As we move from the ethereal land of Pisces to Aries, we begin again, and the great wheel of the zodiac ushers in a new cycle for learning and evolving. Continuing with the image of the infant, this is a stage in our lives where we have just entered physical reality.
Like all the fire signs, Aries people bring enthusiasm, self-reliance, and inspiration to everything they do. Each of us has Aries and Mars energy stirring up mischief in some part of our astrological birth chart. This entry was posted in 2011, April, Archetypes, Aries, Astrology, Being a writer, Body Mind Spirit writing and tagged Aries, Cardinal Signs, Fire Signs, Mars, Masculine Signs by Lisa. Thank you Lisa for this wonderful post, It was really interesting and fun to read, if you write a book I would definitely purchase it! Are relational databases too old and too boring to be explained outside of university courses, research papers and books? Though the title of this article is explicit, the aim of this article is NOT to understand how to use a database.
Since it’s a long and technical article that involves many algorithms and data structures, take your time to read it. In this part, I’ll remind you about some of these concepts because they are essential to understand a database. But when you deal with a large amount of data (I’m not talking about thousands) or if you’re fighting for milliseconds, it becomes critical to understand this concept. The time complexity is used to see how long an algorithm will take for a given amount of data.
For example, when I say “this algorithm is in O( some_function() )”, it means that for a certain amount of data the algorithm needs some_function(a_certain_amount_of_data) operations to do its job.
What’s important is not the amount of data but the way the number of operations increases when the amount of data increases.
The O(1) or constant complexity stays constant (otherwise it wouldn’t be called constant complexity). The difference between O(1) and O(n2) seems a lot (4 million) but you’ll lose at max 2 ms, just the time to blink your eyes.
I didn’t do the math but I’d say with the O(n2) algorithm you have the time to take a coffee (even a second one!). There are several good sorting algorithms so I’ll focus on the most important one: the merge sort. You can see on this figure that to construct the final sorted array of 8 elements, you only need to iterate one time in the 2 4-element arrays.
Then you take the rest of the elements of the other array to put them in the 8-element array.
This works because both 4-element arrays are sorted and therefore you don’t need to “go back” in these arrays. The merge sort breaks the problem into smaller problems then finds the results of the smaller problems to get the result of the initial problem (note: this kind of algorithms is called divide and conquer). The sorting phase where the small arrays are put together (using the merge) to form a bigger array.
You can modify it in order to reduce the memory footprint, in a way that you don’t create new arrays but you directly modify the input array. For example, the distributed merge sort is one of the key components of Hadoop (which is THE framework in Big Data). Now that we understand the idea behind time complexity and sorting, I have to tell you about 3 data structures. Though it’s great to store and visualize data, when you need to look for a specific value it sucks. For example, if you want to find all the guys who work in the UK, you’ll have to look at each row to find if the row belongs to the UK.
Note: Most modern databases provide advanced arrays to store tables efficiently like heap-organized tables or index-organized tables.
Knowing the row id let me know where the data is precisely on the table and therefore I can get it instantly. This search only costs you log(N) operations instead of N operations if you directly use the array. You can build a tree index for any group of columns (a string, an integer, 2 strings, an integer and a string, a date …) as long as you have a function to compare the keys (i.e. Although this tree works well to get a specific value, there is a BIG problem when you need to get multiple elements between two values. You just have to look for 40 (or the closest value after 40 if 40 doesn’t exist) like you did with the previous tree. Then gather the successors of 40 using the direct links to the successors until you reach 100. Note: I was told by a reader that, because of low-level optimizations, the B+Tree needs to be fully balanced. The search only costs 2 operations (1 for computing the hash value and the other for finding the element inside the bucket).
Using the same logic, it looks at the second element (9), the third (79), … , and the last (29). With a hash table you can choose the key you want (for example the country AND the last name of a person). For more information, you can read my article on the Java HashMap which is an efficient hash table implementation; you don’t need to understand Java to understand the concepts inside this article. The manager first checks your authentication (your login and password) and then checks if you have the authorizations to use the database. Since the query processing is not an “all or nothing” thing, as soon as it gets data from the query manager, it stores the partial results in a buffer and start sending them to you.


In case of problem, it stops the connection, gives you a readable explanation and releases the resources.
The initial research paper (1979) on cost based optimization: Access Path Selection in a Relational Database Management System. The head-long, unreasoning passionate drive of the selfish Aries person combines with a fiery obsessiveness induced within the insufficiently spiritualized personality by the sixth ray. We have traveled from a place of non-form, a place we may only vaguely remember, and into a world where we cannot yet effectively communicate our experiences verbally.
But unlike their fiery cohorts Leo and Sagittarius, they are in the early stages of developing their confidence. Therefore, you should already know how to write a simple join query and basic CRUD queries; otherwise you might not understand this article. I know that some of you hate this concept but, without it, you can’t understand the cleverness inside a database. Some concepts are more difficult to understand; you can skip them and still get the overall idea. They knew by heart their algorithms and data structures because they couldn’t afford to waste the CPU and memory of their slow computers. One of the algorithms we’re going to see in the middle of this article has this complexity (and it’s really used in many databases). You might not understand right now why sorting data is useful but you should after the part on query optimization. If you don’t understand this algorithm, don’t worry; I didn’t understand it the first time I saw it.
If you want to know more, you can read this research paper that discusses the pros and cons of the common sorting algorithms in a database. This will cost you N operations (N being the number of rows) which is not bad but could there be a faster way? But it doesn’t change the problem of fast searching for a specific condition on a group of columns.
I extract the id of the row inside the node (it’s not in the figure) and look at the table for the given row id.
If you read carefully the part on the merge sort you should see that there are log(N) levels. Instead of a stupid integer, imagine the string that represents the country of someone in the previous table. It will cost O(N) because you’ll have to look at each node in the tree and check if it’s between these 2 values (for example, with an in-order traversal of the tree). Indeed, you have additional nodes, the “decision nodes” that will help you to find the right node (that stores the location of the rows in the associated table). If you want an example of a B+Tree implementation in a database, look at this article and this article from a core developer of MySQL.
Once you found the right bucket you have to find the element you’re looking for inside the bucket using this comparison. Since I’m lazy I only drew 5 buckets but I know you’re smart so I let you imagine the 5 others.
So, don’t focus too much on how I organized this database or how I named the processes because I made some choices to fit the plan of this article. Moreover, in order to gain nanoseconds, some modern databases use their own threads instead of the Operating System threads.
Having a manager that will perfectly handle the Operating System file system or even replace it is important. If this wait reaches a timeout, it closes the connection and gives a readable error message. This article is only 12 pages and understandable with an average level in computer science.
It’s the most accessible document since it’s more a presentation on “let’s see what query plans PostgreSQL gives in these situations“ than a “let’s see the algorithms used by PostgreSQL”. The ram represents the passionate side of Aries, the part that is quick to anger when challenged and instinctively rushes forward, headfirst in whatever direction entices him or her at that particular moment. Sometimes it is a language barrier, and sometimes, Aries has intelligence and a knowing that may not be understood or acknowledged by others.
There are many different databases: from the small and useful SQLite to the powerful Teradata. Over the years, I’ve spent hundreds of hours to really understand these weird black boxes I use every day. Relational Databases are very interesting because they’re based on useful and reusable concepts. Since it’s a huge topic, I’ll focus on what I think is essential: the way a database handles an SQL query.
This notation is used with a function that describes how many operations an algorithm needs for a given amount of input data.
You call the sort() function …  ok, good answer… But for a database you have to understand how this sort() function works. Moreover, understanding the merge sort will help us later to understand a common database join operation called the merge join. This is important when you need to sort a multi-gigabyte table with only a memory buffer of 100 megabytes.
But, once you have this node, you get the M successors in M operations with the links to their successors.
The real challenge is to find a good hash function that will create buckets that contain a very small amount of elements. What matters are the different components; the overall idea is that a database is divided into multiple components that interact with each other.
Charismatic, they persuade people to follow them as they blaze new trails, but as leaders, they serve to inspire and excite others—not take care of them.


On the path of self-discovery, early on, Aries individuals want to know who they are, what they like, and what makes them different from everybody else. If there is a place in your life where you have experienced setbacks, re-double your efforts, and don’t underestimate your ability to achieve your aspirations. If understanding a database interests you but you’ve never had the time or the will to dig into this wide subject, you should like this article. I’ll only present the basic concepts behind a database so that at the end of the article you’ll have a good idea of what’s happening under the hood. In the northern hemisphere, this is the time of year when the snow melts and reveals what has been trapped in its icy fingers all winter long. This is another area where Aries individuals get into trouble in their interpersonal relationships.
Their life force is courageous and trusting like the first flowers of spring emerging from the ground.
Embrace the grace of beginners mind, and explore the places in your personality that require more attention and care to develop.
You can google by yourself “how does a relational database work” to see how few results there are. To answer this problem, modern databases use a modified version of the previous tree called B+Tree. Moreover, you don’t need to read the full tree (just M + log(N) nodes), which means less disk usage.
And, like the first blooms of spring, if they emerge too soon, they run the chance of encountering an environment that is inhospitable, harsh, and unable to foster their growth.
Moreover, adding indexes means more workload for the transaction manager (we will see this manager at the end of the article).
You’ll see people in shorts and flip flops walking over patchy mounds of snow alongside people in winter coats.
The innocence, curiosity, and expressiveness of a newborn child or animal are the heart of Aries energy. Although those around them may get ruffled or frustrated and find the Aries individual’s behaviors combative, the Aries person sees it as expressing their opinion simply and directly.
The people that followed them thus far can be left wondering what to do next and expect their Aries leader to show them the way. Because they must discern how others respond to their actions in order to survive and mature, Aries individuals are the sensitive warriors of the zodiac.
Traditionally, Mars in a woman’s chart describes the qualities she is looking for in a partner. The temperature changes quickly throughout the day, warming up and cooling down as if a child was triumphantly pressing the buttons on a thermostat. Aries is the hope of the future, the new life that must be cherished and protected, and the sleepless nights required to bring this brand-new creation to maturity.
Returning to the image of the baby, next time you have a chance to spend some time with a newborn, notice how their expression and mood changes when different people come into the room. It still holds some truth; however, women have an easier time claiming their Mars energy today than women did a few generations ago. This is Aries energy, pushing forward, overcoming obstacles, and enjoying the warmth of the Aries Sun as it beckons us to come out and play. Watch people’s reactions around babies and you’ll see the magnetic quality innate in Aries individuals.
They sense the energy of everyone around them and definitely state their preferences about whom they want to hold them.
A prominent Mars placement in the chart of either sex signifies someone who is self-assured, autonomous, and open. Many Aries persons have telepathic abilities, and it is in this beginning stage of the zodiac that their power and sense of self is forming. An indomitable planet, Mars energy requires a constructive outlet to keep it from becoming self-destructive and antagonistic.
They can also clear a room by howling until their needs are met, exhausting the strength and patience of their loved ones.
This potent energy is the stuff of great athletes that gives them the ability to put the body to the test and achieve heroic feats.
Over time, by continuing to test the limits of their surroundings and the people in it, they gain the wisdom of how to balance their needs with the needs of others. Any activity or profession that necessitates muscle and expediency falls under the domain of Mars.
We need your passionate creations, your unique talents, and your confidence to lead us in new directions. They learn to rein in their spontaneity just a tiny bit and listen to their environment for vital clues of how their actions will be perceived. They still proceed quickly, but now their actions are based on having more information and assessing the potential consequences and outcomes of their choice.
Yoga, meditation, or working with energy and the energetic body are other possible Mars pursuits.
With gratitude, call out to the first flowers of spring coming up from the ground and thank them for their courage and beauty. Ascertaining how to exert their desires without alienating those in their surroundings is the life lesson that will lead to their success.



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