If someone handed you a magic wand and said, a€?We have really failed in the way the government of the United States of America operates and we are now empowering you to make any changes you desire to make this government operate more efficiently and better,a€? what major changes, if any, would you make? Historically people who climbed to the top have chosen two ways, basically, to govern others -- with some form of absolutism or constitutionalism. However, the individual, although created to live individually and freely, is always subject to law, and true freedom is always exercised only as one lives obediently under law. In the 17th century crisis and the need for rebuilding after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War led to the push for absolutism. And so, after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) religious identity and commitment led to a new sense of nationalism based upon a nationa€™s major religious beliefs. This was the case also in Germany, even though the Treaty of Westphalia had set back the formation of a unified state in Germany.
Monarchies developed throughout Europe, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, over vast empires. Obstacles to Nation Building: Building a centralized government in most a€?nationsa€? (the word was not yet coined nor widely comprehended) was faced with numerous obstacles, not the least of which was the fact that in most countries people spoke numerous dialects, making nation-wide communication very difficult. Absolute rulers overcame these obstacles by building armies, bureaucracies, and using the force of the army to mold the people into one body.
Frequent wars and the cost of maintaining large armies: Large armies were needed to impose the monarcha€™s will and to expand the borders. Popular Uprisings: As food shortages and taxes increased, and frequent wars created havoc, poverty, and death, people began to revolt.
In attempting to deal with these problems, monarchs turned to either absolutism or constitutionalism to form effective governments.
Government functions are guided by the dictates of the ruler and his or her lieutenants and not by established law. The rules or laws are applied arbitrarily and seldom apply to those at the top, especially the monarch or emperor. Problem solving is by issuing edicts and pronouncements, by creating more administrators, creating a larger bureaucracy, and levying heavier taxes on the people to pay for the expenses of the absolute ruler(s).
Those governed have little participation in government, little input into law-making (unless through protests and demonstrations), and have to simply yield and be satisfied with what is handed to them from the absolute ruler and the top. Constitutionalism or Peoplea€™s Law is a form of government that acknowledges that certain inalienable rights are possessed by both those who govern and by those who are governed.
Peoplea€™s Law was introduced into England by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century A.D.
In Peoplea€™s Law or Constitutionalism all power is contained within the Constitution, a written contract that all people agree to embrace and to live cooperatively under, either in a monarchy or in a republic. All functions of government are from the people upward through their elected representatives. Government control is exercised through written laws which have their basis in the written constitution. Government functions as a process guided by established law, which reflects the will of the people and applies to everyone, even to those who govern.
Transferring power is carried out by either heredity (in a monarchy or empire) or by popular vote (in a republic), with a peaceful transition from one ruler or set of elected representatives to another. The people are viewed as the foundation of the government, those with the power to elect to office the representatives of their choosing and if in a monarchy the ruler remains enthroned at the will of the people.
All citizens have the right to participate in voting, no matter their social and economic class (although admittedly it took some nations a long time to grant suffrage to all adults, whether male or female, and whether property owners or not!).
The land is viewed as the property of the people collectively, who exercise their inalienable right to own personal property and to use their personal property as they see fit. The processes of government are for the most part carried out by the representatives who have been chosen by the people to represent their best interests and to preserve and uphold the Constitution. Problem solving is carried out by elected representatives and officials appointed by those elected representatives. When a problem occurs or a major issue must be decided, the will of the people is protected by a Constitution and requires that they be allowed to express that will through special votes or referendums. Those governed are given every opportunity for upward mobility through personal initiative and hard work. Another major issue that separates absolutism from constitutionalism is this: are individual rights a€?awardeda€? by a ruler or are they possessed innately as a person created in Goda€™s image? Under Absolutism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as a€?rewardsa€? that the ruler gives out to whomever he or she arbitrarily selects. Under Constitutionalism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as innate possessions of all people. After the religious wars in France, which pitted Catholics against Huguenots, Henry IV (1553-1610) took the French throne after the death of Henry III, and demonstrated to the French that a strong central government offered many advantages. In 1572, as Duke of Navarre, Henry married a Catholic princess, Margaret of Valois, daughter of King Francis I and Catherine de Medici.
When Margareta€™s brother, King Henry III, was assassinated in 1589, Henry, now king of Navarre, was by heredity next in line to become king of France.
Henry IV was the first in the line of the Bourbon kings of France, which included Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII (wea€™ll find out in a later unit what happened to Louis XVII), and Charles X. With the ascension to the throne of Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV in 1610, the Bourbon kings practiced an absolutism balanced with a precarious arrangement with the French nobility.
Now as king of France, Henry IV, with strong Calvinist ties through his mother, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, took the important step of proclaiming the Edict of Nantes in 1598, almost as a statement, a€?Ia€™ve become a Catholic in order to rule as king but Ia€™ll grant freedom to my Huguenot friends, now that I have the power to do so.a€? The Edict of Nantes granted religious liberty to the Huguenots.
Richelieu championed the concept of absolutism in government and is known as the Father of Absolutism.
Using new and expanded powers under the regency of Richelieu the central government took the eyes of the people off of problems at home (hunger, inflation, an unresponsive and a€?distanta€? government) by expanding war against the Habsburgs in Austria and Germany, foes who Cardinal Richelieu hated. Later, when Louis XIV attempted to bypass the unwritten agreement and impose taxes on the nobility to support his many war efforts, the nobility rose up in protest, maintained their traditional right to not be taxed, and forced the king to back down. Louis XIV held firm to a belief in the doctrine of the divine rights of kings, as did his father, Louis XIII.
He also ended religious toleration and in 1685 revoked his grandfather Henrya€™s Edict of Nantes. His rationale for revoking the Edict was the earlier agreement reached at the Peace of Augsburg in 1530 which established that the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the state.
The wars of Louis XIV were based upon his belief that in order to increase Francea€™s sovereignty he needed to expand its borders, especially in areas where the people were French by language and culture. Wars were fought by the French with other European nations for more than 50% of Louis XIVa€™s reign.
Louis XIV was also known as a€?the Sun Kinga€? because during his reign French culture, French dress, French architecture, and the French language enjoyed a hegemony in Europe. Colbert (1619-1683) was the Controller General of Finance under Louis XIV and believed strongly that the wealth of the state should fund the central government.
Colbert believed this was crucially important to financially maintain Francea€™s military power and its European hegemony (the dominance of French language and culture throughout Europe).
In French mercantilism, the principle was also established that through a controlled economy the nation would base its financial stability on the accumulation of gold.
Under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Spain developed an absolute monarchy after the struggle to expel the Muslim Moors from Spain was completed in 1492.
Furthermore, a strong military was necessary to preserve Spaina€™s presence in the New World, opened initially by the Spanish-sponsored journey of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The development of their colonies and the new wealth in gold and silver in the New World further aided the absolutism in Spain.
By the beginning of the 18th century Spain was a weakened nation and never recovered to its 16th century glory. England traditionally attempted to maintain a between the power of government and the rights and participation of the people.
Against this notion was the long tradition introduced by Alfred the Great at the end of the 9th century which continued to loom in the thinking of the nobility and later the House of Commons.
Hence, the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism in England began after the conquest by William of Normandy, continued during the reign of his descendants, and erupted in armed conflict at a confrontation at Runnymede in 1215 when the English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. Elizabeth also was able to use her commitment to the Protestant faith as a national rallying point against the Catholic mainland (France, Spain, the Habsburgs). Conrad Russell points out that on several occasions the House of Commons used petitions of grace to express their ideas about very important matters. James was angered by the petition, accusing the House of Commons of getting involved in matters than were reserved only for the king -- foreign policy and marriage of the king.
Finally, Jamesa€™ response, due to the inability to reach an agreement, was to dismiss Parliament. Each of his three Stuart successors used the same tactic -- if Parliament digs in their heels on an important matter, just dismiss Parliament! These incidents are cited here simply to show how Parliament and the English monarchy interrelated. The Stuart line created great furor in England because of their 1) increased commitment to the divine rights of kings, and 2) insistence upon absolutism. Henry maneuvered Parliament to declare the English Church free from Rome through the Act of Supremacy of 1534.
Son of Henrya€™s third wife, Jane Seymour, raised a Calvinist, aided the reformation in England, and maintained order during his brief reign. With the coronation of James I, the Tudor line of monarchs ended and the Stuart line began. James was totally committed to the idea of the divine right of kings and to the system of absolute rule. When James was crowned King of England, the Puritan Reformers in England thought that at last they would be given new credibility and freedom in England. Charles succeeded his father, James, as king in 1625 and soon after married Princess Henrietta Maria, a daughter of King Henry IV of France and his wife Maria de Medici.
After Parliament was called again into session in 1640, Charles was so angered on one occasion that he stormed into Parliament and attempted to arrest five members (they escaped out a back door!).
By 1646 Charles knew that he would lose the war, and, rather than submitting to the English Parliament, fled to Scotland where he hoped they would provide him safety since he was the son of the former king of Scotland. In 1648 he was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice composed of 135 judges, with a quorum for any meeting set at 20 because of the difficulty of travel.
A main charge that was after a lull in the civil war and a prospect for peace, Charles renewed the conflict which ultimately, per Geoffrey Robertson, resulted in the death of one out of every ten English citizens. In the final address given by the lead prosecutor, it was emphasized that no king is above the law, that English law proceeds from Parliament and not the king, and that he had broken the covenant with the people he governed by declaring traitorous war on them. With that act, Parliament abolished the British monarchy and under Oliver Cromwella€™s leadership, created a republic, the Commonwealth of England. Cromwella€™s contributions during his ten years of leadership in Englanda€™s only experiment with a republic, the Commonwealth, also known as the Interregnum, were (1) by military action to wrap Ireland into a three kingdom Britain, together with Scotland and England, (2) impose (unsuccessfully) the Puritan and Presbyterian ethic, held by Cromwell and the majority of Parliament, on all England (try that one in your community and see what happens!), which included, among other things, banning gambling and bawdy theater performances, (3) granting religious freedom to a new Jewish population that had entered England, and (4) raising the level of creative arts, especially opera, to new heights.
After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the disintegration of the Commonwealth, Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 and, because they were still locked into the pattern of hereditary succession, placed the son of Charles I on the throne, the dissolute and perhaps least capable and worthy man in England to serve as king, Charles II.
After the death of his father and loss of a battle against Cromwell, Charles II fled to France and remained in Europe for 9 years until the death of Cromwell.
He also proclaimed a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 granting religious freedom to Catholics and to Protestant dissenters (English Presbyterians, Baptists, and Independents who refused to practice Anglican worship). His short four-year reign was filled with struggle and conflict with Parliament, who, looking with great anxiety at the other absolute monarchies being established in Europe, determined that such would not be the case in England. Their fears also led to the passing of the Test Act of 1673 in which all military and government officials were required to take an oath in which they renounced the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see Unit 17), use of relics, and to participate in the Lorda€™s Supper conducted by Anglican clergy.
When James refused to take the vow, it became publicly known that while in France during the Interregnum he and his first wife had converted to Catholicism. He further angered Parliament when he created a professional standing army, against English tradition to not maintain an army except in wartime, and when he exempted the soldiers from taking the vow of the Test Act.
James opened many leadership positions to Catholics in government, issued an edict condemning Presbyterians to death in Scotland, and generally favoring Catholics in England. When Parliament opposed him in 1685, like his Stuart predecessors, he simply dissolved Parliament. With that, a group of English nobles approached William III of Orange in 1688 to invade England and overthrow James. The Revolution was complete, no blood was shed, absolutism was at last defeated, and the last Catholic monarch of England was banished to France. Within the next year, William III and his wife Mary II, eldest daughter of James, were crowned as co-monarchs of Britain.
William III outlived his wife, Mary II, and after her death in 1692 ruled alone as king until his death in 1702. The House of Hanover (cousins of the Stuarts in Germany) succeeded the Stuarts on the throne. In addition to abolishing absolute rule in England, the most important document that came out of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the English Bill of Rights. This was a revolutionary concept following centuries of feudalism and absolute rule, not only in Europe, but virtually everywhere on earth.
The king could not suspend laws nor levy new or additional taxes without the consent of the Parliament. Parliament was to convene regularly (it had not met for eleven years under Charles I had been and dissolved by all of the Stuarts through James II). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for many of the principles that were included in the American Bill of Rights that were amended to the U.S.
The struggle between Absolutism and Constitutionalism was at the heart of the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the overthrow of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, and continues to rage today in Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria. The biblical concept views man as having been created in the image of God and has a right, therefore, to certain freedoms that no other person has a right to quench, whether a king or queen or any other authority.
These God-given freedoms according to the American Bill of Rights include the freedom of speech, freedom to own property, the right to earn a living in whatever way a person deems best under law, and the right to spend that money in whatever way the individual chooses, under law; the right to vote, the right to a fair trial by a jury of onea€™s peers, the right to own and bear arms, the right to be eligible to be elected to office, the freedom to believe and worship as one chooses, the freedom of speech and assembly, and the freedom to petition. What does it mean for a person to live out freely their God-given rights, but always under Goda€™s law? How could the concept of the divine rights of kings be interpreted and practiced in such a way as to lead to guaranteed personal freedoms?
What basic biblical doctrine about who and what a king or queen is in their nature that would tend to lead to constitutionalism?
What were several items that are missing from the English Bill of Rights that you would have thought would have been included? Why does the English Bill of Rights seem to have been slanted so heavily in favor of Protestants? What caution does this raise for us as we (1) interpret what has happened in history, (2) how we should interpret the actions of current governments, and (3) how this should influence how we behave individually today? What is the English tradition that resulted in New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island refusing to ratify the newly proposed U. Prior to 1549 each of the seventeen states had their own sets of law, their own judicial system, and otherwise made it difficult to administer them piecemeal. This, and other administrative decisions made by the emperor, led to the Dutch revolt in 1568 against what they perceived to be political and religious tyranny. In 1571 the seventeen states formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1589 declared themselves to be independent of Spain.
After several other attempts to move under the oversight of other European monarchs, including for a brief time, Elizabeth I of England, the Dutch proclaimed the independent Dutch Republic.
The Republic endured until 1795 when the Netherlands was overrun by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Republic provided the groundwork for the Golden Age of the Netherlands in the 16th century, when free enterprise enabled the Dutch to become the leading merchant fleet in Europe, to found and oversea a vast colonial network in North America, the Dutch West Indies, and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). Absolutism is grasping all power within a nation -- politically, economically, militarily, religiously -- and placing it totally in the hands of a ruler or group of rulers. Constitutionalism is placing all power within a nation under a written constitution that sets limits and boundaries on the exercise of power.
In a Constitutional Monarchy power is shared by the democratically elected parliament either with or without a monarch, with the greater power lying with the parliament. Mercantilism is a form of economics wherein the central government controls the national economy through regulating the rate and type of production, the price of goods, tariffs, and seeks to have exports always outperform imports. Empires developed as monarchs sought to control overseas colonies in order to (1) gain natural resources demanded by society and needed for industrialization, (2) gain greater agricultural areas to feed their populations, (3) obtain new areas to export a growing population of farmers, managers, and military to protect them, and (4) to bolster national prestige and pride. The diagram below attempts to depict the differences between the two major forms of government that arose, ABSOLUTISM and CONSTITUTIONALISM, the two contrasting methods of governing. The Ottoman Empire is discussed more fully in Unit 8, a€?Islam.a€? The Ottomans were ruled by an absolute ruler, the Sultan or Caliph. At various times there were several caliphs in existence at the same time, causing great rivalries to exist.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) devastated so much of Germany, Hungary, and Poland, so depleted the economies of most nations in both West and East, and resulted in the loss of so many people, that central, authoritarian governments seemed to be the only hope for survival. Serfdom: The existence of serfdom in Eastern Europe, as a remnant of centuries of feudalism, enabled the nobility to gain almost total control over the common people. Results of the Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought an end to religious wars in Europe.
Rise of Austria and Prussia: Absolutism took different forms in Austria and Prussia, but the existence of almost continual warfare in their territories enabled leaders in both countries to increase their power.
Austrian Habsburgs in German territories: The Habsburg emperors worked hard to keep their multi-ethnic empire together, with preference and priority always given to those who were German speakers. Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary and Bohemia: The Habsburgs fought and defeated the Ottoman Turks for control of Hungary and by 1648 controlled most of Hungary. Prussia: Prior to the Thirty Years War the noble land owners gained the dominant power in Prussia, but as a result of the war they lost holdings, wealth, and power.
Prussia, the Sparta of Europe: Frederick William built the most professional army in Europe, introduced a military mentality throughout the three provinces, created a strong central bureaucracy, and controlled the nation by military might -- creating the Sparta of Europe.
Russia: The Huns ran roughshod over Russia for several hundred years, leaving behind not only fear and disruption but many descendants. Peter Romanov (Peter the Great) opened the window and doors of Russia to the rest of Europe. The Ottoman Empire: By the middle of the 16th century the Ottomans controlled the worlda€™s largest empire in total geographic territory. By 1529 the Ottomans had conquered most of Hungary and viewed the Austrian Empire as a threat to their new territories in Eastern Europe.
In 1683 the Ottomans laid siege a second time to Vienna, cutting off all supplies into the city for two months.
After the defeat in 1683, the Ottomans began a long process of withdrawal from Eastern Europe because of inefficiency in government, and because of the frequent rebellions within its occupied countries.
Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: In spite of the heavy taxation of Christians and Jews, the Ottomans allowed local leaders to govern their own locales.
1542 King James V of Scotland dies, 9 mos old daughter, Mary, becomes Queen Regnant, married to future king of France, Dauphin Francis, in 1558.
1588 -- Spanish Armada -- Philip determined to make Elizabeth and England pay for Henrya€™s offense against Catharine of Aragon, for treatment when husband of deceased Mary I, for Elizabetha€™s spurning of his marriage offer, and for her aiding the rebels in the Netherlands.
1685-1688 -- James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701).
The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Protestant Reformation led to a deepened sense of nation and nationhood, often based upon religious commitment. The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) tore Europe apart, but it solidified the sense of nationhood and religious identity. Monarchies developed in most European regions, replacing feudal lords, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, and the Spanish crown over vast empires. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 greatly hindered the rise of nationalism in Germany, resulting in a sectionalism containing up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler. Due to the expanding size and complications that developed in managing their territories, most of the new rulers turned to absolutism as a means of governing. Cardinal Richelieu, regent for the young Louis XIII of France, is known as the Father of Absolutism. Absolutism led to heightened nationalism and this, in turn, to a quest to expand borders, usually into areas where the people spoke the same language and were members of the same culture. France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire developed absolute monarchies in the 16th and 17th centuries.
In Great Britain the reign of the Tudors and Stuarts illustrate clearly the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism, beginning with the Magna Carta of 1215, the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the English Bill of Rights of 1688.
The coronation of William of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, as co-monarchs of England in 1689, England established a Parliamentary government that limited the powers of the monarchy in government. The Fathers of the new United States of America rejected a limited monarchy when framing the new Constitution and established a constitutional republic. List from memory the list of the Tudor and the Stuart kings and queens of England and identify (1) their governing philosophy, whether absolute or constitutional, and (2) their religious loyalty, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic.
List from memory the list of the Bourbon line of kings and queens of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI and identify their unique contributions to the development of France. Describe the causes and outcomes of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the decisions of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its impact on shaping Europe.
Compare and contrast the two styles of governing used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries -- absolutism and constitutional republicanism. Discuss in a written essay the history of individual freedom in England from Queen Elizabeth I to William and Mary. Discuss in a written essay how the United States of America would be greatly different today if France had gained victory in Seven Yearsa€™ War between France and England in North America, based upon what you know about conditions in France and England in the 16th and 17th centuries. There is to be a thesis statement which you will a€?provea€? or a€?establisha€? in your essay. So I'm posing a question to The Laundress, a glamorous detergent company I've been using for the past year. There are also some really great parties happening throughout the weekend too that attendies are privy to. Spring is always that time where we clean out and clear away the dust and clutter in our lives. I've been covering technology in fitness, fashion and health over the last 5 months and I really hope you enjoy these trend reports. Like I say in the video, we're picking 3 winners per prize category, so you have an excellent chance of winning.
In all aspects of life, I'm drawn to women who take a stand on issues, don't care about being labeled a freak and just come out and say whatever it is they feel needs to be said. Even when I'm home alone and hungry, I can cook a HelloFresh meal and save the 2nd portion for my lunch or dinner the next day. The concept of the beautifully captured campaign was that an exciting adventure could be as close as your backyard. Every trainer I got was just going through the motions, fully knowing I'd disappear on him or her once my free sessions were up. The day I went to film at KryoLife, owned and operated by Joanna Fryben,  I was actually feeling significant shoulder pain. Cryotherapy is hailed as a cure-all and people are using it to get rid of all kinds of things like acne, cellulite, unwanted weight, inflammation, depression, libido problems, and body injuries.
To be perfectly honest, the TomTom Spark Cardio + Music frustrated me at first because therea€™s a bit of set up involved. I refer to my life as a juggling act because there are so many facets of what I do that need to be in constant motion. In fact, I have more than a few waist trainers that I've been using for over a year since becoming curious about the waist training trend.
As a Latina (my mother is Honduran), I'm feeling the need to spice up Thanksgiving with some Latin peppers.
What follows are my favorite photographs from the day I conquered my fears with the Special Olympics of Missouri. You might think that living in downtown Manhattan, I already see it all when it comes to high style.
If you haven't been to any of Serene Social's wellness events yet, you're missing out and should definitely go to the one happening tomorrow in NYC at the launch of New York's Fashion Week.


I will be there and looking forward to some heart opening rooftop yoga atop the James Hotel in Soho. So here's my Flat Stanley Skincare Secret: I seek out skincare that's packaged flat and in single servings. One of the best parts of going on a road trip adventure is everything that you see along your drive.
This trip will take us to some pretty amazing places where nature makes you feel empowered and free.
Barre classes first came about in a big way in the 1950's on account of ballerina Lotte Berk. Barre fitness is all about using small movements to work trouble spots and tone every inch of your body by working multiple muscles in unison. It beats being ohm-ing indoors, especially with the cool breeze off the harbor blowing through your hair. Earlier this summer, I spent one of the most amazing and healthiest travel weekends of my life at the Four Seasons Baltimore. I first saw a pair of Vira Suns on my yoga-instructor-friend, Lauren Imparato, during a yoga class in the middle of Times Square.
What sets this year's event apart from the last few, aside from the bearably cooler weather, was yoga-preneur Lauren Imparato leading the highly publicized morning class. After years of dealing with this issue called a€?sleevage,a€? Ia€™ve concluded that most bras Ia€™ve worn are actually the real culprits.
Before you give a listen though, I want to share my thoughts on what Katya Meyers is doing.
I got in touch with the designer, Geneva Peschka from SunandDaughtersCo on Etsy, to find out more about the inspiration behind the shirt. Geneva bravely decided to act on the lessons she learned through these books and noticed her life change drastically for the better. The new Lotus Print collection by adidas Originals is urban, striking and feminine in a cool, unapologetic way.
If you're a Zumba fanatic, you should know that the cruise doesn't set sail for another 7 months from Fort Lauderdale, Florida but at least you have some time to plan, right? And just in case you stop dancing to see where the hell you're going, the cruise will be sailing to Falmouth, Jamaica with a stop in Labadee, Haiti for a private live concert featuring the hottest Caribbean artists. While the entire Team SCA crew was not on board, 2 of its sailors were there to answer all my questions.
Their sail, while impressive in it's own right, represents something far greater for women. From your clothes to accessories and gadgets, don't take a risk by wearing it for the first time on race day! FOR an exclusive womena€™s fitness class combining Surfset Fitness (the NEW surf-fitness trend) and Real Ryder Spinning (35 minutes of each).
I picked out some rather loud styles for our shoot but once I got comfortable in them, I had no qualms wearing them "off-set".
Short girls are always getting brainwashed into thinking we can't pull off more eccentric looks or fashion trends that taller girls can get away with. Leave a comment below telling me which fitness myth gets under your skin and why it's soooo untrue.
If there's something you should know about me it's that I avoid tourist traps at all costs! For the sake of being accurate, let's call these dangerous deodorants what they really are, which is antiperspirants. It's totally blowing my mind but at the same time I keep asking myself: why should this feel surreal? I typically only share my press features on my press page, but today I'm expecially THANKFUL because this issue of People Style Watch marks the 12th time I've been quoted in their magazine. One of the most classic New Year's resolutions is to start going to the gym more, which is exactly why gyms start hiking up their enrollment fees around this time. Countries were were emerging from feudalism, some had been impacted by the Black Plague, others had also experienced the Renaissance.
This was the case with the early monarchies that arose in Europe in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe. Princes in Germany drew up their territorial boundaries because much was at stake, as provided for in the Peace of Augsburg (1530) and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). The treaty resulted in a sectionalism that produced up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler. In addition, poor roads, poor transportation, and a zeal to hold on to traditional local power and local culture worked against unifying the people of several regions into a nation. In many cities they resorted to armed uprisings and it was not until the late 17th century that the central governments were strong enough to deal effectively with the frequent uprisings among the populace. In response, people often reacted against absolutism by resorting to a€?No Law,a€? or Anarchy.
It makes possible the free expression and free exercise of those innate inalienable rights. He was a student of biblical law and understood well the form of government given by God to Moses. The Constitution usually has a provision by which amendments can be added by a vote of the people. Where a person is born, with regard to poverty or social class, is not where they are forced to remain. They cannot be given out nor taken away by the ruler or the government because they are given by the Creator and not the king or emperor. He restored peace and order by personal example through his conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism.
The nobility and the clergy in northern France, including Paris, strongly opposed the idea of a Protestant king. The nobles promised their continued support of the throne if the throne continued to hold them free from taxation. His Catholic wife, Marie de Medici, a princess of Austria, appointed a regent, Catholic Cardinal Richelieu, to serve as regent for her young son, Louis XIII. Richelieu promoted the idea of limiting the strength of the nobility and expanding and strengthening the role of the bureaucracy (officials hired to do professional government work). But, in a compromise measure, the nobles left in place a strong monarchy -- just so long as it did not tax the nobility!
To increase his central power, Louis XIV centralized his government (1) by appointing intendants to govern for him in the various districts of France, (2) he kept the nobility powerless in government by refusing to call into session the Estates General (the parliament of France), and (3) he developed a widespread secret police by which he spread terror and fear.
He became known as a€?the War King.a€? His war efforts plunged France into debt, required more and more taxation to pay the debt, and increased the poverty of the lower classes. The a€?suna€? of the French hegemony seemed to extend from east to west, wherever the sun rose and set. His major successes included 1) development of New World French colonies, 2) building up the French merchant fleet, 3) developing government-controlled industry, and 4) improving the process of tax collection.
Only a strong central government with a large, professional army could preserve the new freedom from Islam.
His journey was not primarily a trip to find new lands, but to discover a westward route to the Spice Islands in the Pacific. The problem that continually checked the growth of constitutionalism in England was the concept held by the Tudor and Stuart dynasties was the divine right of kings.
The nobility and common people continually had recall to days when a just legal system prevailed and the ideas and opinions of all the people mattered.
Concerning the execution of Mary, for example, she was twice petitioned to sign a death warrant for Mary. She added the Dutch in their 80 year war for independence from Spain, and the failed Spanish Armada of 1588 simply rallied the people behind their queen.
To illustrate, consider how the House of Commons was expected to bring their requests and ideas to the attention of the king or queen. Sir Edward Coke, member of Parliament, is quoted as having commented to King James I, a€?I hope that everyone who saith, our Father, which are in heaven, does not prescribe God Almighty what he should do so do we speak of these things as petitioners to his Majesty, and not as prescribers, etc.a€? (Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1990, p.
These were issued with more a tone of, a€?We are the House of Commons and this is what we think you should do. In 1586 both the House of Lords and House of Commons petitioned Queen Elizabeth to sign the order for the execution of her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland for her reported involvement in plans to assassinate Elizabeth. He seemed to carry a chip on his shoulder, always alert to any hints of the Parliament moving into his kingly rights.
Allow him to impose current taxes and tariffs to take care of current debt but no more in the future.
Constitutionalism was certainly not at work in England during the Tudor dynasty and through the reigns of James I and Charles I.
Today the queen of England is officially head of the Church of England and head of Great Britain, but her powers are very limited. In 1455 a series of wars were fought between two rival branches of the dynasty, the House of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose). Elizabeth allowed a high degree of religious freedom in England during her reign, even though she was aware of the constant attempts by Catholic monarchs in Europe to have her deposed and Cathholicism re established in England. James became infant King James VI of Scotland after his mother, Mary, Queen of Scotland, was banished from Presbyterian Scotland for her Catholic faith and the intrigue resulting from the death of her husband. Their oldest daughter, Mary, was married at 9 to the Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, and subsequently became mother of William III, Prince of Orange who became King of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
The High Court was composed of member of the House of Commons, without the consent of the House of Lords.
As Goda€™s appointed absolute king, he refused to acknowledge their authority over him and concluded his comments with, a€?.
In 1660 he was invited by Parliament to return to England and they composed all documents to make it appear that Charles had succeeded his father in 1649, as though the republican Commonwealth had never existed! He conducted war against the Netherlands and entered into a secret treaty with his first cousin, King Louis XIV of France. Parliament forced him to rescind the Declaration, viewing it as a Roman plot to return England to Catholicism. With that, Charles dissolved Parliament and for four years until his death in 1685 ruled England alone as absolute king.
He was (1) pro-French, (2) pro-Catholic, (3) was himself a Catholic, and (4) his announced plans to establish an absolute monarchy. He created the army to protect him from rebellions after having to put down two rebellions in Scotland and southern England.
In 1687 he unilaterally issued the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, which called for religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant nonconformists. The wife of William was Jamesa€™ oldest daughter, Mary, a staunch Calvinist, as was William. The basic premise of the Bill of Rights was the following: everyone, from the poorest beggar in the street to the richest merchant, from a child in school to members of nobility, lords, military officers, judges, monarchs, all have certain basic rights that are guaranteed. But this freedom is limited in the sense that the freedom of the individual is always to be carried out while living under the law of God. In 1549 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which solidified the Empirea€™s control over the seventeen states comprising the Netherlands.
From the viewpoint of the seventeen states, however, this was the imposition of a level of control that threatened their independence. The major causes for the revolt also included persecution of the Calvinist majority as heretics by the Catholic Phillip II, removal of institutions of governance practiced by the states for generations, and the imposition of high taxes. A chief ally of William was Elizabeth I of England who supplied men, weapons, and financing to the Calvinist cause. In 1582 they took the strange, but politically astute move of inviting Francis, duke of Anjou in France, son of King Henry II of France. Each province was managed by its own representative assembly and each province elected representatives to sit in the general assembly of the united provinces. While the monarch ruled supreme, there were certain limitations placed upon his or her exercise of power, but this was a limited curtailment.
In the French version of mercantilism, it was also believed that a nations stockpile of gold was the basis for economic health. The one thwarts, squashes, and denies the inalienable rights of people and the other fosters, promotes, and grants those rights. It produced a new more crushing in serfdom in Russia and the eastern portions of the Habsburg Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and resulted in severe restrictions on travel, relocation, private ownership of land, and produced heavy taxation. It weakened the power of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna so that (1) it had to remain a confederation of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural states, (2) it gave former Habsburg territories to France and Sweden at the expense of Austria, and (3) made Calvinism a legal choice alongside Catholicism and Lutheranism throughout Europe, at least on paper if not always in fact. The Kaiser (Prussia) and the Emperor (Austria) gave almost total control over the peasants to the nobility in exchange for total loyalty of the nobles to the monarchy and their granting Kaiser and Emperor almost total freedom to raise taxes, raise professional armies, and conduct foreign affairs. They kept the empire together by a program of rewarding the nobility (with land, control over peasants, expanded trade rights) and imposing Catholicism on everyone in the southern German states where they still retained power.
The nobility in Hungary proved a real problem because they resisted Austrian control, rebelled whenever possible, and as Calvinists resisted the attempts to impose Catholicism on them. The head of the Hohenzollern family (a traditional royal Prussian family), Frederick William (Wilhelm), came to power, took away the traditional representative rights of the nobility, and gained control over the three Prussian provinces in northern Germany. He controlled the nobility (a€?Junkersa€?) by placing in their hands the officer corps of the giant military machine.
Ivan the Terrible (not given that title because he was a nice guy!) was able to recapture Russian dominance away from the Huns, but was ruthless in his actions to gain absolute control.
Beginning with their capture of Constantinople in 1453, which was both a strategic victory -- opening eastern Europe to their campaigns and occupation -- as well as a victory giving to them great prestige. This created a level of interaction between Muslims, Jews, and Christians not often experienced by Catholics and Protestants in the rest of Europe. Religious commitment gave weight to a new sense of nationalism based upon a state or nationa€™s major religious beliefs. Economic Minister Colbert who served under Louis XIV, is known as the Father of Mercantilism. England fought an ongoing struggle between the absolutist Stuarts and the non-absolutist Parliament.
It's sophisticated yet casual because the top flap and straps are made from a beautiful tanned leather while the rest of the bag is a coated canvas.
I hiked to secret beaches, jumped into the ocean off rocky cliffs, slid down mud trails, went stand up paddle boarding and pretty much lived in a bikini the entire time. I rinsed them out with cold water at the end of each day, but when I returned back home to NYC I realized how bad they smelled.
The Laundress was actually in my last #MIZ10 Quarterly Box and I trust them completely because they make the best eco-friendly laundry and fabric care. Louis and you're a blogger or content creator who wants to spend a day learning how to market yourself and build a brand and audience, then come join us!
It's called SPRING 'LEAN AND DECLUTTER YOUR FIT ROUTINE and it's set to be delivered around May 20th. I recently cleaned out my clothes and shoe closet and ended up throwing a bunch of stuff away and donating the rest. I'll admit, I didn't start until the last year or two when I realized I was accumulating too much stuff. The reason I find them so relevant is because by 2020, wearable technology alone with generate over 20 billion dollars in revenue. Last night I made HelloFresh's Carmelized Onion Burger but instead of fries, the recipe included a roasted cauliflower side. It was supposed to wet your appetite for personal training and help you ease into your new gym-life.
People are investing more of their paycheck in health & wellness, and seem to be more committed to their workouts than ever. But if you want the benefits of the treatment, it's worth enduring the very looooong 3 minutes. So I was genuinely hoping to reap the benefits of whole body cryo and report back to you on how quickly it worked. Most of the ones Ia€™ve purchased or have been sent to review bite the dust in my gadget drawer at Mizzfit Headquarters.
I have what seems like a billion projects going on at once, and if I ignore one of thema€”well, you know what happensa€”the balls, the chainsaws and flaming sticks come toppling down on you and scatter. Like many of you, I saw Kim Kardashian's selfie that she took in her trainer and wondered what's this? One of my recipes is an appetizer and the other is a side dish to accompany your turkey dinner. Look for them in the canned and jar food aisle where you'd find things like stewed tomatoes, pasta sauces, etc.
I'm pretty sure it was a combination of the perm's harsh chemicals (it was the early 90's afterall) and my onset of puberty. There's an amazing event called Over The Edge that happens nationwide through the Special Olympics, and I decided to do it in St. In addition to raising awareness for this extraordinary event, I raised money to support it. To some extent that's true because of the amazing and innovative fashion sense people have here. Serene Social has teamed up with Lululemon and Suja for this gathering to kick off the calamity of fashion energy that's about to overtake the city.
By the time his photographs started getting noticed through social media, it was already a passion project. I've talked a lot about Haute Athletics this summer and love that they carry stuff you won't find elsewhere. Since there are women rockin' this style and attitude in their everyday clothing, clearly there should be activewear that expresses the same vibe! Her prodigees went on to turn barre fitness into a successful business of popular, packed classes.
Quite honestly, I felt like I was hiding out, as if I had taken off for an exotic and faraway retreat. But the real highlight was scoring my room at the Four Seasons for their celebration of Global Wellness Day, which was served up as a full week of fit & healthy activities.
Men don't like to be kept in the dark, because they know whatever you give them they'll have to top when it's time to shop for you. I knew this year for Father's Day I was going to give my dad a travel bag that would help him do this. Here's the link again on Lucy's Blog :)]]>On June 21st, Athleta was the headlining sponsor of Solstice in Times Square put on by Times Square Alliance for it's 13th year.
When Katya first reached out to me and shared a bit of her life with me, I was really impressed with her background and how she left a traditional career path to pursue an endeavor her heart was stuck on (racing). She told me that over the last few years she's been doing a lot of self work and stumbled across Spirit Junkie by Gabrielle Bernstein.
During my little photoshoot in NYC's Meatpacking District, locals and tourists alike kept pointing out my gear to their group. She works out with me, attends my events and has modeled for print ads (like the one above which actually never ran) and in magazines with me. After writing about Team SCA and their amazing adventure racing around the world, I was invited on a press trip to sail with them. Just to clarify, the Volvo Ocean Race is ongoing and was in full effect while I was on this press trip, but a few crew members at a time are allowed to come off the boat for a leg of the race and rest up. As I write this, there are some incredibly athletic and brave women sailing around the world as part of Team SCA. It stops in nine countries around the world before finishing in Gothenburg, Sweden this June of 2015. Test everything you plan on wearing for the official half marathon race day during your last few training runs. Now that crazy party church is home to David Barton Gym and LimeLight shops where health and fashion are king and "queen" (it's in Chelsea, so I had to).
And if anyone has ever told you that knee highs only look good on girls with skinny legs, well, that's just NOT TRUE.
Personally, I just think it's a matter of choosing a pattern, color or length that best suit your legs.
I like to uncover the healthiest and most active things going on in the places I travel to, and I always prefer to go off the beaten path. As I get older, I find I need to do more to preserve the firmness, the lift and glow factor of my skin. I'm feeling really grateful for 2.5 years of working with them to report on the hottest fitness trends happening nation-wide.
This was the case within the dynasties of China and with the tribal leadership in Meso-America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. But it also gives a clear pattern for how the monarchy is to operate: (1) there must be law with justice, (2) the just law must apply to everyone, and (3) everyone, because created in the image of God, has certain God-given inalienable rights that no one is to seek to block or take away. These inalienable rights are guaranteed in a written constitution under which all people live. He codified that system of law in his work Liber ex lege Moise (a€?The Book of the Law of Mosesa€?) c. Bartholomewa€™s Massacre, he was forced to quickly convert to Catholicism in order to save his life. They promoted his uncle, Charles, but after the death of Charles delayed finding a replacement. The marriage was subsequently annulled by the pope in 1599 after Henry IV conveniently converted to Catholicism in 1593 (confiding at the time to a friend, a€?Paris is worth a massa€?).
He even brought France into the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) on the side of the Protestants in an attempt to deal a death blow to fellow Catholics, the Austrian Habsburgs!
The French kings never were able to rule with a€?absolute absolutism.a€? A peace of sorts was delicately maintained by an agreement -- the nobility would support the monarch if the monarch did not levy taxes them. It is interesting how a peace treaty intended to settle religious conflict in Germany was used by Louis 150 years later to maintain absolutism in France and to crush the Huguenots! Further, the other European nations, tired of Louisa€™ bullying tactics, built alliances pitted against France and did much to isolate France from the rest of Europe, negatively impacting Francea€™s economy and trade. The traditional routes from Spain to Asia were now jeopardized by Islamic navies in the Mediterranean. If God set a king on the throne, then the common people, if they feared God, would do as the king commands -- or so the thinking went. His daughter, Mary, controlled a predominantly Protestant Parliament with the same tactics and over 400 persons, mainly Protestant ministers and leaders, were executed under her reign. Each time Elizabeth could not get herself to execute someone whom God had placed on a throne. Then the Catholics in England could be dealt with quietly with without causing a ruckus at home. A code of law was was established and a history of court decisions recorded, yet there was no one written document that could be call a legitimate constitution. His marriage to Catherine of Aragon and struggles for an annulment are discussed in Unit 17. Catherine was given funding and housing for life after her marriage to Henry was annulled by Pope Clement VII. In that treaty Louis promised military support to Charles, and to pay him a pension, and in return, Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism.
Further fear in this regard broke out when it was discovered the Charlesa€™ brother James (and next in line as heir to become king!) was a Catholic! When the Dutch forces landed in 1688 James succumbed to fear and did not oppose them, although his own army was superior in numbers. James chose the later, fled to Paris in 1688, and was given a pension for life and security by his cousin, Louis XIV. King George V changed the family name during World War I from Hanover to Windsor to avoid the reminder of their German ancestry. Its independence was formally recognized by all of Europe in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648.


Basically, it merged all seventeen states, for the purpose of administration, into one entity, and established that in the future, all seventeen would pass as a unit to the next emperor. Through the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia four more bordering provinces were added to the original seven, bringing the total to eleven. Chart #2 reviews the history of the monarchy in England as it progressed from Absolutism to the passage of the English Bill of Rights and the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The nobility (landowners) weakened the economic power of merchants (former serfs) in towns and cities by selling their agricultural goods directly to merchants in other countries, by-passing the local merchants.
The emperor used his professional army to keep control in the southern German speaking areas. Charles VI arranged the acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction which eliminated the traditional Salic Law in the empire and thus allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, his only heir, who was to become, perhaps, the dominant female ruler of the era, to gain the throne in 1740.
Surrounded by Russia to the north and the frequent invasions into Prussia by the Tartars (descendants of the Huns in Russia), Austria to the East, and France to the South, Frederick Wilhelm did not have to do much convincing of the population to show the necessity for a strong, absolutist monarchy. After his death, Michael Romanov rose to power as the first hereditary ruler in Russia, establishing the Romanov family line that lasted on the Russian throne until 1918. After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Sweden in the early stages of the Great Northern War, Peter Romanov strengthened the economy, the army, and the central government. Building a new capitol city from ground zero, he used the blood and sweat of serfs and forced cooperation by the nobles to build the city. The Ottomans continued their movement westward into Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, and even as far westward as Hungary.
The city was defended by farmers, merchants, and other citizens, and by German and Spanish troops sent by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. The parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth valued highly the trade relations they enjoyed with the Ottoman Empire and wanted nothing to harm that relationship. To tell you more about the box (tagged #MIZ11), I've decided to answer questions sent to me by Quarterly Co and Mizzfit readers. I have a chest full of fitness gear and equiptment in my apartment, and OMG, the things I found inside of it had me rolling on the ground. Yes, it's going through it's "boutique salon" stage right now, but people have been "floating" and even installing floating chambers in their homes for the last 20 years. But seriously, it's hard to decide which one is my favorite prize because quite frankly, I own them all. We often take for granted the wonderful parks and historical sights within the region we live in.
A few years ago The New York Times reported that some women were studio-hopping, taking more than 1 class a day to get their fix. It wasn't an overnight kind of relief, but the pain did completely go away about a day and half later. I know youa€™ve probably heard of many fitness trackers already but this one is the tracker of all trackers. 8 years ago I left a career in corporate advertising to pursue my dream of reporting on health & fitness.
Ita€™s risky business juggling a lot in your life, but for me personally, I live for the thrill!
I reached out to Hourglass Angel (the most well-known waist training seller online) to see if I could try their products and, of course, come to my own conclusion. Again, not complaining as worse things have happened in my life, but as all wavy and curly-haired girls know, learning how to style curls is freakin' hard! Louis at The Arch so that Special Olympics athletes from my hometown can train, compete and enjoy a lifetime of their own thrills. BUT, I'm never as exposed to the world of fashion and the mind-blowing creations debuting on runways as I am during NYFW.
She presented her "Search Don't Rescue" collection, which really appealed to me because I'm a huge fan of monochromatic, flowy dresses and pairings.
Graffiti Beasts leggings feature the art of real street artists whose art can be seen on the streets of Lisbon, Barcelona, Milan, New York City and many more cities across the world. Michelle Austin, founder of the Fluidity Barre, was one of her students among others like Exhale founder Fred Devito, who I interviewed HERE. You will most likely discover parts of your body that you never knew were possible to work out or even move. They have a wayfarer style (which is so classic that they're always IN) and they're made with polarized, UV400 protection lenses. If you set a level of expectation, they will ALWAYS look forward to your gifts and rave about them in conversation. Let me guess, you know how to break a sweat but you also look forward to showing off how well you clean up and glow like a pro.
Check it out because I go into detail about why these skincare products should be in your summer gym bag STAT! This is the yearly event where yogis come together right smack in the middle of Times Square to celebrate the day the sun is at its highest position in the sky for the longest period of time. The tracker itself is a black shiny oval shaped piece that clips into a metal slip-on bracelet. But what you're paying for is great technology, an app that doesn't baffle you but inspires you and a piece of jewelry that looks good with anything you wear. A really astounding young lady and go-getter herself, Katya Meyers, created the interview series to share what happens behind the scenes in the lives of successful health & wellness oriented professionals. Spirit Junkie and the book A Return To Love by Marianne Williamson really helped open her mind and heart to all the amazing possibilities that can happen when someone chooses love over fear. If you know of a case that shoud be on this list, please add it to the comments section below with a direct link.
It's a 5 day adventure and my sources are telling me that there will be 130 of the most famous Zumba instructors onboard including Beto Perez himself. I used to think of her as just my mom without fully worshipping everything she's accomplished.
They're competing in the Volvo Ocean Race, which is considered to be the toughest sailing race in the world. It's a long trip (9 months at sea!) and it's a tremendous challenge for these women, requiring massive teamwork and goal-setting. Of course, you have to train consistently, eat right and get plenty of sleep and hydration. I teamed up with Chrissy's and my bestie, Michelle from YoGoGirls, to bring you these playful and sporty looks. I'm 5'2" with muscular legs and I loved the way these Polka Dot Socks almost seemed to lengthen my legs.
Aging lines, sun damage and sagging are major concerns of mine, and I'd like to do the most I can to prevent the visible aging process from coming on faster than it needs to.
Because aluminum prevents our underarms from stinking by blocking sweat from escaping through our pores onto the surface of the skin.
Since May of 2009, I've been on a mission to take everything I learned and experienced from my advertising career and turn into something truly positive that will help women embrace health & wellness. I also wanted to take a moment to tell all of you that I'm always here to answer your questions about health & wellness so feel free to contact me. Now the question arose, a€?How should we govern ourselves?a€? or to be more accurate, asked the question, a€?Now that we have fought our way to the top, how will we govern this country?a€? They had no patterns or role models to follow. The excitement of the discoveries in the Renaissance and explorations in the New World began to fade. If you lived two feet on the other side of the state line your were compelled to be a Catholic.
Full time, professional armies led to the frequent wars for expansion that characterized this period. His marriage with Margaret was not a successful marriage, with both Henry and Margaret often separating and engaging in infidelity.
Henry took that opportunity to wage war against the Catholic north in order to secure the crown. In 1600 Henry then married Marie de Medici, daughter of the Duke of Tuscany (Florence, Italy) and a devout Catholic. At the time most people simply identified themselves by the region or town in which they lived. Mercantilism looked good on paper, but if no one in Europe will trade with France, the economy suffers greatly. Mercantilism is the philosophy and practice of a national economy that is controlled almost entirely by the central government.
Spain needed new income to replenish a bankrupt treasurer emptied by the struggle to defeat the Moors. But she used the strength of her personality and popular support among the people to wield great power over Parliament.
But on the third occasion, the petition from Parliament was so strong and the rationale so convincing, the Elizabeth finally relented and issued the death warrant for Mary.
The issue also involved the kinga€™s right to levy taxes and tariffs to fund his expenses apart from Parliamenta€™s consent.
If they gave one inch they would compromise their authority to control the funding of the monarchy. Parliament continued to exercise some degree of power because it possessed the purse strings. As a sop, thrown in their direction with a view to pacifying them, but with an ulterior motive, James permitted them to publish a new English translation of the Bible. His frequent conflicts with Parliament resulted in his dissolving Parliament on three separate occasions when they did not yield to his wishes.
This greatly threatened the privileged position of the Church of England and furthered the resentment and opposition to his rule.
However, the move notified Spain that any attempts to overthrow the move for independence would result in French involvement.
Michael built a strong central government, opened relations with other European countries, expanded Russiaa€™s territory, developed a government bureaucracy, and created Russiaa€™s first professional army. The many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups made the centralization of government difficult. For instance, Jews and Christians were not permitted to ride horses, could not walk on the same side of the street as Muslims, were frequently forced to yield their 12-year old sons and daughters as slaves, and were generally treated as lower class people. But I have this problem where I carry around heavy shoulder bags and they end up giving me the worst pains that shoot up into my neck. As a vlogger, digital host and tv host, you could say I know a thing or two about producing video content.
The category continues to evolve and expand beyond the fitness tracker we're all familiar with. The prizes I pick for each Booya Fitness challenge are based on my favorite products and gear that I've personally test out for you. I only ate half the bun and the wonderful part about the meal is that the portions are JUST RIGHT. I already have enough gadgets and gizmos in my life that if I'm going to add something to the mix, it better do something spectacular.
Let's just say I ended up falling in love with waist training, which is something I really didn't expect. I made some amazing stopsa€”this one was my favoritea€”and had a lot of time to think along the way. You essentially have to ask yourself whata€™s next in my lifea€¦what road will I take and where do I hope it will lead me?
As a fitness trend expert, I never limit myself to just fitness events because EVERYTHING is fusing together these days.
But yes, I have a FLAT approach to skincare that I want to share with you today that literally saves my life every time I travel. Fact of my life: my toiletry bag + makeup bag + hair dryer and roundbrushes = most of the weight in my suitcase.
Ia€™m discovering new spots to work out, sharing my favorite places to unwind and scoring face-time with friends.
Not only do they keep you from squinting but they'll save those precious eye corners of yours from sun damage. The 2 pieces together are minimal and sleek in away that far out-styles FitBit, UP by Jawbone, Nike+ Fuelband and similar black band trackers. The 2 metal bracelet finishes--Midnight Purple and Brushed Gold--blend exceptionally well with silver and gold tone jewelry. I'm honored to be a part of her series and my interview is LIVE and ready to be heard by clicking RIGHT HERE. My mom and I don't always agree on everything but she's been very supportive of my life choices and has taken great care of me throughout my life. It's going to be a fun springtime evening social, if you will, and a great chance to check out the evolution of LimeLight!
Come join our healthy party with cocktails from SkinnyGirl and Juice Press, and wine sorbet from Frosae Wine Sorbae, which is basically FROZEN WINE! So I've put a little something together with a posh studio that's new to the area called Core3 Fitness. Hopefully they'll inspire you to get creative with something as simple and inexpensive as a pair of socks. So, I did for a little bit but then over time I became empowered by how great my mid-30's felt.
I can't perform magic tricks but I can wear Altchek MD's Daily Moisturizer made with SPF30, Ester C and Vitamin E. The plus side is less sweat and stink but the downside is that antiperspirants prevent the human body from doing it's job, which is to rid itself of toxins.
I thought I'd share with you what I've got on my desk today: the March issue of People Style Watch Magazine and my new favorite toy, a Ball Wide Mouth Mason Jar with a fruit infuser lid! Imagine yourself to be the head of the XYZ Family who through warfare and intrigue just gained control over the country of Bakonia. Central governments attempted to deal with the increasing problems of stagnation and decline by (1) building larger armies, (2) forming larger bureaucracies, (3) raising greater taxes to pay for the armies and bureaucrats, and (4) generally creating a stronger central sovereignty by also controlling the military, economy, production, the court system, and in most cases, religion.
This second marriage produced six children, including Henrya€™s heir to the throne, Louis XIII. The central government determines the prices of goods, controls export and import quotas, determines the numbers established for industrial production, and sets as its goal a controlled market where exports outnumber imports. They in turn kept her in check because she needed their approval for funding to keep her court afloat. The rationale given was that so long as Mary was alive, the Catholic monarch on the continent and the pope in Rome will not cease their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth in order to set Catholic Mary on the throne and thereby recapture England for Rome.
The debate was taken to the judicial officers of England who finally ruled that the king could not. The House of Lancaster won the battle in 1485, and then reconciled the two family lines through marriage. After failing to produce a surviving male heir was accused of adultery and executed, leaving behind young daughter, Elizabeth. Since the Tudors produced no heirs, James, a cousin to Elizabeth, became also King of England as James I.
Because James authorized its publication, it became known as the Authorized Version of the King James Bible (1611).
James also appointed numerous Catholics to faculty positions at Cambridge and Oxford, began to purge Parliament of all his dissenters, began a screening process to allow only his supporters to run for Parliament if he should again call it into session, and of greatest concern, his wife gave birth to a first son. The people were unified by nationalism and generally given freedom to practice private ownership of property, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom to practice their vocations.
The vastness of the empire, poor communication, and poor transportation further hindered Russiaa€™s development. Therefore, they forbad Jan III, the king of Poland, who was in command of the commonwealtha€™s army, to go to the rescue of the Austrians against the Ottomans. So naturally I'm excited when I find a cute bag that works for my lifestyle and doesn't weigh me down. It's drastically changing these industries with more advanced fabrics, lighter and more funtional parts, more accurate tracking and motion sensors, and overall cooler customization.
Whether it's my boyfriend coming over to cook with me, my mom visiting from Missouri or my best friend coming to spend the weekend with me to play in New York City, I literally ALWAYS have a meal in the fridge for 2 that only takes 30-45 minutes to whip up.
And can you blame them for not caring when they know new members are taking them for joyride?
Since I'm the healthy one in my familia, they count on me to contribute an interesting veggie concoction that wows their taste buds. I caught the flu somewhere between rushing to shows and shaking hands with and hugging everyone. I've been to a few of their events, but this year's New York Fashion Week 2015 showcase was one of my favorites. Fashion is going sporty on NYFW catwalks and tech is catering more than ever to wellness conscious users.
Ia€™m doing it all in a 2015 Ford Explorer to celebrate Tri-State Forda€™s a€?Where To Now?a€? adventure and summer sweepstakes! My products have to be effective, easy to apply, fast working and light (on my shoulder, not just my face!). It's challenging, modern, music-oriented, and doesn't follow all the yoga rules you're used to. Most people won't even notice you're wearing a tracker because it looks like a fancy bangle.
The lotus flower is now bold, proud and sharp looking, which I personally think translates better to fitness and sport.
I learned a lot from them about Team SCA's voyage, race conditions and day to day life at sea during this gorgeous afternoon spent sailing on the Hudson River. I've been running long distances since highschool and to this day I'm still discovering new tricks for a smoother run. Going to the Big Island this past February was my 3rd time back to the wonderous state and I used a new online travel guide service called Localfu to navigate my way around like a local. In the same way the dividing line between Anglican England and Presbyterian Scotland also took on importance, as did the line separating Protestant Switzerland from Catholic France and Catholic Austria.
It is also Peoplea€™s Law -- the people agree concerning how they will be governed, who will govern them, and, in turn, they vow to live cooperatively under the law. His ulterior motive was to rid England of the Geneva Bible, an earlier English translation that was published in Geneva. Now his Protestant daughters were not in line to ascend the throne, it would be a Catholic heir.
Nevertheless, by reducing the common people to serfdom, requiring them to give summer months to government projects, and compelling the nobility to serve in a new military-civilian bureaucracy, Peter gained the controlling upper hand.
Petersburg (notice his humility in naming the city for himself!) following the best in European architecture and culture -- but as a capitol city of a population in which 90% of the people were serfs. Defying the Commonwealtha€™s parliament, the Jan III marched his troops south to Vienna where they came to the rescue of the outnumbered troops of the Holy Roman Empire. The boys were castrated and then trained as personal body guards and shock troopers for the Caliph or Sultan. It's really amazing to see all the companies being born out of these kind of technological advancements. It's been a whirlwind of a month but I'm finally back at Mizzfit headquarters blogging about all my exciting Fall adventures. Ia€™ve worked really hard to get where I am, but if you had asked me years ago whether Ia€™d be in the drivera€™s seat of my own business and reporting on womena€™s health, Ia€™d think you were nuts. I worry that I won't have what I need and as a frugalista, I don't want to buy what I already own while away from home.
Most importantly they have to feel good on and revitalize my skin, whether Ia€™m running to a workout or freshening up right after one. It's simply amazing, so I was thrilled to see her join what has become a yogi cult favorite summer event. But when it comes to fitness--my area of expertise--there's no fooling me or anyone else for that matter. She told me to choose my deodorant wisely because many popular brands pose health risks, especially to women. Check me out in Lacroix Sparkling Water's new campaign called "Start A Healthy Relationship", which can be seen on the Lacroix website and in several fitness & health publications like Oxygen Magazine. The Polish-Lithuanian army arrived the very night before the Ottomans played to complete their tunnels under the walls of Vienna!
I take a lot of criticism for being an outspoken Republican (I'm NOT anti-gay marriage or pro-life though), for wearing waist trainers and even for making a living off of social media. That being said, I was pretty excited to see which brands would be making their debut at TechStyleNYC!
If you live on the West Coast, keep reading because I have details on an amazing fit event happening out there as well. They either burnt out or broke after 1 drop and then it was back to the Apple store for a new one. Find out what's in store for you and please check out this Facebook Invitation (where I'd love for you to RSVP). I want you to be informed on all the possibilities of fitness instead of believing bogus stories that discourage you. My aunt is no stranger to disease as a survivor of Melanoma tumors and having recently lost her beloved husband to Esophageal cancer, so I decided to take heed and do a little research of my own.
And we have to remove them from society by locking them away because they willingly choose to not live by the law of the land. This opened the door for the long-enduring caliphate that was formed in Istanbul which existed from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. Even if it doesn't (and if so, I'm jealous that you've mastered being a sane packer), I think this tip might come in handy. Many thanks to Altchek MD for all the attention and for making my skin look so great at 36 years old.
Thus, the King James Bible was authorized but the notes from the Geneva Bible were not allowed to be included in the Authorized Version of 1611. As I get older, I realize how important it is to poke around and get the inside scoop instead of just taking things at face value. People are always judging but that's OK, I enjoy the path less traveled if it sparks my curiosity. Around the time I turned 12, my dad took me to get a "Mariah Carey" perm because I wanted Mariah's exact hair from her music video Someday.
You'll eventually find yourself clicking on every square on his instagram profile much like I did. Ia€™m a sleeveless-outfit-kind-of-girl and my issue is finding a bra that makes the area where my underarm and side boob meet look shapely. Marriage was never really consummated because Henry was displeased with her almost immediately after the wedding. So I've whipped out a larger magnifying glass (aka camera and corresponding film team) and started doing a lot more poking around than usual.
Ita€™s frustrating when you work out as much as I do to maintain an athletic physique, to look in the mirror and spot a bulge protruding from under your arm!
I discovered there's a lot out there in the world of iPhone cases, and with a brand new iPhone 6 on my hands, I began to test.
The president, and senators, and generals in the army, and all the people in major positions all have to obey the same law.
If the president ever robbed a bank he would go to jail just like a homeless person would if he robbed a bank. So I reached out to him to express my fandom and whadayaknow, he's the nicest guy on earth!



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