October 29, 2009--Carrying the remains of a roughly 30-foot (9-meter) giant squid in her jaws, a female sperm whale, with a calf at her side, swims near the surface off Japan's Bonin Islands (map)in the northwestern Pacific. Listen to your favorite National Geographic news daily, anytime, anywhere from your mobile phone.
These functions are divided between the primary and secondary, or accessory, reproductive organs. Humans, like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves to the next generation through their genes, the special carriers of human traits.
Understanding the male reproductive system, what it does, and the problems that can affect it can help you better understand your son's reproductive health. Unlike the female, whose sex organs are located entirely within the pelvis, the male has reproductive organs, or genitals, that are both inside and outside the pelvis.
In a guy who has reached sexual maturity, the two testicles, or testes, produce and store millions of tiny sperm cells.
Alongside the testicles are the epididymis and the vas deferens, which make up the duct system of the male reproductive organs. The epididymis and the testicles hang in a pouch-like structure outside the pelvis called the scrotum. The accessory glands, including the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, provide fluids that lubricate the duct system and nourish the sperm.
All boys are born with a foreskin, a fold of skin at the end of the penis covering the glans. The male sex organs work together to produce and release semen into the reproductive system of the female during sexual intercourse. When a baby boy is born, he has all the parts of his reproductive system in place, but it isn't until puberty that he is able to reproduce. This fertilized egg is now called a zygote and contains 46 chromosomes — half from the egg and half from the sperm. Conditions affecting the scrotal contents may involve the testicles, epididymis, or the scrotum itself. If your son has symptoms of a problem with his reproductive system or he has questions about growth and sexual development, talk with your doctor — many problems with the male reproductive system can be treated. Unlike the male, the human female has a reproductive system located entirely in the pelvis.
The fleshy area located just above the top of the vaginal opening is called the mons pubis. A female's internal reproductive organs are the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. 2.It's the pathway that a baby takes out of a woman's body during childbirth, called the birth canal. 3.It provides the route for the menstrual blood (the period) to leave the body from the uterus. A thin sheet of tissue with one or more holes in it called the hymen partially covers the opening of the vagina. The uterus is shaped like an upside-down pear, with a thick lining and muscular walls — in fact, the uterus contains some of the strongest muscles in the female body. The ovaries are also part of the endocrine system because they produce female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. When a baby girl is born, her ovaries contain hundreds of thousands of eggs, which remain inactive until puberty begins. Toward the end of puberty, girls begin to release eggs as part of a monthly period called the menstrual cycle. Unless the egg is fertilized by a sperm while in the fallopian tube, the egg dries up and leaves the body about 2 weeks later through the uterus — this is menstruation.
It's common for women and girls to experience some discomfort in the days leading to their periods. Many girls also experience abdominal cramps during the first few days of their periods caused by prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that make the smooth muscle in the uterus contract. It can take up to 2 years from menarche for a girl's body to develop a regular menstrual cycle. If a female and male have sex within several days of the female's ovulation, fertilization can occur.
About a week after the sperm fertilizes the egg, the fertilized egg (zygote) has become a multicelled blastocyst. Progesterone, another hormone released by the ovaries, keeps the endometrium thick with blood so that the blastocyst can attach to the uterus and absorb nutrients from it. As cells from the blastocyst take in nourishment, another stage of development, the embryonic stage, begins. After approximately 8 weeks, the embryo is about the size of an adult's thumb, but almost all of its parts — the brain and nerves, the heart and blood, the stomach and intestines, and the muscles and skin — have formed. During the fetal stage, which lasts from 9 weeks after fertilization to birth, development continues as cells multiply, move, and change.
When the contractions of labor begin, the walls of the uterus contract as they are stimulated by the pituitary hormone oxytocin. The last stage of the birth process involves the delivery of the placenta, which is now called the afterbirth. The website is not a replacement for professional medical opinion, examination, diagnosis or treatment.
In the hospital, the relatives gathered in the waiting room, where a family member lay gravely ill. Hi Ruth, I can see your quandry although you should totally be asking for what your worth, not only now but for the future.
In this photo released by Tsunemi Kubodera, a researcher with Japan's National Science Museum, a giant squid attacking a bait squid is pulled up by his research team off the Ogasawara Islands, south of Tokyo, on December 4, 2006. The giant squid remains largely a mystery to scientists despite being the biggest invertebrate on Earth.
The Portuguese man-of-war is infamous for its painful sting, but one photographer finds the beauty inside this animal's dangerous embrace.
About 80 percent of all life on Earth is found in the oceans, which cover 71 percent of the planet's surface. Eyeless spiders, translucent millipedes, 175-year-old crayfish, and other odd cave-dwellers face an uncertain future.
Other systems in the body, such as the endocrine and urinary systems, work continuously to maintain homeostasis for survival of the individual. Reproduction — the process by which organisms make more organisms like themselves — is one of the things that sets living things apart from nonliving things.
The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. The genes parents pass along to their offspring are what make kids similar to others in their family, but they're also what make each child unique. The testicles are oval-shaped and grow to be about 2 inches (5 centimeters) in length and 1 inch (3 centimeters) in diameter.
The vas deferens is a muscular tube that passes upward alongside the testicles and transports the sperm-containing fluid called semen.
This bag of skin helps to regulate the temperature of testicles, which need to be kept cooler than body temperature to produce sperm. The seminal vesicles are sac-like structures attached to the vas deferens to the side of the bladder.
The shaft is the main part of the penis and the glans is the tip (sometimes called the head). Some boys are circumcised, which means that a doctor or clergy member cuts away the foreskin. The male reproductive system also produces sex hormones, which help a boy develop into a sexually mature man during puberty. When puberty begins, usually between the ages of 10 and 14, the pituitary gland — which is located near the brain — secretes hormones that stimulate the testicles to produce testosterone. The seminal vesicles and prostate gland produce a whitish fluid called seminal fluid, which mixes with sperm to form semen when a male is sexually stimulated.


From the vagina the sperm make their way up through the cervix and move through the uterus with help from uterine contractions.
The genetic material from the male and female has combined so that a new individual can be created.
This is a varicose vein (an abnormally swollen vein) in the network of veins that run from the testicles. It is usually caused by an infection, such as the sexually transmitted disease chlamydia, and results in pain and swelling next to one of the testicles.
When a portion of the intestines pushes through an abnormal opening or weakening of the abdominal wall and into the groin or scrotum, it is known as an inguinal hernia.
This is a disorder in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis, not at the tip.
This is a tightness of the foreskin of the penis and is common in newborns and young children.
This may develop when a boy's uncircumcised penis is retracted but doesn't return to the unretracted position. This is a disorder in which the penis, although normally formed, is well below the average size, as determined by standard measurements.
Reproduction — the process by which organisms make more organisms like themselves — is one of the things that sets living things apart from nonliving matter. The female needs a male to fertilize her egg, even though it is she who carries offspring through pregnancy and childbirth. The genes that parents pass along to their children are what make children similar to others in their family, but they are also what make each child unique. The external part of the female reproductive organs is called the vulva, which means covering.
These muscles are able to expand and contract to accommodate a growing fetus and then help push the baby out during labor.
The fallopian tubes are about 4 inches (10 centimeters) long and about as wide as a piece of spaghetti. Although most people think of the gonads as the male testicles, both sexes actually have gonads: In females the gonads are the ovaries. At puberty, the pituitary gland, located in the central part of the brain, starts making hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce female sex hormones, including estrogen. Approximately once a month, during ovulation, an ovary sends a tiny egg into one of the fallopian tubes. Blood and tissues from the inner lining of the uterus combine to form the menstrual flow, which in most girls lasts from 3 to 5 days.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) includes both physical and emotional symptoms that many girls and women get right before their periods, such as acne, bloating, fatigue, backaches, sore breasts, headaches, constipation, diarrhea, food cravings, depression, irritability, or difficulty concentrating or handling stress.
A blastocyst is about the size of a pinhead, and it's a hollow ball of cells with fluid inside. The inner cells form a flattened circular shape called the embryonic disk, which will develop into a baby. When the baby is ready for birth, its head presses on the cervix, which begins to relax and widen to get ready for the baby to pass into and through the vagina. After it has separated from the inner lining of the uterus, contractions of the uterus push it out, along with its membranes and fluids. It may also be due to urethral prolapse, a condition in which the mucous membranes of the urethra protrude into the vagina and form a tiny, doughnut-shaped mass of tissue that bleeds easily. Although there are usually no symptoms associated with this condition, labial adhesions can lead to an increased risk of urinary tract infection.
A woman with this condition can develop severe abdominal pain and should see a doctor because surgery may be necessary.
Girls with ovarian tumors may have abdominal pain and masses that can be felt in the abdomen. Although they are common and generally harmless, they can become a problem if they grow very large. This condition causes the ovaries to become enlarged and develop many fluid-filled sacs, or cysts.
The torsion blocks blood from flowing through the blood vessels that supply and nourish the ovaries.
Always seek the advice of a doctor or other qualified health professional before starting any new treatment or making any changes to existing treatment. But I also like to add a dash of humour from time to time, so here’s my Thursday funny that I want to share with you.
Women tend to communicate more effectively than men, focusing on how to create a solution that works for the group, talking through issues, and utilizes non-verbal cues such as tone, emotion, and empathy whereas men tend to be more task-oriented, less talkative, and more isolated. Two sections of the brain responsible for language were found to be larger in women than in men, indicating one reason that women typically excel in language-based subjects and in language-associated thinking. Women typically have a larger deep limbic system than men, which allows them to be more in touch with their feelings and better able to express them, which promotes bonding with others. I’m not an entrepreur but seeking out funding for post-grad research has similar elements. I want my fees paid, I want a new computer (and an iphone wouldn’t go astray), however what I really _need_ is to pay my rent, travel and groceries for the next 3-4 years!
As an investor you need to look at his return on his investment in you and work out what that’s worth. The largest of these elusive giants ever found measured 59 feet (18 meters) in length and weighed nearly a ton (900 kilograms).However, their inhospitable deep-sea habitat has made them uniquely difficult to study, and almost everything scientists know about them is from carcasses that have washed up on beaches or been hauled in by fishermen. An individual may live a long, healthy, and happy life without producing offspring, but if the species is to continue, at least some individuals must produce offspring. These organs are responsible for producing the egg and sperm cells, (gametes), and for producing hormones.
But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, unlike other body systems it's not essential to keeping an individual alive. These genes come from the father's sperm and the mother's egg, which are produced by the male and female reproductive systems. They are different in shape and structure, but both are specifically designed to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm. The testicles are also part of the endocrine system because they produce hormones, including testosterone. The epididymis is a set of coiled tubes (one for each testicle) that connects to the vas deferens. The prostate gland, which produces some of the parts of semen, surrounds the ejaculatory ducts at the base of the urethra, just below the bladder. At the end of the glans is a small slit or opening, which is where semen and urine exit the body through the urethra.
Sperm develop in the testicles within a system of tiny tubes called the seminiferous tubules. If a mature egg is in one of the female's fallopian tubes, a single sperm may penetrate it, and fertilization, or conception, occurs. The zygote divides again and again as it grows in the female's uterus, maturing over the course of the pregnancy into an embryo, a fetus, and finally a newborn baby.
Most testicular injuries occur when the testicles are struck, hit, kicked, or crushed, usually during sports or due to other trauma.
Hydroceles may cause swelling in the scrotum around the testicle but are generally painless.
As a result, blood flow to the head of the penis may be impaired, and your son may experience pain and swelling. In most boys born with this disorder, the penis may be very small or nonexistent, but testicular tissue is present. But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, unlike other body systems, it's not essential to keeping an individual alive. These genes come from the male's sperm and the female's egg, which are produced by the male and female reproductive systems.
Located between the legs, the vulva covers the opening to the vagina and other reproductive organs located inside the body.


The clitoris, a small sensory organ, is located toward the front of the vulva where the folds of the labia join. Most women find their hymens have stretched or torn after their first sexual experience, and the hymen may bleed a little (this usually causes little, if any, pain). The opening of the cervix is very small (no wider than a straw), which is why a tampon can never get lost inside a girl's body.
When a woman isn't pregnant, the uterus is only about 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) long and 2 inches (5 centimeters) wide.
They produce, store, and release eggs into the fallopian tubes in the process called ovulation. The female gonads produce female gametes (eggs); the male gonads produce male gametes (sperm). PMS is usually at its worst during the 7 days before a girl's period starts and disappears once it begins. On average, the monthly cycle for an adult woman is 28 days, but the range is from 23 to 35 days.
Between 75 and 900 million sperm are in this small amount of semen, and they "swim" up from the vagina through the cervix and uterus to meet the egg in the fallopian tube.
The fetus receives oxygen and nourishment from the mother's blood via the placenta, a disk-like structure that sticks to the inner lining of the uterus and connects to the fetus via the umbilical cord.
The mucus that has formed a plug in the cervix loosens, and with amniotic fluid, comes out through the vagina when the mother's water breaks.
After several hours of this widening, the cervix is dilated (opened) enough for the baby to come through. Poor personal hygiene (such as wiping from back to front after a bowel movement) may also cause this problem.
It can also be due to a straddle injury (such as when falling onto a beam or bicycle frame) or vaginal trauma from sexual abuse. Articles appearing on this website express the views and opinions of the author, and not the administrators, moderators, or editorial staff and hence ByHealth and its principals will accept no liabilities or responsibilities for the statements made.
Men tend to process better in the left hemisphere of the brain and approach problem-solving from a task-oriented perspective.
Additionally, men typically only process language in their dominant hemisphere, whereas women process language in both hemispheres. Usually these would be for fixed sum scholarships, but I was asked today by a slightly unconventional potenial funder, what is a ball park figure you would need? I agree there’s many things we can learn from the brain differences with regards to how to target our markets and what will appeal to them based on their neurological aspects. Lately, however, the fortunes of scientists studying these elusive creatures have begun to turn.
These hormones function in the maturation of the reproductive system, the development of sexual characteristics, and have important roles in regulating the normal physiology of the reproductive system.
Testosterone is a major part of puberty in boys, and as a guy makes his way through puberty, his testicles produce more and more of it.
The urethra is the channel that carries the semen to the outside of the body through the penis.
Although circumcision is not medically necessary, parents who choose to have their children circumcised often do so based on religious beliefs, concerns about hygiene, or cultural or social reasons. Although the timing of these changes is different for every guy, the stages of puberty generally follow a set sequence.
At birth, these tubules contain simple round cells, but during puberty, testosterone and other hormones cause these cells to transform into sperm cells. Testicular torsion, when one of the testicles twists around, cutting off its blood supply, is also a problem that some teen males experience, although it's not common.
A varicocele is usually not harmful, although it can damage the testicle or decrease sperm production. Testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body, but if it's detected early, the cure rate is excellent. Posthitis is foreskin inflammation, which is usually due to a yeast or bacterial infection.
If it interferes with urination, circumcision (removal of the foreskin) may be recommended.
Between the labia are openings to the urethra (the canal that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) and vagina. This ability to become wider or narrower allows the vagina to accommodate something as slim as a tampon and as wide as a baby. The cells multiply thousands of times and move to new positions to eventually become the embryo. The amniotic fluid and membrane cushion the fetus against bumps and jolts to the mother's body. Symptoms include redness and itching in the vaginal and vulvar areas and sometimes vaginal discharge. Depending on the type and severity of the condition, it may be treated with drugs to regulate hormone balance and menstruation.
While women tend to process equally well between the two hemispheres and typically solve problems more creatively and are more aware of feelings while communicating.
All other organs, ducts, and glands in the reproductive system are considered secondary, or accessory, reproductive organs.
Testosterone is the hormone that causes boys to develop deeper voices, bigger muscles, and body and facial hair, and it also stimulates the production of sperm. The urethra is also part of the urinary system because it is also the channel through which urine passes as it leaves the bladder and exits the body. Boys who have circumcised penises and those who don't are no different: All penises work and feel the same, regardless of whether the foreskin has been removed. The rigidity of the erect penis makes it easier to insert into the female's vagina during sexual intercourse.
Once girls become sexually mature, the outer labia and the mons pubis are covered by pubic hair. The vagina's muscular walls are lined with mucous membranes, which keep it protected and moist. The baby's head usually comes first; the umbilical cord comes out with the baby and is cut after the baby is delivered. Vulvovaginitis can also be caused by an overgrowth of Candida, a fungus normally present in the vagina. If the cysts are painful, a doctor may prescribe birth control pills to alter their growth, or they may be removed by a surgeon.
And in late 2006, scientists with Japan's National Science Museum caught and brought to the surface a live 24-foot (7-meter) female giant squid.Giant squid, along with their cousin, the colossal squid, have the largest eyes in the animal kingdom, measuring some 10 inches (25 centimeters) in diameter. When the erect penis is stimulated, muscles around the reproductive organs contract and force the semen through the duct system and urethra. These massive organs allow them to detect objects in the lightless depths where most other animals would see nothing.Like other squid species, they have eight arms and two longer feeding tentacles that help them bring food to their beak-like mouths. The sperm use their tails to push themselves into the epididymis, where they complete their development.
Semen is pushed out of the male's body through his urethra — this process is called ejaculation. Once the egg is in the fallopian tube, tiny hairs in the tube's lining help push it down the narrow passageway toward the uterus.
Their diet likely consists of fish, shrimp, and other squid, and some suggest they might even attack and eat small whales.They maneuver their massive bodies with fins that seem diminutive for their size. They use their funnel as a propulsion system, drawing water into the mantle, or main part of the body, and forcing it out the back.Scientists don't know enough about these beasts to say for sure what their range is, but giant squid carcasses have been found in all of the world's oceans.



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