backa€?, that the person marking the backa€™s ridge had placed it unknowingly directly at the tip of an incised line and adjacent to an incised a€?Xa€? that are out-of-sight behind the a€?backa€?, suggesting that these abstract marks just outside the a€?bisona€? mark its contour or are otherwise related to it. A thirty year old semi-invalid of a distinguished English family, she had the rare good luck to ask for the concession to a site that seemed unimportant and a site that no one else wanted. The engraver only had to reinforce the cavea€™s features to mark the fact that he had seen a being a€?incarnatea€? in the cavea€™s natural forms - and did so by incising the central and righthand cracks to make them more regular. This natural drain is directly behind and connected to the vulva by a flaw in the rock, causing the vulvar slits to a€?sweata€? profusely. So the cavea€™s inventory description written by Laurent will have to be revised to cite the horsea€™s original discoverer.
This turns out to be true, but perhaps not in the way he thought, since Paleolithic art is rarely if ever framed by artificial borders. Finally, note the sudden color change from pale gray on the incisiona€™s left to brown on its right. Below the flaked rump, a concave zone showed signs of pecking and polishing to improve the swale between the bisona€™s back and haunch. Finally, a tight fan of lines is incised into the ceiling directly above the possible bisona€™s abdomen. Finally, note the sudden color change from pale gray on the incisiona€™s left to brown on its right.A  Although possibly natural, the color change may have influenced the positioning of the incision or be the last remnant of pigment applied to the bison. It was assumed that even an woman amateur with no experience could do little harm at the nearly destroyed Temple of Mut, in a remote location south of the Amun precinct at Karnak. Needless-to-say, this trait, which probably accounts for the pubic concretion as well, may have made the panel more suggestive and life-like.
More troubling still, the long sinuous groove had the organic flow usually associated with Paleolithic portrayals of humans and animals. Just as Ia€™d reasoned, the rest of the image was largely a€“ if not entirely - composed of natural relief that almost perfectly reflected the mounds and hollows of a sleeping or dead bisona€™s bones and musculature. It doubtless would have been includedA in the tomb as a part of the group of documents mentioned. She worked there for only three seasons from 1895 to 1897 and she published The Temple of Mut in Asher in 1899 2 with Janet Gourlay, who joined her in the second season. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. These were not preserved "instead ofA the more usual Book of the Dead" but probably interred in addition to it.
In the introduction to that publication of her work she emphasized that it was the first time any woman had been given permission by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities to excavate; she was well aware that it was something of an accomplishment. The notion that a civilization developed and maintained a complex writtenA language based on a system of pictures holds a fascination that is undiminished today.
AlthoughA there were numerous examples of carved hieroglyphic inscriptions in the collection, for manyA years the DIA lacked an important example of ancient writing on papyrus.
We were frankly warned that we should make no discoveries; indeed if any had been anticipated, it was unlikely that the clearance would have been entrusted to inexperienced direction. A few fragmentaryA pieces of text of late date, in terms of the history of Egypt, were all the museum had to show forA this important medium for the transmission of art, commerce, and religion. 3 A Margaret Benson was born June 16, 1865, one of the six children of Edward White Benson. It has amply been demonstrated in the literature on the history of EgyptianA art that linear abstraction and the necessary skill in draftsmanship were the underlying principlesA and the basis for all of the visual arts in Egyptian civilization.In 1972 Richard A.
He was first an assistant master at Rugby, then the first headmaster of the newly founded Wellington College.He rose in the service of the church as Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, Bishop of Truro and, finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. Benson was a learned man with a wide knowledge of history and a serious concern for the education of the young. The author is participating in the description of the assemblage from the Upper Paleolithic site near Cambrai, which has only been reported in a cursory fashion until now, most notably in Archeologia (March 1992). He was also something of a poet and one of his hymns is still included in the American Episcopal Hymnal.
Arthur Christopher, the eldest, was first a master at Eton and then at Magdalen College, Cambridge. A noted author and poet with an enormous literary output, he published over fifty books, most of an inspirational nature, but he was also the author of monographs on D. The pieces were treated and mounted in the museum's conservation laboratory and placed on exhibition in fragmentary condition.
He helped to edit the correspondence of Queen Victoria for publication, contributed poetry to The Yellow Book, and wrote the words to the anthem "Land of Hope and Glory". The hope persisted that a better-preserved and typical ink drawing or painted section from a Book of the Dead might be found for the collection, but it wasA not until 1988 that this was realized in a manner as welcome as it was totally unexpected. Most important to the study of the excavator of the Mut Temple, he was the author of The Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 4 a sympathetic biography which helps to shed some light on her short archaeological career. The object that was offered to the museum, the Book of the Dead of Nes-min, was a virtually complete example of a papyrus replete with carefully executed drawings of high artistic quality.To many people today, the Book of the Dead is considered the classic example of anA ancient Egyptian religious document. It is a text that is easily accessible to the general publicA because it has been translated and published in a number of versions, the most popular probablyA being that of Sir E. He also wrote several reminiscences of his family in which he included his sister and described his involvement in her excavations.
He helped to supervise part of the work and he prepared the plan of the temple which was used in her eventual publication. A far better modern comparison would be with the older formA of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, which was also a compilation of texts and prayers andA contained spells to ward off evil influences.
His younger brother, Robert Hugh Benson, took Holy Orders in the Church of England, later converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a priest in that rite. He also achieved some fame as a novelist and poet and rose to the position of Papal Chamberlain.
Surprisingly, nothing ofA the kind is preserved in the most famous of all the pyramids from earlier in Dynasty 4 (26tha€“25thA centuries). During a period of decline after Dynasty 4, the kings of Egypt sought to insure theirA immortality through the addition of engraved prayers and spells to their tomb-pyramids. Her publication of the excavation is cited in every reference to theTemple of Mut in the Egyptological literature, but she is known to history as a name in a footnote and little else.A Margaret Benson was born at Wellington College during her father's tenure as headmaster. Each career advancement for him meant a move for the family so her childhood was spent in a series of official residences until she went to Oxford in 1883.
The daily recitations to be made on behalf of the king's spirit in the temple associated withA his pyramid are also included.Later, during the Middle Kingdom, particularly Dynasties 9 to 11 (22nda€“21st centuries), many of the prayers and spells originally reserved for royalty were somewhat "democratized" and were allowed for the use of members of the nobility. She was eighteen when she was enrolled at Lady Margaret Hall, a women's college founded only four years before. Rather than being carved on the walls of tombs, these texts were written or painted on the inside walls of box-shaped coffins for the deceased, giving these the appearance of small tomb chambers (fig.
One of her tutors commented to his sister that he was sorry Margaret had not been able to read for "Greats" in the normal way. 5 When she took a first in the Women's Honours School of Philosophy, he said, "No one will realize how brilliantly she has done." 6 Since her work was not compared to that of her male contemporaries, it would have escaped noticed. In her studies she concentrated on political economy and moral sciences but she was also active in many aspects of the college.
65.394The original Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom were supplemented with other material, often including spells to ward off hunger and thirst as well as specific evils or dangers that the spirit might encounter. She participated in dramatics, debating and sports but her outstanding talent was for drawing and painting in watercolor.
These painted compilations of text and spells, for obvious reasons, have been named Coffin Texts. In their number and variety, the texts also add a great deal to our knowledge of the development of Egyptian religious thought, particularly concerning the rising importance of the god Osiris as the protector of the dead.Beginning during the New Kingdom, as a part of the development of religious beliefs, the new and expanded corpus of texts became available to a larger segment of the population, dependent, however, on what an individual was able to afford. Her skill was so superior he thought she should be appointed drawing mistress if she remained at Lady Margaret Hall for any length of time.
A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole!
This last major phase in the development of funerary texts is the collection of prayers and spells popularly called the Book of the Dead (the proper title was something along the lines of the book of "going forth [from the tomb] by day"). It was traditionally written on papyrus, although selected passages are found on tomb walls and on some specific funerary objects, as will be discussed below. She began a work titled "The Venture of Rational Faith" which occupied her thoughts for many years. It was often augmented by a series of illustrations or vignettes mainly related to the various "chapters" (more properly, "spells").
There exist a number of forms or compilations, varying considerably in completeness, that make up the Book of the Dead.
From the titles alone they suggest a young woman who was deeply concerned with problems of society and the spirit and this preoccupation with the spiritual was to be one of her concerns throughout the rest of her life. In some of her letters from Egypt it is clear that she was attempting to understand something of the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians, not a surprising interest for the daughter of a churchman like Edward White Benson. Some examples were produced in the expectation of purchase, with the name and titles of the deceased to be added in designated blank spaces.
A In 1885, at the age of twenty, Margaret was taken ill with scarlet fever while at Zermatt in Switzerland. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! In various forms, the Book of the Dead was in use in ancient Egypt for almost 1,500 years.It is a common misconception that the numbering system used in modern publications to designate the spells is ancient. On the contrary, it was devised by Richard Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, in the early nineteenth century. By the time she was twenty-five she had developed the symptoms of rheumatism and the beginnings of arthritis. The names assigned to the various spells are generally derived from the titles or labels used to designate them in the text. These were typically written in red pigment to set them off from the rest of the text, which was written in black ink, an example of the most ancient application of a visual differentiation that has come to be called "rubrics" (deriving from the Latin word for the color red) to designate headings in a religious text.The religious matter dealt with in the Book of the Dead is the result of a long evolutionary process and is extremely varied. She made her first voyage to Egypt in 1894 because the warm climate was considered to be beneficial for those who suffered from her ailments. It includes hymns in praise of Re, the sun god, as well as other hymns or prayers addressed to Osiris, the ruler and judge of the spirits of the deceased.
Wintering in Egypt was highly recommended at the time for a wide range of illnesses ranging from simple asthma to "mental strain." Lord Carnarvon, Howard Carter's sponsor in the search for the tomb of Tutankhamun, was one of the many who went to Egypt for reasons of health.
There are several sections that deal with the concept of the spirit acquiring the freedom and ability to leave the tomb "by day" or in "triumph over enemies" and in various magical forms or manifestations. They also guard against dangers, as exemplified by serpents and crocodiles.We know the Book of the Dead mainly from examples written on papyrus, the most familiar material, but two of the spells were regularly inscribed on specific funerary objects.
After Cairo and Giza she went on by stages as far as Aswan and the island temples of Philae. One of these is spell 30b, which is found engraved on a special class of amulet called a heart scarab. She commented on the "wonderful calm" of the Great Sphinx, the physical beauty of the Nubians, the color of the stone at Philae, the descent of the cataract by boat, which she said was "not at all dangerous". This was traditionally made of green stone and intended to be wrapped on the mummy over the heart, which, unlike the other internal organs, was left in place in the body (fig.
By the end of January she was established in Luxor with a program of visits to the monuments set out. I don't feel as if I should have really had an idea of Egypt at all if I hadn't stayed here -- the Bas-reliefs of kings in chariots are only now beginning to look individual instead of made on a pattern, and the immensity of the whole thing is beginning to dawn -- and the colours, oh my goodness! The ancient language and script she found fascinating but she was not as interested in reading classical Arabic.


73.81 The text of the heart scarab addresses the heart of the deceased and pleads that it not rise up and witness against the spirit and influence the weighing of the heart in the balance of judgment. Her interest was maintained by the variety of animal and bird life for at home in England she had been surrounded by domestic animals and had always been keen on keeping pets. We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves.
The other frequently found text is spell 6, which is written, impressed, or inscribed on shawabtis, the mummy-form funerary figures intended to magically supply the spirit with workmen (fig.
By the time her first stay ended in March, 1894, she had already resolved to return in the fall.
When Margaret returned to Egypt in November she had already conceived the idea of excavating a site and thus applied to the Egyptian authorities. Edouard Naville, the Swiss Egyptologist who was working at the Temple of Hatshepsut at Dier el Bahri for the Egypt Exploration Fund, wrote to Henri de Morgan, Director of the Department of Antiquities, on her behalf. From her letters of the time, it is clear that this was one of the most exciting moments of Margaret Benson's life because she was allowed to embark on what she considered a great adventure. A Margaret's physical condition at the beginning of the excavation was of great concern to the family. When it was acquired by the museum, it had been cut into twenty-four sections, generally separated at logical junctures that did not significantly harm the text or the drawings.
After acquisition by the museum, the papyrus was treated, some of the sections were reunited for the sake of visual clarity and continuity, and each of the parts was remounted and framed in a standard frame size.5Such rolls of papyrus have sometimes been found broken or otherwise spoiled by mishandling and unrolling without proper care.
I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now? Only one vignette, a scene of four ibis-headed figures at four doors, appears to have been intentionally mutilated, as a complete figure has been removed. Otherwise, the condition of the document is generally good, although the top edge has suffered somewhat and has a ragged appearance. A Margaret Benson had no particular training to qualify or prepare her for the job but what she lacked in experience she more than made up for with her "enthusiastic personality" and her intellectual curiosity. Nes-min had the title of Prophet (priest) of Neferhotep, a somewhat obscure Egyptian deity who was the object of a cult in the region of Hu (known to the Greeks as Diospolis Parva) in Middle Egypt during the late period. In the preface to The Temple of Mut in Asher she said that she had no intention of publishing the work because she had been warned that there was little to find.
He was also a priest of Amun-re at the Temple of Karnak at Thebes, and he counted among his other distinctions the rank of phyle leader, responsible for a contingent (or shift) of priests. Thus his social status would have been such that he could afford a Book of the Dead of good quality and considerable size. It is known from the "colophon" he added to the Bremner-Rhind papyrus (discussed below) in the British Museum, London, that he had more than twenty priestly and other official titles to his credit.
In the introduction to The Temple of Mut in Asher acknowledgments were made and gratitude was offered to a number of people who aided in the work in various ways. These include priesthoods in the service of the gods Amun, Khonsu, Min, Osiris, Isis, Nephtys, Horus, and Hathor, in addition to that of Neferhotep. The professional Egyptologists and archaeologists included Naville, Petrie, de Morgan, Brugsch, Borchardt, Daressy, Hogarth and especially Percy Newberry who translated the inscriptions on all of the statues found. We know little about the man Nes-min beyond the names of his parents, the titles he held, and the choice of religious texts he took with him to his tomb, but there is one additional and important bit of evidence about him provided by one of those documents.It was not the usual Egyptian custom to include the year, month, or day in a religious text such as the Book of the Dead, in contrast to personal letters or state, legal, and commercial documents, where a recorded date might have been important.
The determination of a period or date for the execution of an example of a religious text is usually based on the linguistic, calligraphic, or artistic style. Lea), 10 a Colonel Esdaile, 11 and Margaret's brother, Fred, helped in the supervision of the work in one or more seasons. It is generally only when an individual is not only named but also can be identified with some certainty by titles and family relationships or some genealogical notation that a more exact date can be established for a particular document. A It is usually assumed that Margaret Benson and Janet Gourlay worked only as amateurs, with little direction and totally inexperienced help. Nes-mina€™s Book of the Dead, however, can be said to be as precisely dated as almost any funerary papyrus in existence. It is clear from the publication that Naville helped to set up the excavation and helped to plan the work.
This individual is well known in the Egyptological literature because other papyri belonging to him have been identified and well published in the past.6 In the Detroit papyrus, Nes-mina€™s father and mother are mentioned by name7 as are some of his somewhat unusual titles, so that we can identify him with great certainty as the owner of two other papyri in the British Museum (BM10208 and BM10209), which give him some of the same titles and the same genealogy.
Hogarth 12 gave advice in the direction of the digging and Newberry was singled out for his advice, suggestions and correction as well as "unwearied kindness." Margaret's brother, Fred, helped his inexperienced sister by supervising some of the work as well as making a measured plan of the temple which is reproduced in the publication. Furthermore, he was the author of the so-called colophon of the Bremner-Rhind papyrus (BM10188).
These are the documents, consisting mainly of prayers, mentioned in the quotation at the beginning of this article.
A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience? The identification of Nes-min with this last papyrus is particularly important because it is dated to year 12 in the reign of Alexander IV, the posthumous son of Alexander the Great, or 306a€“305 B.C.
Benson) was qualified to help because he had intended to pursue archaeology as a career, studied Classical Languages and archaeology at Cambridge, and was awarded a scholarship at King's College on the basis of his work. He organized a small excavation at Chester to search for Roman legionary tomb stones built into the town wall and the results of his efforts were noticed favorably by Theodore Mommsen, the great nineteenth century classicist, and by Mr. The logical conclusion is simply that if Nes-min was a mature man alive in 306a€“305, his Book of the Dead was certainly made during the first half of the third century B.C. According to Mosher, the contents of the Detroit papyrus of Nes-min are somewhat typical for a Book of the Dead made late in Egyptian history, at the very beginning of the Ptolemaic Period.
He has pointed out that this papyrus contains 148 of the 165 spells that had come to be standard in the Late Period codification of the corpus. Benson went on to excavate at Megalopolis in Greece for the British School at Athens and published the result of his work in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. He also observed that some of the texts are abbreviated, but that this is not to be considered a fault, because even some indication of a particular spell was deemed to be more effective than omitting it completely.The text of the document is written in hieratic script, a cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, although some of the larger vignettes have texts written in a more formal hieroglyphic hand. His first love was Greece and its antiquities and it is probable that concern for his sister's health was a more important reason for him joining the excavation than an interest in the antiquities of Egypt.
In the shape and simplification of individual signs, the cursive script shows the influence and limitations of the reed pen employed to produce it, but it was faster and easier to write and well adapted to a papyrus surface. 13A It is interesting to speculate as to why a Victorian woman was drawn to the Temple of Mut. The relationship of hieratic to the formal hieroglyphic style of writing is roughly comparable to that of modern cursive writing to block printing or printed type. The precinct of the goddess who was the consort of Amun, titled "Lady of Heaven", and "Mistress of all the Gods", is a compelling site and was certainly in need of further exploration in Margaret's time. Its isolation and the arrangement with the Temple of Mut enclosed on three sides by its own sacred lake made it seem even more romantic. He was a master draftsman with a command of Egyptian standard requirements and proportion and was immensely skilled in the handling of pen and ink, as is shown by the fine and consistent quality of line throughout the whole document.
14 When she began the excavation three days was considered enough time to "do" the monuments of Luxor and Margaret said that few people could be expected to spend even a half hour at in the Precinct of Mut. The figures have been slightly abbreviated in a stylized manner for which parallels can be found in other papyri of the same time.The Book of the Dead of Nes-min is a rich collection of vignettes meant to accompany the various spells of the text. A On her first visit to Egypt in 1894 she had gone to see the temple because she had heard about the granite statues with cats' heads (the lion-headed images of Sakhmet). They range in size and complexity from large, multifigured examples to the smallest drawings accompanying short spells.
The donkey-boys knew how to find the temple but it was not considered a "usual excursion" and after her early visits to the site she said that "The temple itself was much destroyed, and the broken walls so far buried, that one could not trace the plan of more than the outer court and a few small chambers". Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando?
A number of them are exquisite little masterpieces in their own right and show the ability of the artist to capture the look and spirit of human and animal life within the strictures of the rules of Egyptian art. 15 The Precinct of the Goddess Mut is an extensive field of ruins about twenty-two acres in size, of which Margaret had chosen to excavate only the central structure. Among these, the drawings of birds should be particularly noted; the standard method of representing the various birds is adhered to but the individuality of types is recognized (see fig. Connected to the southernmost pylons of the larger Amun Temple of Karnak by an avenue of sphinxes, the Mut precinct contains three major temples and a number of smaller structures in various stages of dilapidation. 5).A The tiny drawings at the top edge of the papyrus, which act almost as a continuous frieze, contain many examples of meticulously detailed renderings. She noted some of these details in her initial description of the site, but in three short seasons she was only able to work inside the Mut Temple proper and she cleared little of its exterior. These include the ubiquitous images of the deceased, priests and officiants, the gods, and numerous offerings for the good of the spirit of Nes-min.Of all of the vignettes included in any version of the Book of the Dead, probably the most familiar and most often reproduced is the Weighing of the Heart scene representing the individual judgment of the deceased (fig.
6).A Typically, as in the Detroit papyrus, the deceased is led into the Hall of Judgment by the god Thoth, the patron deity of scribes and writing, who is represented as ibis-headed. Serious study of the temple complex was started at least as early as the expedition of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century when artists and engineers attached to the military corps measured the ruins and made drawings of some of the statues.
Nes-min is shown on the far right, accompanied by the goddess Ma'at, the female personification of truth and order, who is identified by the ostrich feather hieroglyph on her head. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the great age of the treasure hunters in Egypt, Giovanni Belzoni carried away many of the lion-headed statues and pieces of sculpture to European museums. It is significant that Nes-min not only holds the same feather (twice) in attestation to his adherence to the notion of truthfulness but also wears an amulet of the goddess on a cord around his neck. Champollion, the decipherer of hieroglyphs, and Karl Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, both visited the precinct, copied inscriptions and made maps of the remains.16 August Mariette had excavated there and believed that he had exhausted the site. Before him he is able to witness the weighing of his heart in the scale against the feather of Ma'at. Most of the travelers and scholars who had visited the precinct or carried out work there left some notes or sketches of what they saw and these were useful as references for the new excavation. Jackal- and falcon-headed deities assist in the process of weighing, while a baboon, an animal sacred to Thoth, perches at the top of the scale. Since some of the early sources on the site are quoted in her publication, Margaret was obviously aware of their existence.
Ammit, the devouring monster, waits atop a shrine-shaped pedestal to consume the heart if it is found wanting in the balance. 17A On her return to Egypt at the end of November, 1894, she stopped at Mena House hotel at Giza and for a short time at Helwan, south of Cairo.
Helwan was known for its sulphur springs and from about 1880 it had become a popular health resort, particularly suited for the treatment of the sorts of maladies from which Margaret suffered. He is accompanied by images of the "Four Sons of Horus," who emerge from a lotus blossom, symbolic of rebirth. The whole action takes place under the attention of forty-onea€”or forty-two, the standard number, when Osiris is counteda€”assessors of the dead, each holding, again, the ostrich feather of Ma'at.
People at every turn asked if she remembered them and her donkey-boy almost wept to see her. A "On January 1st, 1895, we began the excavation" -- with a crew composed of four men, sixteen boys (to carry away the earth), an overseer, a night guardian and a water carrier. The list of transgressions is so detailed and so revealing that it has been compared to the morality espoused in the commandments of the Judeo-Christian tradition or the moral strictures of other religions. The largest the work gang would be in the three seasons of excavation was sixteen or seventeen men and eighty boys, still a sizable number. In essence, it gives the modern reader a clear idea of what would have been considered a moral and correct way of life in ancient Egypt.
Before the work started Naville came to "interview our overseer and show us how to determine the course of the work".
A A good part of Margaret's time was occupied with learning how to supervise the workmen and the basket boys.
The rubric preceding this lengthy passage tells us that it is to be uttered upon the spirit's arrival at the hall of justice, at the time of the weighing of the heart or the individual judgment.The drawing style in the Book of the Dead of Nes-min is well exemplified by the execution of this vignette of the Weighing of the Heart.
Since her spoken Arabic was almost nonexistent, she had to use a donkey-boy as a translator. The individual figures appear to be tall and graceful and exhibit an inner coherence of form that tended to gradually weaken during the following Ptolemaic Period, although the treatment of some anatomical parts here prefigures the later style, particularly in some apparently awkward combinations. It would have been helpful if she had had the opportunity to work on an excavation conducted by a professional and profit from the experience but she was eager to learn and had generally good advice at her disposal so she proceeded in an orderly manner and began to clear the temple. The linear delineation of figures and parts of figures is done with great care, subtlety, and accuracy and in considerable minute detail.
On the second of January she wrote to her mother: "I don't think much will be found of little things, only walls, bases of pillars, and possibly Cat-statues.
One rather curious peculiarity of the drawing style is the use of an "overlap" in which lines cross or intersect in a manner that almost suggests inadequate prior planning and the consequent necessity for overdrawing. This can be seen particularly in the arms of the figure of Nes-min as they cross his torso and in the detail of the column capitals of the architecture framing the scene of judgment. I shall feel rather like --'Massa in the shade would lay While we poor niggers toiled all day' -- for I am to have a responsible overseer, and my chief duty apparently will be paying. The overall design and arrangement were carefully thought out; the composition is well balanced, with adequate space allotted to each of the participants in the drama. This distinguishes it from other examples of the Book of the Dead where text and figures vie for space in a crowded format.In most Books of the Dead of the Late Period, there are only a select number of vignettes done on a large scale. 18A She is described as riding out from the Luxor Hotel on donkey-back with bags of piaster pieces jingling for the Saturday payday.
These include the Weighing of the Heart scene discussed above and a few other formulaic images. She had been warned to pay each man and boy personally rather than through the overseer to reduce the chances of wages disappearing into the hands of intermediaries. A further example of such emphasis in the Detroit papyrus is the composite scene in which Nes-min is depicted carrying out a variety of agricultural activities in the two center registers (fig. The workmen believed that she was at least a princess and they wanted to know if her father lived in the same village as the Queen of England. 7).A On the right he cuts grain with a curved sickle and on the left drives cattle, which will tread on and thresh it. When they sang their impromptu work songs (as Egyptian workmen still do) they called Margaret the "Princess" and her brother Fred the "Khedive". A PART II: THE EXCAVATIONSA The clearance was begun in the northern, outer, court of the temple where Mariette had certainly worked. Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest. In the next lower register an earlier part of the cycle is depicted in which Nes-min plows the field and sows the grain. Earth was banked to the north side of the court, against the back of the ruined first pylon but on the south it had been dug out even below the level of the pavement.
The accompanying text reads (in paraphrase), "I plow and I reap in the field of offerings and I am content with the gods." This is a part of the illustration for spell 110, an elaborate homage to the gods that seeks to guarantee the continued good of the spirit of the deceased. Mariette's map is inaccurate in a number of respects suggesting that he was not able to expose enough of the main walls.
The stylized representation of farm activities was standard for this spell in the Book of the Dead and had no direct reference to the occupation of the deceased; nor were these images included to suggest that it would be his fate to labor as a common field hand in the next world.
At the first (northern) gate it was necessary for Margaret Benson to clear ten or twelve feet of earth to reach the paving stones at the bottom.
Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments. The agricultural cycle of plowing, sowing, reaping, and threshing was seemingly employed as a graphic image of the progression of the seasons, the cycle of beginning and completion, and the continuation of life in which the deceased aspired to participate for eternity.The variety as well as the quality of illustrations in this Book of the Dead is further exemplified by a vignette with two distinct parts (fig. In the process they found what were described as fallen roofing blocks, a lion-headed statue lying across and blocking the way, and also a small sandstone head of a hippopotamus.
In the clearance of the court the bases of four pairs of columns were found, not five as on Mariette's map.
The falcon-headed figure is Sokar-Osiris, a conflation of the qualities of Osiris and Sokar, a falcon-headed god of the necropolis.
After working around the west half of the first court and disengaging eight Sakhmet statues in the process, they came on their first important find.
The goddess next to him is the personification of the West (Imnt), the land of the blessed. Near the west wall of the court, was discovered a block statue of a man named Amenemhet, a royal scribe of the time of Amenhotep II. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. Sokar-Osiris is depicted with the typical mummy form and crown associated with images of Osiris.
The statue is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo 19 but Margaret was given a cast of it to take home to England.
When it was discovered she wrote to her father: A My Dearest Papa, We have had such a splendid find at the Temple of Mut that I must write to tell you about it. One of the interesting aspects of the grouping of these three figures is the result of a standard mode of representation found in all two-dimensional art of ancient Egypt. We were just going out there on Monday, when we met one of our boys who works there running to tell us that they had found a statue. Although the goddess is shown as if she were standing behind the god, she is actually meant to be seen as standing on his right side and thus accompanying him in a position of equality.The left-hand section of this vignette contains three separate elements that generally appear together and accompany spell 148.
When we got there they were washing it, and it proved to be a black granite figure about two feet high, knees up to its chin, hands crossed on them, one hand holding a lotus. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. These are: the Seven Celestial Cows with the Bull of Heaven, the Four Rudders, and the Four Sons of Horus. 20A The government had appointed an overseer who spent his time watching the excavation for just such finds. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. He reported it to a sub-inspector who immediately took the block statue away to a store house and locked it up. Through each of these somewhat disparate agencies, an appeal for the protection of the spirit is made or implied. All of these elements are enclosed in an architectural framework resembling a shrine.Although this Book of the Dead was generally executed with care and skill, the artist has inconsistently treated the two ends of this shrine-like structure. He said it was hard that Margaret should not have "la jouissance de la statue que vous avez trouve" and she was allowed to take it to the hotel where she could enjoy it until the end of the season when it would become the property of the museum.
Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. The statue had been found on the pavement level, apparently in situ, suggesting to the excavator that this was good evidence for an earlier dating for the temple than was generally believed at the time. The right side may be unfinished, but it actually looks as if there was a change of design or a lapse of memory from one end of the enclosure to the other, so that the two ends do not match and possibly belong to different types of architectural structures. The presence of a statue on the floor of a temple does not necessarily date the temple, but many contemporary Egyptologists might have come to the same conclusion. This was a relatively small mistake, hardly noticeable and hardly affecting the appearance of the composition, but it does underscore the notion that such texts were executed by fallible individuals.


One visitor to the site recalled that a party of American tourists were perplexed when Margaret was pointed out to them as the director of the dig. Seemingly the product of a careful and meticulous craftsman, the Detroit papyrus is remarkably free of infelicities of design. At that moment she and a friend were sitting on the ground quarreling about who could build the best sand castle. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. As such, it can take its place with other important examples of the genre representing one of the last phases in a long tradition of religious literature that has been preserved from ancient Egypt.When the Detroit papyrus was acquired for the collection of the museum from the New York art market, it had virtually no provenance provided for it other than that it had been known by some Egyptologists to have been in Europe for a number of years. This was probably not the picture of an "important" English Egyptologist that the Americans had expected.
In an effort to determine its recent history, a series of inquiries was made among scholars who have made a particular study of Egyptian papyri of the Late and Ptolemaic Periods, and no satisfactory information was obtained beyond a vague memory on the part of some who recalled it as being in an old German or French collection. A As work was continued in the first court other broken statues of Sakhmet were found as well as two seated sandstone baboons of the time of Ramesses III. The connection provided by the "colophon" of the Bremner-Rhind papyrus may provide a suggestion of its possible modern history, if not solid evidence as to its source.R. 21 The baboons went to the museum in Cairo, a fragment of a limestone stela was eventually consigned to a store house in Luxor and the upper part of a female figure was left in the precinct where it was recently rediscovered.
The small objects found in the season of 1895 included a few coins, a terra cotta of a reclining "princess", some beads, Roman pots and broken bits of bronze.
Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS! Faulkner takes issue with the designation "colophon" for the notation presumably written by Nes-min on the Bremner-Rhind papyrus, since it does not actually date the production of the manuscript or identify the person who wrote it, as a colophon, by definition, is intended to. Time was spent repositioning Sakhmet statues which appeared to be out of place based on what was perceived as a pattern for their arrangement.
10 The date given is the year in which this additional note was made in a handwriting completely different from the original text. Even if they were correct they could not be sure that they were reconstructing the original ancient placement of the statues in the temple or some modification of the original design.
In the spirit of neatness and attempting to leave the precinct in good order, they also repaired some of the statues with the aid of an Italian plasterer, hired especially for that purpose. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. The long list of sacerdotal titles associated with Nes-min and the names of his father and mother in the "colophon" are of utmost importance for the identification of the precise owner of the Detroit papyrus.
A Margaret was often bed ridden by her illnesses and she was subject to fits of depression as well but she and her brother Fred would while away the evenings playing impromptu parlor games.
If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained.
It is this genealogical evidence, as noted above, by which the Detroit Book of the Dead can be securely connected with the Bremner-Rhind papyrus.11The Bremner-Rhind papyrus is identified by the names of former owners, as is customary in museum nomenclature. For a fancy dress ball at the Luxor Hotel she appeared costumed as the goddess Mut, wearing a vulture headdress which Naville praised for its ingenuity.
Alexander Henry Rhind was a Scottish lawyer who traveled to Egypt for his health in 1855a€“56 and 1856a€“57.12 As did many other educated Europeans who went there for medical reasons, he undertook excavations in the Theban area (modern Luxor). The resources in the souk of Luxor for fancy dress were nonexistent but Margaret was resourceful enough to find material with which to fabricate a costume based, as she said, on "Old Egyptian pictures." A The results of the first season would have been gratifying for any excavator. Through excavation or purchase he acquired a large collection of antiquities, which he eventually bequeathed to the National Museum of Antiquities, now the Royal Scottish Museum, in Edinburgh.13 Rhind was very much ahead of his time in that he recognized the importance of recording the context and the finding locations of the objects he excavated. In a short five weeks the "English Lady" had begun to clear the temple and to note the errors on the older plans available to her. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound.
She had started a program of reconstruction with the idea of preserving some of the statues of Sakhmet littering the site.
After Rhinda€™s death, Bremner sold the papyrus that jointly bears their names, with others, to the British Museum. She had found one statue of great importance and the torso of another which did not seem so significant to her.
15 Why these objects did not go with the rest of Rhinda€™s collection to Edinburgh is not clear, but the fact that an important papyrus such as the Bremner-Rhind was not included in the bequest suggests that there may have been otherwise unrecognized material in the Rhind collection that was excluded as well.
Her original intention of digging in a picturesque place where she had been told there was nothing much to be found was beginning to produce unexpected results.A The Benson party arrived in Egypt for the second season early in January of 1896. It is thus probable, but impossible to prove, that the Detroit papyrus was a part of the Rhind collection and may have been directed elsewhere, possibly to a private collector.
After a trip down to, they reached Luxor Aswan around the twenty-sixth and the work began on the thirtieth. If this is true, it has remained unidentified as such, as the papyrus for the most part has gone unpublished for more than a hundred years.
That day Margaret was introduced to Janet Gourlay who had come to assist with the excavation.
It should be noted, however, that Faulkner said, Nothing definite is known of the provenance of the [Bremner-Rhind] manuscript, but the presumed last owner, the priest Nesmin who wrote the "Colophon," appears to have been a Theban, judging by the priestly titles he bore. The beginning of the long relationship between "Maggie" Benson and "Nettie" Gourlay was not signaled with any particular importance. Although there is no direct evidence bearing on the point, it seems probable that the papyrus came from his tomb, and it would be interesting to know in what circumstances a book which appears to have been written originally for a temple library came into the private possession of a member of the priesthood.16It would be as interesting to know where Rhind acquired the Bremner-Rhind papyrus and the other papyri related to Nes-min, since it is possible that the Detroit papyrus may have come from the same source.
In 1964, in pursuit of material for her study of the two other papyri from the Rhind collection, F. By May of the same year she was to write (also to her mother): "I like her more and more -- I haven't liked anyone so well in years". Miss Benson and Miss Gourlay seemed to work together very well and to share similar reactions and feelings. They were to remain close friends for much of Margaret's life, visiting and travelling together often. Their correspondence reflects a deep mutual sympathy and Janet was apparently much on Margaret's mind because she often mentioned her friend in writing to others. In contrast to these monuments, it is to the papyri of ancient Egypt, as to the clay tablets of Mesopotamia, that we must turn to witness the earliest stages of the recording of human thought and memory in a portable form. After her relationship with Margaret Benson she faded into obscurity and even her family has been difficult to trace, although a sister was located a few years ago. A For the second season in 1896 the work staff was a little larger, with eight to twelve men, twenty-four to thirty-six boys, a rais (overseer), guardians and the necessary water carrier.
With the first court considered cleared in the previous season, work was begun at the gate way between the first and second courts. An investigation was made of the ruined wall between these two courts and the conclusion was drawn that it was "a composite structure" suggesting that part of the wall was of a later date than the rest.
The wall east of the gate opening is of stone and clearly of at least two building periods while the west side has a mud brick core faced on the south with stone. Margaret thought the west half of the wall to be completely destroyed because it was of mud brick which had never been replaced by stone. She found the remains of "more than one row of hollow pots" which she thought had been used as "air bricks" in some later rebuilding.
Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. Alessandro Roccati has used the material from the tomb of Nes-min as an example of care and concern for important texts to the point that they were included among the furnishings for the spirit of the deceased. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments.
Originally built of mud brick, like many of the structures in the Precinct of Mut, the south face of both halves of the wall was sheathed with stone one course thick no later than the Ramesside Period.
Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. During the Ptolemaic Period the core of the east half of the mud brick wall was replaced with stone but the Ramesside sheathing was retained. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. Here the untrained excavator was beginning to understand some of the problems of clearing a temple structure in Egypt.
In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. Mariette's plan of the second chamber probably seemed accurate after a superficial examination so a complete clearing seemed unnecessary.
They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories.
Other fragments were found and the original height of the seated statue was estimated between fourteen and sixteen feet high. The following year de Morgan, the Director General of the Department of Antiquities, ordered the head sent to the museum in Cairo The finding of the large lion head is mentioned in a letter from Margaret to her mother dated February 9, 1896, 22.
The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity.
Limme, "Un 'Prince Ramesside' FantA?me," in Aegyptus Museis Rediviva: Miscellanea in Honorem Hermanni de Meulenaere (Brussels, 1993), 114 n. In the same letter she also mentions the discovery of a statue of Ramesses II on the day before the letter was written.
23.Her published letters often give exact or close dates of discoveries whereas her later publication in the Temple of Mut in Asher was an attempt at a narrative of the work in some order of progression through the temple and dates are often lacking.
About the same time that the giant lion head was found some effort was made to raise a large cornerstone block but a crowbar was bent and a rope was broken. The end result of the activity is not explained at that point and the location of the corner not given but it can probably be identified with the southeast cornerstone of the Mut Temple mentioned later in a description of the search for foundation deposits. A Somewhere near the central axis of the second court, but just inside the gateway, they came on the upper half of a royal statue with nemes headdress and the remains of a false beard. Budge, The Book of the Dead (The Papyrus of Ani), 1890, 1894, 1913 (with various additions and emendations).4For more up-to-date background material and translations of the Book of the Dead, see R. There had been inscriptions on the shoulder and back pillar but these had been methodically erased.
However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results. The lower half was found a little later and it was possible to reconstruct an over life-sized, nearly complete, seated statue of a king.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. The excavators published it as "possibly" Tutankhamun, an identification not accepted today, and it is still to be seen, sitting to the east of the gateway, facing into the second court.24 A large statue of Sakhmet was also found, not as large as the colossal head, but larger than the other figures still in the precinct and in most Egyptian collections. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. It was also reconstructed and left in place, on the west side of the doorway where it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the temple. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. In the clearance of the second court a feature described as a thin wall built out from the north wall was found in the northeast corner.
HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw? Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility.
It was later interpreted by the nineteenth century excavators as part of the arrangement for a raised cloister and it was not until recent excavation that it was identified as the lower part of the wall of a small chapel, built against the north wall of the court.
The process of determining any sequence of the levels in the second court was complicated by the fact that it had been worked over by earlier treasure hunters and archaeologists. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. In some cases statues were found below the original floor level, leading to the assumption that some pieces had fallen, broken the pavement, and sunk into the floor of their own weight. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have.
It is more probable that the stone floors had been dug out and undermined in the search for antiquities.
The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. A An attempt was made to put the area in order for future visitors as the excavation progressed.
Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
This included the reconstruction of some of the statues as found and the moving of others in a general attempt to neaten the appearance of the temple.
Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
Other finds made in the second court included inscribed blocks too large to move or reused in parts of walls still standing.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants.
The statue identified as Ramesses II, mentioned in Margaret's letter of February 9, was found on the southwest side of the court, near the center. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings.
It was a seated figure in pink granite, rather large in size, but when it was completely uncovered it was found to be broken through the middle with the lower half in an advanced state of disintegration.
Haikal, Two Hieratic Funerary Papyri of Nesmin, Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca 14 (Brussels, 1970).W. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. The upper part was in relatively good condition except for the left shoulder and arm and it was eventually awarded to the excavators.
If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. A Mention was also made of several small finds from the second court including a head of a god in black stone and part of the vulture headdress from a statue of a goddess or a queen.
Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. The recent ongoing excavations carried out by the Brooklyn Museum have revealed a female head with traces of a vulture headdress as well as a number of fragments of legs and feet which suggest that the head of the god found by Margaret Benson was from a pair statue representing Amun and Mut.
Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. Another important discovery she made on the south side of the court was a series of sandstone relief blocks representing the arrival at Thebes of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God's Wife of Amun.25A At some time during the season Margaret was made aware of the possibility that foundation deposits might still be in place. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. These dedicatory deposits were put down at the time of the founding of a structure or at a time of a major rebuilding, and they are often found under the cornerstones, the thresholds or under major walls, usually in the center. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. Herman De Meulenare, Seminarie voor Egyptologie, Rijksuniversiteit-Gent; it was verified by Malcolm Mosher. They contain a number of small objects including containers for food offerings, model tools and model bricks or plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler.
The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months.
I offer my thanks to all of these scholars, but particularly to Carol Andrews, who was the first to point out the connection to me.12W. The importance of finding such a deposit in the Temple of Mut was obvious to Margaret because it would prove to everyone's satisfaction who had built the temple, or at least who had made additions to it. A They first looked for foundation deposits in the middle of the gateway between the first and second courts. At the same time another part of the crew was clearing the innermost rooms in the south part of the temple. Uphill, Who Was Who in Egyptology (London, 1972), 247a€“4813Two instances of gifts of large collection of antiquities from Rhind are listed in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, but there is no indication about material going elsewhere.
Under the central of the three chambers they discovered a subterranean crypt with an entrance so small that it had to be excavated by "a small boy with a trowel".
Letter to author from the Department of History and Applied Art, National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, May 26, 1999 (DIA curatorial files).14Brian M. This chamber has been re-cleared in recent years and proved to be a small rectangular room with traces of an erased one-line text around the four walls. In antiquity the access seems to have been hidden by a paving stone which had to be lifted each time the room was entered.
A The search for foundation deposits continued in the southeast corner of the temple (probably the place where the crowbar was bent and the rope broken). Again no deposit was found but in digging around the cornerstone, below the original ground level, they began to find statues and fragments of statues. As the earth continued to yield more and more pieces of sculpture, Legrain arrived from the Amun Temple, where he was supervising the excavation, and announced his intention to take everything away to the storehouse.
BENSON IN EGYPT EGYPT IN TIN PAN ALLEY IMAGES OF CLEOPATRA IN FILM LESSONS FROM HISTORY MARGARET BENSON PAPYRUS OF NES MIN THE RAPE OF LUXOR SONNINI PAPYRUS OF NES MIN THE PAPYRUS OF NES-MIN: AN EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEADDetroit Institute of Arts Acc.
Aside from the pleasure of the find, it was important to have the objects at hand for study, comparison and the copying of inscriptions. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. The pieces were treated and mounted in the museum's conservation laboratory and placed on exhibition in fragmentary condition.
I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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