We know that Jacques RanciA?re speaks about the relation between politics and aesthetics in terms of a€?the distribution of the sensible.a€? Tonight I want to speak about the distribution of the insensible.
But I also want to register an implicit critical dimension of this argument, a critique of RanciA?re and of his presently immense influence, which I view as unwarranted. By way of a first approach to what I mean by a€?the distribution of the insensible,a€? leta€™s recall some basic passages from Volume One of Capital on the transformation of materials. Labor is, first of all, a process between man and nature, a process by which man, through his own actions, mediates, regulates and controls the metabolism between himself and nature.
What distinguishes capitalism as a mode of production, however, is the peculiar manner in which the transformation of materials through the labor process is shadowed by the process of valorization. We can thus view the process of production either from the perspective of the labor process or the valorization process.
So, this brief summary of Marxist fundamentals is our first approach to the distribution of the insensible. In Intellectual and Manual Labor, Alfred Sohn-Rethel argues that the social abstraction of the value form and the exchange relation gives rise to our abstract forms of thought.
The exchange abstraction excludes everything that makes up history, human and even natural history. In Sohn-Rethela€™s account, the exchange relation gives rise to a social genesis of the transcendental (the forms of intuition and the categories of the understanding). In the act of exchange, the natural and material physicality of the product is negated by the abstract value of the commodity, and this negation constitutes the a€?positive realitya€? of the social physicality of the exchange process. The history of modernity, which is to say the history of capitalism, is also the history of modern technology. And thena€”in the discourse network of 2000, spawned by the cybernetic systems, information theories, and encryption technologies of World War II, digital technology draws media differentiation back together through the synthetic resources of digital code, a universal medium traversing audio, video, and textual recording.
However (fourth approach)a€”we should recognize that just as Kittlera€™s media theory offers a necessary supplement to Sohn-Rethela€™s account of the social genesis of conceptual abstraction, it is also necessary to submit Kittlera€™s own work to a Marxist inversion. What Marx calls a€?formal subsumptiona€? is the initial subsumption of labor under the value form, through wage labor and exploitation (the extraction of surplus value from surplus labor time).
This contradiction bears upon the history of technology, because it is by revolutionizing the means of production that capital attempts to overcome this contradiction. The same process also generates a different problem: as automation increases, less labor power is required. Automation, which is at once the most advanced sector of modern industry and the epitome of its practice, confronts the world of the commodity with a contradiction that it must somehow resolve: the same technical infrastructure that is capable of abolishing labor must at the same time preserve labor as a commoditya€”and indeed, as the sole generator of commodities. We could rephrase this by saying that Fordism both requires and paves the way for post-Fordism.
At the same time, however, we know that a commodity like an Apple computer is, in fact, produced by processes quite clearly identifiable as a€?labor.a€? Despite the fact that every effort is made to keep this fact out of sight and out of mind, we know it because we read about it on Apple computers. Composed of aluminum, nickel, steel, glass, vinyl, and fluorescent, the production of Vanitas involves a virtuosic performance of mimetic exactitude. In a dark room, the viewer looks at the object, sees into it, and sees nothing of herself (like a vampire in front of a mirror, Baier says) while the object reflects its own interior infinitely in all directions.
The first thing we might note about this piece is its complex engagement with relational aesthetics. Second, we can say that if Vanitas is a captivating work of art, much of what makes it so is money. Baiera€™s piece instantiates the problem of the relation between materials and money, captured in the art object. Behind Vanitas, a glass reproduction of Baiera€™s eyeball at the center of a projected disc of light, gazing without seeing across the room at a mirrored box which does not reflect its image. Beside Vanitas, a fond de scA?nea€”a reflector used in the background of photo shootsa€”which Baier placed in a template with a circular hole and left in a window for nine months. Around the corner, a piece called Projet A‰toile (Noir), consisting of a graphite painting titled Monochrome (Black) and a sculptural replica of a meteorite recovered from Death Valley. These are photographic pieces and sculptural objects which Baier would have worked on at the computer in the center of Vanitas. At the crux of materials and moneya€”through the complex history that crux containsa€”the subject of Baiera€™s installation is the relation between memory, recording, mimesis. Baiera€™s problem is not only the remembrance of things past, but, more specifically, the reminiscence of that which has never been sensed, the distribution of the insensible, recalled. By way of a first approach to what I mean by a€?the distribution of the insensible,a€?A  leta€™s recall some basic passages from Volume One of Capital on the transformation of materials.
There has been quite a bit of misinformation published for this family, and so I think it is important to put down in writing a summary of the documentation that may help researchers find the correct trail to our ancestors. In this document, I will merely summarize a bit of our family history in Germany to clarify our heritage so as to address some of the errors made by others.
Another error that has been perpetuated is that our a€?Hans Martina€? must have been a young boy, under age 16, when he came to North America, and that his name was therefore not recorded, but that the a€?Hans Martin Kirschmana€? listed on the passengera€™s list must have been his father.
But, to help convince others of that claim, leta€™s begin our story with actual confirming documents from Germany. In this paper, we will start with: Johann a€?Hanssa€? Martin Kirschenmann, who was born on 26 Feb. Anna Marie born 29 May 1737 -- she had, in 1771, an illegitimate child [male] named Christian born in Pfalzgrafenweiler.
Again, the above record comes from the Pfalzgrafenweiler Jakoba€™s Church record, which was the home parish of Hanss. Now, there is a very interesting item noted for this young woman in her own parish record, which says that: she was married on 28 Jan.
This clearly establishes the birth of Johann a€?Hansa€? Martin Kirschenmann (our immigrant ancestor) as the son of a€?Hanss Martin Kirschenmann and his wife, Anna Catharina Schmid, who were married about eleven months following his birth.
Not far away, in the village of Goettelfingen (about 6-7 miles northwest of Pfalzgrafenweiler)--as the crow flies, lived the family of Christian Schwarz.
Their oldest daughter, Agnes Schwartz is the one who is of the greatest interest to us, as our immigrant grandmother, but also take note of the names of her brothers, as two of those will come up again later. Sometime after the birth of their second child, this family moved to Kaelberbronn, which is about four miles to the south of where they were living, and about half way to Pfalzgrafenweiler. For the source of much of the following information, see: History and Genealogy of the German Emigrant Johan Christian Kirschenmann, Anglicized Cashman by Arthur Weaner and William F. Hans Martin Kirschenmann and his young bride, both about 20 years old, began their migration together down the Rhine River in 1752.
This Hans Martin Kirschman was the 20 years old father of our American family by this name. In all of Pennsylvania there were only two Kirschman (Kirschenmann, even by other variant spellings) families that can be found in the time frame between 1752 and 1776. In 1761, after living in PA for nine years, and after succeeding waves of immigrants had arrived in Berks Co.
The other family by that name living in Pennsylvania at about that time was that of Johan Christian Kirschman (Kirschenmann) who boarded a ship a€?Hamiltona€?, Charles Smith, Commander, in Rotterdam, Netherlands, and sailed to Cowes, England, arriving at Philadelphia, PA on 9 Nov. Both of the above men were thought to have come from the same general area in Wuerttemberg, Germany.
We know the names of the following children of Johann Martin Cashman and his wife, Agnes Schwartz, who were still living in 1804 when Martin made his will in Bedford Co., Virginia--from the gaps between their birth years, there could have been additional children who died earlier than this date. Martin Kirschman was listed as a carpenter, and paid taxes on 1 horse and two cows in Berks Co., PA in 1767 [Tax List of Berks County] and was also listed in the tax list for 1768. During this period, Hans Martina€™s oldest son, George, married in Washington County, MD and had a daughter on 13 Nov.
In 1778 (during the war years) Men were asked to take an a€?Oath of Allegiancea€? to the new United States of America. There was also a mention of Adam Bumgartner as a resident of Washington Co., MD, in 1778, the year prior to his marriage. I have seen a claim that Martin Kirschman may have moved to Bedford County, PA about at this time and paid taxes there in 1779. As the Revolutionary War drew towards its close with the surrender of General Cornwallis to George Washington at Yorktown, VA in 1781 thousands of British soldiers were taken as prisoners.
We have not been able to find any other records for our Hans Martin Kirschman after this date--except for his will. This surname is just not close enough to say that this was our a€?Martin Kirschmana€? but it is given here only as a point of interest. Now, we have an even longer stretch without any documentation, but in 1803, Hans Martin & Agnesa€™s youngest daughter, Elisabeth Kirschman, or a€?Betsya€? married Jesse Orendorff in Bedford Coounty, VA (or Botetourt County, VA). At least by 1804, and probably earlier, our Hans Martin Kirschman and Agnes Schwartz had moved to Bedford County, VA., which occupies most of the area between Roanoak and Lynchburg, VA in southwestern Virginia. This last Will and Testament of Martin Kershmon, deceased, was exhibited in Court and proved by the oath of James Ripley, a subscribing witness and continued for further proof and a Court held for said County the 24th day of September 1804a€”this will was further proved by the oath of Presley Sinclair another subscribing witness and ordered to be recorded.
In the 1820 US census, there was only one Cashman family still in the area and this was for a George Cashman in Providence Twp, Bedford Co., PA. As discussed above, Catherine Kirschman was born about June of 1752 in Amsterdam while her family was en route from Germany to America. Catherine spent her early years in Berks County, PA until she was in her mid-teens, when the family moved to York County, PA, and about 25 years old when they moved to Washington County, MD. There were only two Catherine Kirschmans (by any spelling) that we can find in the USA at that time. It is not clear where and how Catherine next met David Buck, but since he was absent from his home in Bedford Co., PA from 1785 till about 1789.
Shortly after their marriage, they returned to Davida€™s home in Bedford County, PA, where this couple had Davida€™s first child, a son, Thomas Buck, named after Davida€™s father. We do not know the birth years of any of these, but they all would have been born between 1780-86 and probably in Washington Co.
David and Catherine remained on Brush Creek in West Providence, Bedford, PA for the rest of their lives.
According to David Buck's will, there are two daughters younger than Elizabeth Buck, who was born 2 May 1795.
There were many political and religious difficulties multiplied by physical hardships in continental Europe during the 16th, 17th an 18th centuries to make the mind fertile to emigration to America.
In 1681 William Penn received from King Charles II of England, 40,000 square miles of land in America, in liquidation of a debt of 16,000 pounds the British government owed William Penna€™s father. The journey to Pennsylvania consumed from eighteen to twenty six weeks.[3] The first part was the journey from the Palatine down the Rhine River to Rotterdam, in our case, or to some other seaport {note that for the family of Johann Martin Kirschman, the embarkation port was Amsterdam}.
The Passengers were usually crowded, with insufficient and improper food and water, subjecting many to all sorts of diseases which resulted in the death of many, especially the children. It was of early concern to the rulers of the Province of the emigration of the Germans to English Pennsylvania. From the dock, the arrivals go to the City Hall, sign the above oaths, and square their account with the Captain.
To what extent Christian Cashman, his wife and family participated in these sufferings is not known, but it is safe to assume that they endured many trials. It is on these ship and oath lists above referred to, that is found the name of JOHAN CHRISTIAN KIRSCHENMANN. The Foreigners whose names are underwritten, imported in the Ship Hamilton, Commanded by Charles Smith, from Rotterdam, did this day take and subscribe the usual Qualifications.
Only the names of males above age sixteen appear, but tradition states he was accompanied by his wife, Catharan (whose maiden name has not been ascertained), and five of his six children,[7] viz: Christian, Barbra, George, John and Susanah.
On the Ship Edinburgh, James Russell Commander, from Rotterdam, {Note: the author made an error here. At the same source for the year 1767, under name Martin Kirschman, a carpenter, 1 horse and 2 cows, tax L2.[4] The surname Kerschner appears frequently in Berks County records.
Martin Kirschman and his wife Agnes, Daughter Elizabeth, born September 14, 1775, baptized November 26, 1775.
This is all the data found on this family, and no descendants have been ascertained at the time of writing. List of inhabitants of Providence Township, Bedford County, Pennsylvania, made subject by law to the performance of militia duty, taken by Peter Morgert, the 27th Jany. Martin Cashman a€“ The Ancestral File of the LDS Church contains a family from a€?Paa€?, where the fathera€™s name is a€?Martin Cashmana€? born 1764 in Pa. I know that Martin Jr and Elizabeth (wife of Jesse Orendorff) moved their families to Breckenridge County Kentucky in the early 1800s. Martin Sr's wife Agnes Schwartz had two brothers, Frederick and Chrisian who located in Botetourt County Virginia around 1790-1800. There has been quite a bit of misinformation published for this family, and so I think it is important to put down in writing a summary of the documentation that may help researchers find the correct trail to our ancestors.A  For additional information on this family while living back in Germany (Wuerttemberg) before their immigration to America, please see Our Kirschenmann Haritage in Wuerttemberg, Germany by Lionel Nebeker also available on this web-site in the a€?Librarya€?. Another error that has been perpetuated is that our a€?Hans Martina€? must have been a young boy, under age 16, when he came to North America, and that his name was therefore not recorded, but that the a€?Hans Martin Kirschmana€? listed on the passengera€™s list must have been his father.A  Indeed, the man listed on that passengera€™s list (and wea€™ll discuss that below) was our only immigrant by that name--and he was 20 years old at the time of his migration. Not far away, in the village of Goettelfingen (about 6-7 miles northwest of Pfalzgrafenweiler)--as the crow flies, lived the family of Christian Schwarz.A  He was not born there, and we do not have any indication of his homeland, but he moved there in time to marry Anna Maria Kuhn (b.
Dawsonrentals is one of the UK’s largest CV rental firms, and one of the few to offer the full range of vehicles from vans to trucks and trailers and the full range of services from daily rental to contract hire and leasing. The former child star became an evangelical Christian at 17 and is involved in The Way of the Master ministries. The cold hard fact is: Kirk Cameron is a recognized name, which will help the product stand out on the shelf. Meh, he’s just really devoted to his wife and (in his eyes) honoring his wedding vows. Dirtbikemommie, when Kirk dies and realizes that he lived his entire life as a prude and that it made absolutely no difference whether or not he prayed everyday because there is no god, I think he will look back on his life and regret not parlaying the only good thing that ever came out of Growing Pains, ie his fame, into banging every teenage girl that ever watched that show. And I want to argue that it is the specificity of this problem which allows us to think the relation between the history of capital and the history of mimesis.


I could summarize this critique as follows: if RanciA?re were more inclined to focus his attention upon the distribution of the insensible, perhaps he might think more perspicuously not only about the relation between politics and aesthetics, but also the relation between political economy and aesthetics. Marx analyzes the process of production from two perspectives: the labor process and the valorization process.
Moreover, we transform materials into tools, instruments of labor, with which we transform materials. The transformation of materials produces objects with use value, but it also produces commodities with exchange value.
But insofar as it is specifically capitalist, what the process of production produces is value, and a particular kind of value: surplus value and its reintegration into the production process as capital.
The entire empirical reality of facts, events and description by which one moment and locality of time and space is distinguished from another is wiped out. And this social genesis is at once material and abstract, since the exchange value of a commodity is borne by its use value, and since exchange (like the labor process) is a physical act which also requires abstraction from all physicality. Hence the exchange process presents a physicality of its own, so to speak, endowed with the status of reality which is on a par with the material physicality of the commodities which it excludes. This is what Sohn-Rethel, following Marx, calls a€?the real abstractiona€? of the value form as a social process of exchange. In a materialist inversion of the Kantian transcendental, media technologies constitute the a priori conditions of possibility for the sensible, such that the distribution of the sensible already operates within these conditions. From the industrial revolution to the production and networking of digital information technologies, the history of modern technology emerges from and responds to the demands and internal contradictions of capitalist accumulation. This early period of subsumption is merely a€?formala€? because the production process itself (the labor process which is subsumed) remains primarily pre-capitalist.
New technologies of production, and new techniques of production (assembly lines, for example) make it possible to increase productivity, and thus increase the amount of surplus value that can be extracted in a certain period of time.
If automation, or for that matter any mechanisms, even less radical ones, that can increase productivity, are to be prevented from reducing socially necessary labor-time to an unacceptably low level, new forms of employment have to be created. Essentially, Society of the Spectacle is a book about the consequences of real subsumption, about the contradictions that it bears within its history and about the new regime of accumulation necessary to defer and compensate for the crises those contradictions contain. A corporation like Foxxcon, the largest manufacturer of electronic components in the world, is something like a distillation of the entire history of the contradiction between capital and labor, the great movements of the industrial revolution, Taylorism, Fordism, the off-shoring of manufacturing labor, and the simultaneity of deindustrialization and post-Fordist cognitive capitalism with the persistence of the most traditional forms of miserable factory work.
The main piece is the sculptural object we have been looking at, titled Vanitas, a reproduction of the artista€™s office.
Every component of the artista€™s desk and of his tools is precisely rendered as either a three dimension drawing or a three dimensional scan.
It mimics one of the primary gestures of that movement or style, bringing the artista€™s studio and living space into the museum.
Obviously it is expensive to reproduce onea€™s office in nickel-plated aluminum and to display it so dramatically. The content of his piece is nothing other than that relation, a reflection upon that relation. Baiera€™s piece should be considered as part of an installation, not merely a sculptural object, insofar as it does, in fact, come into relation with its surroundings, surroundings composed of digitally produced images and objects.
In front of Vanitas, a meticulously composed compound photograph of the stone wall beside the earliest cave paintings, titled Canvas. Not a reflection of the sun but an indexical image of its absorption, marked by the circular discoloration of the black tissue. Having held this meteorite in the palm of my hand, three years ago, I can testify to the strangeness of encountering its inexistence, distributed between these two art of objects. Instantiated as digital code, they were a€?ina€? that computer, stored in its memory banks, transformed on its screen. At and through the limits of modernity, of capital, of mimesis, of thought, of sensation, and within their outside, his work draws us into that distribution. 1733 in Pfalzgrafenweiler to Johann Martin Kirschenmann, a rafter there, who was the son of Jacob Kirschenmann, who was a baker there. And on the motion of Isaac Sinclair, the Executor therein named, who made oath together with Alexander Simmons his Security entered into and acknowledged their Bond in the Penalty of Five Hundred Dollars conditioned as the Law directs Certificate is granted him for obtaining Probate thereof in due form. It was the largest tract of land ever granted in America, under which Penn was made the proprietor and invested with the privilege of creating a political government. Pleasant township, Adams County, Pa., in 1788, it seems highly improbable this entry could refer to him. 1733 in Pfalzgrafenweiler to Johann Martin Kirschenmann, a rafter there, who was the son of Jacob Kirschenmann, who was a baker there.A  This date matches exactly with the record in the Pfalzgrafenweiler parish given above. An early adopter of Euro-6 to allow its customers to try before they buy, more than 30% of its truck fleet is now Euro-6. Motor Transport is dedicated to providing fleet operators with the most up to date, relevant and reliable news, researched and written by a 10-strong team of experienced professional journalists. Registered Office: 6th Floor, Chancery House, St Nicholas Way, Sutton, Surrey, England, SM1 1JB.
You have totally sacrificed the artistic integrity your new (and only) movie just so you can live in the eternal city of heaven and enjoy everlasting peace and divine knowledge. I bet right after the tape stopped was the part where weirdo shows Kirk how his genitalia is perfectly formed to fit in his bunghole. Crucially, I want to show how the relation between those two histories is mediated by another: the history of technology. That is: focusing on the specific problem of the distribution of the insensible turns out to be the key to thinking about the relation between aesthetics and politics in a materialist way, in a manner properly responsive to the exigencies of Marxist historical materialism. He sets in motion the natural forces which belong to his own body, his arms, legs, head and hands, in order to appropriate the materials of nature in a form adapted to his own needs. For example, according to Sohn-Rethel, the purely formal character of the Kantian forms of intuitiona€”space and timea€”can be understood as genetically related to the abstract formalism of the value form and the exchange relation.
Time and space assume thereby that character of absolute historical timelessness and universality which must mark the exchange abstraction as a whole and each of its features. Thus the negation of the natural and material physicality constitutes the positive reality of the abstract social physicality of the exchange processes from which the network of society is woven.
This real abstraction constitutes a kind of a€?second nature,a€? and Sohn-Rethel argues that this second nature is a€?the arsenal from which intellectual labor through the eras of commodity exchange draws its conceptual resources.a€? We can situate this analysis more broadly at the level of the whole process of valorization, or the accumulation of capital through circulation.
We need to supplement Sohn-Rethela€™s materialist critique of epistemology with a history of media technologies like that carried out by Friedrich Kittler. Thus, without further increasing the length of the working day, one can increase surplus value (this called a€?relative surplus valuea€?). But Marx makes clear that the part of capital invested in constant capital does not undergo any alteration in the process of production, it does not increase (this is why it is called constant).
This means that less money is being paid out on the labor market for the consumption of commodities. A happy solution presents itself in the growth of the tertiary or service sector in response to the immense strain on the supply lines of the army responsible for distributing and hyping the commodities of the moment. And behind the passage I just read, we can also read a commentary on the history of technology. The conditions of possible experience are themselves conditioned by the moving contradiction between capital and labor.
Indeed, bearing the conditions of its production in mind, one might view a device like an Apple computer as a distillation of the entire history of modernitya€”of the manner in which modernity acts upon external nature and changes it, and in this way simultaneously changes its own nature, from the printing press to the steam engine to the silicon chip.
Each of these objects is then reproduced, at exact scale, by either machining in aluminum (in the case of objects that were drawn) or stereolithography (in the case of objects that were scanned).
But in doing so it forecloses the primary content of that gesture, radically separating this space from that of the viewer, encasing it within a mise-en-abyme in which only images interact with one another. A tour de force of concept, design, and execution, the piece is also nothing if not resourceful.
As he did with the objects reproduced in Vanitas, Baier made a three dimensional scan of the meteorite and then reproduced ita€”at a much larger scalea€”through stereolithography. 1770 -- little is known of his life, but he was listed as one of Johanna€™s sons in the 1804 will.
Johna€™s Evangelical Lutheran Church in a€?Elizabeth Towna€? (now Hagerstown) Maryland on 13 Nov.
Liberty being granted the other Executors to join in the probate thereof when he shall think fit. 1681 in Tumlingen, Schwarzwaldkreis, Wuerttemberg, as the son of Hans Jacob Schmid and Anna Maria Helber) who had married on 2 Aug. The relation between the history of capital and the history of mimesis is mediated by the history of technics. Through this movement he acts upon external nature and changes it, and in this way his simultaneously changes his own nature. It is independent because the exchange value of a commodity is entirely determined by the average socially necessary labor time required to produce it, not by the materials of which it is composed.
We can view the process of production from two sides, but what it produces are commodities that are sold for money, which is reinvested in the production process and thereby becomes capital.
He does not think the distribution of the insensible, the movement of valorization, and thus he misses entirely the dimension of political economy in his thinking of politics. The social process of valorization is the very medium in which we think, and to which thinking is applied through intellectual labor (such as management).
And indeed, Kittlera€™s media-theoretical analysis of discourse networks should also be understood as a materialist critique of Kantian idealism.
It communicates with itself, through its own data channels, and consciousness is the epiphenomenon of communication. Thus, during the period of formal subsumption, the extraction of surplus value is primarily correlated to the length of the working day and the cost of labor power. This is what automation and capitalist management techniquesa€”Taylorism and Fordisma€”are for. So labor has to be reabsorbed into the labor market to support consumption and prevent overproduction. The development of industrial automation both necessitates and creates the conditions of possibility for the invention of new media apparatuses, especially digital information technologies and networks. The history of the sensible, the transformations undergone in the media-technological conditions of sensation and experience, is also the history of the insensiblea€”the history of the process of valorization as it develops in relation to contradictions in the labor process.
This process includes every electric or electronic plug and cord connecting Baiera€™s computer, his monitors, his speakers, and his scanner. Although it draws the space within which the artist works and thinks into the space of the museum, the artist is pointedly absent. It patently shows off the artista€™s mastery of that form of technA“ so crucial to contemporary art practice: the capacity to get funding. At his desk, thinking, communicating, representing, the artist enters into the circuits of capital, the movement of valorizationa€”as do we all, one way or another. He then melted the meteorite down and used the graphite of which it was composed to paint the surface of Monochrome (Black). 1777 [Washington County, Maryland Church Records of the 18th Century, by Family Lines Publication, 1988. Do you think all those other directors who make straight-to-DVD Jesus-based movies will want to work with a diva like you now? Cameron’s name is worth the extra hassle the director will have to deal with, then the director needs to suck it up and deal with it or find another line of work.
And it is through this history, this mediation, that art takes up techniques which throw us back outside the history of capital, outside the history of mimesisa€”indeed, outside the history of the human, the history of thought, and the history of sensationa€”within and through the technical means to which the linked histories of capital, mimesis, and technics give rise. Labor time is that abstract, universal equivalent which will find its answer in the universal abstraction of the money form, and value is not a material thing but a social relation. Production produces both surplus value and capital, and capital produces expanded cycles of accumulation. One consequence of this failure is that he has no rigorous means of accounting for the relation of his history of art and artistic regimes to the history of capital, to structural changes of the contradiction between capital and labor. Insofar as intellectual labor is subsumed by capital, as is manual labor, the forms of thought themselves enter into a relation of dialectical genesis with the value form. For Kittler, it is not transcendental categories but media technologies which determine the conditions of any possible experience. The capitalist wants to extend the working day as much as possible, and to reduce wages as much as possible. What Marx calls a€?real subsumptiona€? is this revolutionizing of the production process such that it becomes properly capitalist. Thus, as relatively more capital is invested in constant capital and relatively less capital is invested in variable capital, relatively less capital is available for conversion into surplus value.
The process of real subsumption thus also requires the growth of the tertiary service sector, which produces both a new labor market and new fields of commodity production and consumption.
These not only enable the growth of the tertiary service sector and its forms of communicative labor and consumption, they also themselves produce new markets of goods and services. Shortly after he coined the term a€?immaterial labor,a€? Maurizio Lazzarato renounced it, for the good reason that the term was impossible to reconcile with a materialist position.
It includes the crumpled pieces of paper in his trash can and a book lying open beside his keyboard. The piece is something like an anti-humanist negation of relational aesthetics: perfectly finished, enclosed, complete, pristine, it subtracts the participation of the viewer precisely through the viewera€™s gaze, which is drawn into and lost within the reflexive auto-mimesis of the object.
The distribution of the insensible: the movement of capital, the structural transformation of the contradiction between capital and labor, the circuitous courses of the process of valorizationa€”all this is how a digital information system ends up inside a mirrored box in the company of fluorescent lighting and minimalist furnishings, installed on the distressed concrete floors of an art gallery.
The matter of the object thus remains, and so does its form, but the object itself has disappeared into an uncanny splitting of their formerly integral relation.
Canvas shows us the primordial matter of mimesis: the substrate of inaugural images carved in stone, with stone.
Consider yourself blacklisted by the two, or possibly three, directors who would be hard up enough to cast you in one of their movies where a guy loses faith in God and then something bad happens to him which makes him realize that God does exist and once he accepts God his life is fulfilling and all his dreams comes true…and for some reason this only happens to white people in the suburbs.


Although the challenge before me really wasna€™t so life-shattering, at themoment it seemed huge and mountainous.
As Marx tells us in Chapter 8 of Volume One, a€?the means of production on one hand, labor-power on the other, are merely the different forms of existence which the value of the original capital assumed when it lost its monetary form and was transformed into the various factors of the production process.a€? Both the means of production and labor power are different elements of capital in its own valorization process. In my opinion, this is a problem substantial enough to render his history of aesthetics more or less irrelevant. For Sohn-Rethel, the Kantian transcendental subject is the representative modern figure of this dialectic (though its status as such is occluded by the idealism of transcendental philosophy).
The rate of surplus value extraction depends upon these factors (this is called a€?absolute surplus valuea€?). It is not only that labor is subsumed under the value form, but that the very constitution of labor itself changes. Capital needs to invest more in technology in order to increase productivity and sustain the valorization process. The new regime of accumulation that accompanies this structural transformation is what Guy Debord theorizes as the Spectacle. And more importantly, they are the technological ground for the massive growth of speculative markets we call a€?financialization,a€? which is predicated (in its contemporary form) upon the exchange of digital information. He should have referred instead to a€?insensible labor.a€? Information and cognition are not immaterial, but they are insensible.
Each of these reproduced objects is then plated in mirrored nickel before being rearranged, in in a reproduction of their configuration, within a parallelepiped encased on all six sides in one-way mirrored glass and illuminated by overhead fluorescent light. His studio is something like the Platonic form of so-called a€?immaterial labora€?a€”designer furniture and designer devices, neatly arrayed with the precision of an architectural firm blessed with a particularly fastidious custodial staff.
This movement, this transformation, this process is what we are looking at, though we cannot see it. But we can also recognize, as Catherine Malabou argues in What Should We Do With Our Brain?, that there is a structural homology between post-Fordist management discourse emphasizing non-hierarchical networks, self-organization, flexibility, and innovation, and contemporary neurological theory, which views the brain as a decentralized network of neuronal assemblies and emphasizes neurological plasticity as the ground of cognitive flexibility and adaptation. In the discourse network of 1800, the book is the site of an encounter between reading and writing, wherein the romantic imagination produces a projection of the soul into what Novalis calls a€?a real, visible world,a€? written into and read off of printed signifiers, emerging from the text as synaesthetic phantasmagoria in which all the senses are drawn together by the hallucinatory experience of Literature. Importantly, then, real subsumption requires and depends upon technological innovation: the capitalist process of production both needs and produces new machines because these increase productivity within a given period of time and thus compensate for limits on the length of the working day. But by doing so, it also decreases the amount of capital which can be converted into surplus value. The tech boom and its implosion are the logical and necessary outcome of real subsumption, pushing beyond its limits into the society of the Spectacle.
And the forms of affective labor which precisely are sensed are premised upon the indistinction of labor and leisure, the impossibility of distinguishing them under conditions of post-Fordist accumulation. Star (Black) confronts us with an extra-terrestrial outside, encountered, vanished, recordeda€”at once absent and yet uncannily present as residue and reproduction. The concrete process of transforming materials through labor, aided by tools, is subsumed by the abstract process of valorization. In the discourse network of 1900, gramophone, film, and typewriter effect an analytic separation of this sensory synthesis, constituting distinct technologies of recording and transmission for sound, the moving image, and the written word. Thus, due to forces of competition and technological innovation driving increased productivity, the rate of surplus value extraction tends to decline.
It is labor itself that becomes insensible under these conditions, dispersed into networks linking neurons and screens and indistinguishable from the most intimate gestures of our affective lives.
These are images of the deep time of human and cosmological history, outside the limits of modernity, of capital and its enabling technologies of representation.
It has a way of magnifyingA issues to the point of being ridiculous, but when youa€™re in the midst of the situation, it seemsA so real. Such would be a historical materialist account of conceptual abstraction following from Sohn-Rethela€™s critical of idealist epistemology.
What Kittler calls a€?media differentiationa€? carves up the Romantic imagination, sutured to the book, and parcels out its capacities among discrete technologies addressed to a segmented perceiver: an ear, an eye, a minda€”a modernist collage of the formerly integral subject. Thus, it is only possible to extend the working day so much, or to reduce wages to so little, because the reproduction of capital depends upon the reproduction of labor. What the installation asks us to think, however, is the manner in which it is these technologies of representation which record this outside, which draw our attention to it and make it manifest.
Only after the event has passed do you realize how silly it was to be so worried about somethingA that was so non-eventful.A But at the time Ia€™m telling you about right now, I was consumed with worry.
The precise transformations of materials it enablesa€”its retentional exactitudea€”precisely negate all transformation.
I paced back andA forth, fretting, thinking, and pondering, making myself even more nervous by my anxious behavior.A I was nothing but a bag of nerves. Simply put, the way we thinka€”the form of thinkinga€”is dialectically intertwined with the structure and the historical movement of capitalist accumulation. Like Malicka€™s The Tree of Life, Baiera€™s meteorite indexes a cosmological time and an inhuman history which never was sensed, which was prior to sensationa€”though, like Malicka€™s film, Baier makes this history manifest through the most sophisticated technological means of representation.
Realizing how deeply I was sinking into worry, I reached for myA Bible to try to find peace for my troubled soul. The labor of the artist is the transformation of money, through materials, into its own image. Baiera€™s Canvas, a meticulous photographic recording of the bare stone wall beside the first recorded images, situates this indexical effort within the whole history of representationa€”again, carrying us outside the modern technics of mimetic exactitude which make the digital rendering of this stone wall possible in the first place. But this is also to transform them into an art object: neither tool nor raw material, neither instrument nor that to which it is applied. Through Philippians 4:6, I could see that God was calling out to me and urging me to lay down my worries and come boldly before Him to make my requests known. Rather, a worked form, presented, apparently useless and withdrawn from exchangea€”though of course it has its uses and cannot help but find its way back to market.
I realized that this verse showed me step by step how to lay down my worries and boldly make my requests known to God.
If I followed the steps laid out in this verse exactly as I understood them, I would be set free from worry and fear! I promptly followed these steps, and in a matter of minutes my worry was replaced with a thankful, praising, and peaceful heart!A As the years have passed, I have had many occasions when worry and fear have tried to plague my mind.
At times, these challenges have simply been enormous.A This is the reason I so entirely identify with the Apostle Paul as he describes the difficulties he encountered in his ministry. Just as Satan regularly tried to disrupt Paula€™s ministry, the enemy has also attempted on many occasions to hinder our work and thwart the advancement of the Gospel.
However, none of his attacks have ever succeeded, and the Gospel has gone forth in mighty power!A In moments when worry or fear is trying to wrap its life-draining tentacles around me, I rush back to the truths found in Philippians 4:6. Just as I followed the steps found in this verse so many years ago, I still carefully follow them whenever I start getting anxious. Every time I do, these steps lead me from worry and fear to a thankful, praising, and peaceful heart. In fact, I have learned that if I faithfully follow these steps, fear will always be eradicated and replaced with the wonderful, dominating peace of God.A So dona€™t let worry wrap its tentacles aroundA you.
Instead, listen to Paula€™s advice about how to deal with the problems and concerns that try to assail your mind. This particular word and its variousA forms is used approximately 127 times in the New Testament.
By using this word to describe the relationship between the Father and the Son, the Holy Spirit is telling us that theirs is an intimateA relationship.
It was originally used to depict a person who made some kind of vow to God because of a need or desire in his or her life. This individual would vow to give something of great value to God in exchange for a favorable answer to prayer. We offer our customers a better age profile of equipment so the vehicles aren't breaking down. Some of our competitors have got their own workshops and it's cheaper for them to repair the vehicles. When you give GodA your problems, in return He gives you His peace.A Perhaps youa€™ve experienced this great exchange at some previous moment in your life. We couldn't run an old fleet of trucks and make money.” Dawson has a long-standing relationship with Mercedes-Benz on both trucks and vans, though it also buys from MAN and Volvo. Once you truly committed your problem toA the Lord, did a supernatural peace flood your soul and relieve you from your anxieties? The word deisis is translated several ways in the King James Version, including to beseech, to beg, or to earnestly appeal.
Paula€™s use of this word means you can get very boldA when you ask God to move on your behalf.
You can tell God exactlyA what you feel, what youa€™re facing, and what you want Him to do for you. Since the coming out of the recession, the pallet networks are very much in vogue so curtainsider rigids are in big demand. If youa€™ve ever generously given toA someone who never took the time to thank you for the sacrifice you made for him or her, you knowA how shocking ingratitude can be.
But having the two changes a year has actually flattened that out quite significantly for us. Although the request has only just beenA made and the manifestation isna€™t evident yet, it is appropriate to thank God for doing what we haveA requested.
The Greek word a€?aska€? destroys any religious suggestion that you are a lowly worm who has noA right to come into the Presence of God. Declare to God what you need; broadcast it so loudly that all of Heaven hears youA when you pray. Instead, come before GodA and give Him the things that concern you so He can in exchange give you what you need orA desire. Be bold to strongly, passionately, and fervently make your request known to God,A making certain that an equal measure of thanksgiving goes along with your strong asking.A You have every right to ask boldly, so go ahead and insist that God meet your need. Ita€™s time to move from fear to faith, from turmoil to peace, and from defeat to victory!Lord, I thank You for allowing me to come boldly before You in prayer. My temptation is toA worry and fear, but I know that if I will trust You, everything I am concerned about willA turn out all right. Right now I reject the temptation to worry, and I choose to come beforeA You to boldly make my requests known. I go to God with those things thatA are on my heart, and I clearly articulate what I feel, what I need, and what I expect HeavenA to do on my behalf.
I always match my requests with thanksgiving, letting God know howA grateful I am for everything He does in my life.
Do you give in and allow worry and fretfulness to fill your mind, or do you run to the Lord and commit your problems to Him?A 2.
In return, did He fill you with supernatural peace, enabling you to overcome the worries that were trying to devour you?A 3.
If these truths were helpful to you, can you think of someone else you know who needs this sameA encouragement? If youa€™ve evergenerously given to someone who never took the time to thankyou for the sacrifice you made for him or her, you know howshocking ingratitude can be. This isn't something we've done because this customer has come to us and asked for this truck.
We saw last year that we were able to demonstrate pretty significant fuel savings and the operational shift to Euro-6 wasn't as big as people thought.” While Euro-6 trucks have proved more fuel efficient than their predecessors, they do cost Dawson more to buy and maintain.
We were given prices of anything from ?6,000 to ?12,000 for a new system but then some people are saying they can change the cartridge for ?1,200.
But on the long-run vehicles that are doing lots of miles they've not missed a beat.” Purchase prices are at least 10% higher on Euro-6, according to Miller. If we can buy 500 vehicles at the right price, and we don't want to increase the fleet size by 500, we've got to sell an amount of vehicles. We like buying things.” Fletcher expects his truck fleet to grow steadily in 2015 as the market improves. There's a rule of thumb that leasing, rental and contract hire grow slightly faster than the rate of economic growth.
Whether it will be as much as 10% I doubt, but it will not be far off that.” If making money from tractor unit hire can be difficult, renting trailers is even tougher, with cripplingly low rates blighting the sector for the past decade. Trying to gauge what is going to happen to a trailer you buy today in seven or eight years' time is really difficult. He buys a used 2006 trailer for ?3,000 or ?4,000 and if it makes ?70 or ?80 a week, he's probably quite happy with that. He's not had to put any money into compliance systems or overhead, the people, the training, all the other things that we do.” Fletcher would like to buy all British trailers, but he concedes “it's not always the best solution for us”, and Dawson remains a big customer of French fridge trailer builder Chereau.
I'll say Chereau are the only manufacturer that can deliver a trailer for a 10-year life in a rental fleet.” Dawson argued strongly that the trial of longer semi-trailers should have been open to the hire companies, but the DfT ignored their approach.
Needless to say, we didn't get much traction with this.” Dawson has however invested heavily in doubledeck trailers, taking delivery of its first refrigerated unit back in 2000 and now having over 600 on the fleet. That's whether it's dry freight or refrigerated.” While the rates for doubledecks are better than for vanilla single deck curtainsiders, they are expensive to buy and maintain. Now we could take on any size of fleet.” As on the truck side, Dawson will be an early adopter of Euro-6 when it comes into force for light commercials. If you think about lot of big companies like construction firms and utilities, or the Royal Mail, that run fleets in the UK, it's not their core business activity.



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