Data flow diagram (DFD) is the part of the SSADM method (Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology), intended for analysis and information systems projection. ConceptDraw PRO allows you to draw a simple and clear example of DFD for Online Store using special libraries, provided by Data Flow Diagrams Solution. Example of DFD for Online Store shows the Data Flow Diagram for online store and interactions between the Visitors, Customers and Sellers, as well as Website Information and User databases. ConceptDraw PRO software enables you to quickly create data flow diagrams that include data storage, external entities, functional transforms, data flows, and control transforms and signals. The Data flow diagram (DFD) example "Payment for goods using UPS code scanner" shows data flow in process of payment for goods in the shop using the MaxiCode scanner.
Our DFD software ConceptDraw PRO allows you to quickly create DFD with data storages, external entities, functional transforms, data flows, as well as control transforms and signals. Use the Data Flow Diagrams solution from the Software Development area of ConceptDraw Solution Park to draw your own context-level DFDs using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software. Data Flow Diagrams solution extends ConceptDraw PRO software with templates, samples and libraries of vector stencils for drawing the data flow diagrams (DFD). The DFD (Yourdon and Coad notation) example "Model of small traditional production enterprise" below was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Data Flow Diagrams solution from the Software Development area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Data flow diagramming is a highly effective technique for showing the flow of information through a system. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators.
Understand and apply general strategies to complete college-level reading assignments efficiently and effectively. When you are eager to get started on the coursework in your major that will prepare you for your career, getting excited about an introductory college writing course can be difficult.
In college, academic expectations change from what you may have experienced in high school. Table 1.1 "High School versus College Assignments" summarizes some of the other major differences between high school and college assignments.
Your grade is determined by your performance on a wide variety of assessments, including minor and major assignments.
Writing assignments include personal writing and creative writing in addition to expository writing. The structure and format of writing assignments is generally stable over a four-year period. Depending on the course, you may be asked to master new forms of writing and follow standards within a particular professional field.
Teachers often go out of their way to identify and try to help students who are performing poorly on exams, missing classes, not turning in assignments, or just struggling with the course. Although teachers want their students to succeed, they may not always realize when students are struggling.
This chapter covers the types of reading and writing assignments you will encounter as a college student. Review Table 1.1 "High School versus College Assignments" and think about how you have found your college experience to be different from high school so far. What changes do you think you might have to make in your life to ensure your success in college? This section discusses strategies you can use to get the most out of your college reading assignments. You will learn more detailed strategies for time management in Section 1.2 "Developing Study Skills", but for now, focus on setting aside enough time for reading and breaking your assignments into manageable chunks. As the semester progresses, you will develop a better sense of how much time you need to allow for the reading assignments in different subjects.
Read Chapter 2 and come to class prepared to discuss current teaching practices in elementary math.
Read these two articles and compare Smitha€™s and Jonesa€™s perspectives on the 2010 health care reform bill. Read Chapter 5 and think about how you could apply these guidelines to running your own business. How does this assignment relate to other course readings or to concepts discussed in class? For any expository writingWriting that conveys facts or descriptions.a€”that is, nonfiction, informational writinga€”your first comprehension goal is to identify the main points and relate any details to those main points. Trade books and popular articles may not be written specifically for an educational purpose; nevertheless, they also include features that can help you identify the main ideas. When you read scholarly books and journal articles, try to apply the same strategies discussed earlier. For more information about reading different types of texts, see Chapter 12 "Writing a Research Paper". Finding the main idea and paying attention to text features as you read helps you figure out what you should know. Textbooks often include comprehension questions in the margins or at the end of a section or chapter. Even when a text does not have built-in comprehension features, you can actively monitor your own comprehension. As a working mother, Crystal found that the best time to get her reading done was in the evening, after she had put her four-year-old to bed.
Write down two to three questions about the text that you can bring up during class discussion.
Now that you have acquainted (or reacquainted) yourself with useful planning and comprehension strategies, college reading assignments may feel more manageable. Although some of your questions may be simple factual questions, try to come up with a few that are more open-ended. After you have completed the reading, take some time to review the material more thoroughly.
The SQ3R process encompasses a number of valuable active reading strategies: previewing a text, making predictions, asking and answering questions, and summarizing. As Crystal began her first semester of elementary education courses, she occasionally felt lost in a sea of new terms and theories about teaching and child development. Many college courses require students to participate in interactive online components, such as a discussion forum, a page on a social networking site, or a class blog. Remember that when you interact with other students and teachers online, you need to project a mature, professional image.
College writing assignments serve a different purpose than the typical writing assignments you completed in high school. Your college composition courses will focus on writing for its own sake, helping you make the transition to college-level writing assignments. Additionally, certain assignments teach you how to meet the expectations for professional writing in a given field. Finally, personal and creative writing assignments are less common in college than in high school.
Table 1.2 "Common Types of College Writing Assignments" lists some of the most common types of college writing assignments.
For an environmental science course, students watch and write about President Obamaa€™s June 15, 2010, speech about the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. For a psychology course, students write a one-page summary of an article about a man suffering from short-term memory loss.
For a medical ethics course, students state and support their position on using stem cell research in medicine. For a business administration course, a student presents a plan for implementing an office recycling program without increasing operating costs.
For a literature course, a student compares two novels by the twentieth-century African American writer Richard Wright. For a course in media studies, a student reviews the past twenty years of research on whether violence in television and movies is correlated with violent behavior.
For an education course, a student writes a case study of a developmentally disabled child whose academic performance improved because of a behavioral-modification program.
For a psychology course, a group of students presents the results of an experiment in which they explored whether sleep deprivation produced memory deficits in lab rats. For an education course, a student maintains a journal throughout a semester-long research project at a local elementary school. College-level reading and writing assignments differ from high school assignments not only in quantity but also in quality. Managing college reading assignments successfully requires you to plan and manage your time, set a purpose for reading, practice effective comprehension strategies, and use active reading strategies to deepen your understanding of the text. College writing assignments place greater emphasis on learning to think critically about a particular discipline and less emphasis on personal and creative writing. Determine the specific time-management, study, and note-taking strategies that work best for you individually. Read with an open mind, and consider what techniques have been effective (or ineffective) for you in the past. To succeed in collegea€”or any situation where you must master new concepts and skillsa€”it helps to know what makes you tick.
Most people have one channel that works best for them when it comes to taking in new information. To begin identifying your learning style, think about how you would go about the process of assembling a piece of furniture.
You would carefully look over the diagrams in the assembly manual first so you could picture each step in the process. You would silently read the directions through, step by step, and then look at the diagrams afterward.
You would start putting the pieces together and figure out the process through trial and error, consulting the directions as you worked. If you chose (a), you may be a visual learnerSomeone who learns best when information is presented in a highly visual format.. If you chose (b), you may be a verbal learnerSomeone who learns best by reading or writing about new ideas.. If you chose (c), you may be an auditory learnerSomeone who learns best through listening.. If you chose (d), you may be a kinesthetic learnerSomeone who learns best through hands-on activities.. Use visual organizers, such as maps, flowcharts, and so forth, to help you plan writing assignments.
Use colored pens, highlighters, or the review feature of your word-processing program to revise and edit writing.
Use the instructional features in course textsa€”summaries, chapter review questions, glossaries, and so ona€”to aid your studying. Use informal writing techniques, such as brainstorming, freewriting, blogging, or posting on a class discussion forum to generate ideas for writing assignments. Talk through your ideas with other students when studying or when preparing for a writing assignment. When you read or study, use techniques that will keep your hands in motion, such as highlighting or taking notes. Use a physical activity, such as running or swimming, to help you break through writing blocks.
At the beginning of the semester, establish a weekly routine for when you will study and write. That may sound like a lot when taking multiple classes, but if you plan your time carefully, it is manageable. In addition to setting aside regular work periods, you will need to plan ahead to handle more intense demands, such as studying for exams and writing major papers. Crystal knew that to balance a job, college classes, and a family, it was crucial for her to get organized. Use your course syllabi to record exam dates and due dates for major assignments in a calendar (paper or electronic). Keep in mind, however, that your weekly schedule and semester calendar are time-management tools.
Set aside time to review your schedule or calendar regularly and update or adjust them as needed.
Do not fall into the trap of letting things slide and promising yourself, a€?I will do better next week.a€? When next week comes, the accumulated undone tasks will seem even more intimidating, and you will find it harder to get them done. Establish regular times to a€?check ina€? with yourself to identify and prioritize tasks and plan how to accomplish them. For the next two weeks, focus on consistently using whatever time-management system you have set up.
Identify at least two habits from the a€?Dosa€? list that you could use to improve your time-management skills. Identify the habit from the a€?Dona€™tsa€? list that you are most likely to slip into as the semester gets busier. If you are part of the workforce, you have probably established strategies for accomplishing job-related tasks efficiently. Visually organize your notes into main topics, subtopics, and supporting points, and show the relationships between ideas. A good note-taking system needs to help you differentiate among major points, related subtopics, and supporting details. A modified outline format uses indented spacing to show the hierarchy of ideas without including roman numerals, lettering, and so forth. The first example shows Crystala€™s notes from a developmental psychology class about an important theorist in this field. If you discovered in this section that you learn best with visual presentations, you may prefer to use a more graphic format for notes, such as an idea map.


If the content of a lecture falls into a predictable, well-organized pattern, you might choose to use a chart or table to record your notes. In addition to the general techniques already described, you might find it useful to practice a specific strategy known as the Cornell note-taking system. Often, at school or in the workplace, a speaker will provide you with pregenerated notes summarizing electronic presentation slides. If you find that you are having trouble taking notes effectively, set up an appointment with your schoola€™s academic resource center. Understanding your individual learning style and preferences can help you identify the study and time-management strategies that will work best for you.
To manage your time effectively, it is important to look at the short term (daily and weekly schedules) and the long term (major semester deadlines).
A good note-taking system must differentiate among major points, related subtopics, and supporting details, and it must allow you to record and organize information fairly quickly.
In the preceding sections, you learned what you can expect from college and identified strategies you can use to manage your work. To complete a writing project successfully, good writers use some variation of the following process.
Most people have used this creative process in one way or another, but many people have misconceptions about how to use it to write. For a more thorough explanation of the steps of the writing process as well as for specific techniques you can use for each step, see Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?". Data flow diagrams are intended for graphical representation of data flows in the information system and for analysis of data processing during the structural projection.
The general concept is an approach of a depicting how occurs input in a system, further processes and what runs out. This diagram shows one of the business processes to simplify and accelerate understanding, analysis, and representation. The sponsor of a project and the end users will need to be briefed and consulted throughout all stages of a system's evolution.
DFD program ConceptDraw PRO has hundreds of templates, and a wide range of libraries with all nesassary ready-made drag-and-drop. Use these DFD symbol libraries to design the process-oriented models, data-oriented models, data flowcharts, data process diagrams, structured analysis diagrams, and information flow diagrams. Data flow diagrams reveal relationships among and between the various components in a program or system. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. However, regardless of your field of study, honing your writing skillsa€”and your reading and critical-thinking skillsa€”gives you a more solid academic foundation. You will also learn a variety of strategies for mastering these new challengesa€”and becoming a more confident student and writer. After several years of working as a saleswoman in a department store, Crystal has decided to pursue a degree in elementary education and become a teacher.
Most of your writing assignmentsa€”from brief response papers to in-depth research projectsa€”will depend on your understanding of course reading assignments or related readings you do on your own.
Or found yourself skimming a detailed memo from your boss five minutes before a crucial meeting? If you are assigned a seventy-page chapter to read for next weeka€™s class, try not to wait until the night before to get started.
If the text is very dense and packed with unfamiliar terms and concepts, you may need to read no more than five or ten pages in one sitting so that you can truly understand and process the information. It also makes sense to preview each assignment well in advance to assess its difficulty level and to determine how much reading time to set aside. These consist of articles, book chapters, or other texts that are not part of the primary course textbook. Knowing what you want to get out of a reading assignment helps you determine how to approach it and how much time to spend on it. You might just need to understand the reading material well enough to discuss it intelligently in class the next day. If you are majoring in computer science and you are assigned to read Chapter 1, a€?Introduction to Computer Science,a€? it is safe to assume the chapter presents fundamental concepts that you will be expected to master. Your instructor may make some of these connections explicitly, but if not, try to draw connections on your own.
If you are assigned to read about a topic that has always interested you, your reading assignment might help you develop ideas for a future research paper. Now comes the challenge: making sure you actually understand all the information you are expected to process. Because college-level texts can be challenging, you will also need to monitor your reading comprehension. These usually include summaries, glossaries, comprehension questions, and other study aids. Finding the main point gives you a framework to organize the details presented in the reading and relate the reading to concepts you learned in class or through other reading assignments.
Textbooks, for instance, include the aforementioned features as well as headings and subheadings intended to make it easier for students to identify core concepts.
Many trade books include an introduction that presents the writera€™s main ideas and purpose for writing. Because these texts are written for a specialized, highly educated audience, the authors presume their readers are already familiar with the topic.
The introduction usually presents the writera€™s thesisA sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay.
Just as important, however, is being able to figure out what you do not know and developing a strategy to deal with it.
When you begin reading a section, try to identify two to three questions you should be able to answer after you finish it. You know what you need to do to get your reading done and make sure you grasp the main points. As noted earlier, reading introductory paragraphs and headings can help you begin to figure out the authora€™s main point and identify what important topics will be covered.
It is best to do this at the end of each section or when there is an obvious shift in the writera€™s train of thought. If the textbook includes review questions or your instructor has provided a study guide, use these tools to guide your review. You can use the following additional strategies to further deepen your understanding of what you read. Look for ways the reading supports, extends, or challenges concepts you have learned elsewhere.
Photographs, diagrams, flow charts, tables, and other graphics can help make abstract ideas more concrete and understandable. Understanding context means thinking about who wrote the text, when and where it was written, the authora€™s purpose for writing it, and what assumptions or agendas influenced the authora€™s ideas. She found that it helped to relate the reading to her personal observations of her son and other kids she knew.
You may be able to use an informal, conversational tone, but complaining about the work load, using off-color language, or a€?flaminga€? other participants is inappropriate. By practicing these strategies, you will find yourself more interested in your courses and better able to relate your academic work to the rest of your life. In high school, teachers generally focus on teaching you to write in a variety of modes and formats, including personal writing, expository writing, research papers, creative writing, and writing short answers and essays for exams. Depending on the class, you might be asked to write a lab report, a case study, a literary analysis, a business plan, or an account of a personal interview. For instance, you might need to e-mail your instructor to request an office appointment or explain why you will need to miss a class. You have probably received course syllabi, started on your first few assignments, and begun applying the strategies you learned about in Section 1.1 "Reading and Writing in College". You will also learn about different note-taking systems that you can use to organize and record information efficiently.
The strategies presented here are tried and true techniques that work well for many people.
Which habits from your high school years or your work life could help you succeed in college?
For decades, educational researchers and organizational psychologists have examined how people take in and assimilate new information, how some people learn differently than others, and what conditions make students and workers most productive.
For the purposes of this chapter, learning styleThe way a learner prefers to take in new information. If your energy peaks early, you might benefit from blocking out early morning time for studying or writing.
Some people work fine at a messy desk and know exactly where to find what they need in their stack of papers; however, most people benefit from maintaining a neat, organized space. If you can study at home without being tempted to turn on the television, check your e-mail, fix yourself a snack, and so on, you may make home your work space.
Some people work better when listening to background music or the low hum of conversation in a coffee shop. Knowing yours can help you develop strategies for studying, time management, and note taking that work especially well for you.
You understand ideas best when they are presented in a visual format, such as a flowchart, a diagram, or text with clear headings and many photos or illustrations.
You understand ideas best through reading and writing about them and taking detailed notes.
Auditory learners can comprehend a flow chart, and kinesthetic learners can sit still long enough to read a book. These notes can be physically reorganized easily to help you determine how to shape your paper. A general guideline is that for every hour spent in class, students should expect to spend another two to three hours on reading, writing, and studying for tests. A typical full-time schedule of fifteen credit hours translates into thirty to forty-five hours per week spent on schoolwork outside of class. At the beginning of the semester, go through your course syllabi and mark all major due dates and exam dates on a calendar.
For the month of September, she drew up a week-by-week calendar that listed not only her own class and work schedules but also the days her son attended preschool and the days her husband had off from work.
Use a star, highlighting, or other special marking to set off any days or weeks that look especially demanding. Keep this list handy as a reference you can use throughout the semester to a€?troubleshoota€? if you feel like your schoolwork is getting off track. Do not fritter away your study time on distractions like e-mail and social networking sites. Try to reduce your other commitments during those periodsa€”for instance, by scheduling time off from your job.
For instance, if you have a free half hour between classes, use it to preview a chapter or brainstorm ideas for an essay. These stimulants may temporarily perk you up, but your brain functions best when you are rested. Many people find it is best to set aside a few minutes for this each day and to take some time to plan at the beginning of each week. Check in with yourself daily and weekly, stick to your schedule, and take note of anything that interferes. Just the act of converting a spoken lecture to notes helps you organize and retain information, and of course, good notes also help you review important concepts later. Fixing key terms and concepts in your mind will help you stay focused and pick out the important points during the lecture. Just use a dash or bullet to signify each new point unless your instructor specifically presents a numbered list of items.
This system works best when you already know, either before class or at the beginning of class, which categories you should include. This popular format makes it easy not only to organize information clearly but also to note key terms and summarize content.
You can do so using the traditional modified outline format or a more visual format if you prefer. You may be tempted not to take notes at all because much of the content is already summarized for you.
If you find that you are struggling to keep up with lectures, consider whether you need to switch to a different format or be more careful about distinguishing key concepts from unimportant details. In this step, the writer determines the overall organizational structure of the writing and creates an outline to organize ideas. In this step, the writer revisits the draft to review and, if necessary, reshape its content. You may also have used it for other types of creative projects, such as developing a sketch into a finished painting or composing a song. FreewritingA prewriting strategy in which writers write freely about any topic for a set amount of time (usually three to five minutes).a€”writing about the topic without stopping for a set period of timea€”is one prewriting technique you might try in that situation. However, for other assignments, a structured set of notes or a detailed graphic organizer may suffice. However, it is still your job, not your instructora€™s, to transform the draft to a final, polished piece. Before you begin writing, read the question thoroughly and think about the main points to include in your response. By combining those skills with what you have learned about the writing process, you can make any writing assignment easier to manage.
Suitable for tracking and managing the shipment of packages, it resembles a barcode, but uses dots arranged in a hexagonal grid instead of bars. With a data flow diagram, users are able to visualize how the system will operate, what the system will accomplish, and how the system will be implemented.


Diagramming Software for Design UML Diagrams, Data Flow Diagrams, Example of DFD for Online Store (Data Flow Diagram) DFD Example, DFD Library - Design elements, Data Flow Diagrams. DFD is an important technique for modeling a system’s high-level detail by showing how input data is transformed to output results through a sequence of functional transformations. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (47 MB) or just this chapter (2 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). You completed numerous assessments of your reading and writing skills in high school and as part of your application process for college.
When instructors expect you to read pages upon pages or study hours and hours for one particular course, managing your work load can be challenging. You will also be expected to seriously engage with new ideas by reflecting on them, analyzing them, critiquing them, making connections, drawing conclusions, or finding new ways of thinking about a given subject.
She is continuing to work part-time, and occasionally she finds it challenging to balance the demands of work, school, and caring for her four-year-old son. And it is difficult, if not impossible, to write effectively about a text that you have not understood. With more user-friendly texts, you will be able to handle longer sectionsa€”twenty to forty pages, for instance. It also helps you stay focused during those occasional moments when it is late, you are tired, and relaxing in front of the television sounds far more appealing than curling up with a stack of journal articles.
However, for some reading assignments, you may be expected to form a general understanding but not necessarily master the content.
Some reading assignments provide valuable tips or summaries worth bookmarking for future reference.
That is, you will need to stop periodically and assess how well you understand what you are reading.
After identifying the main point, you will find the supporting pointsDetails, facts, and explanations that develop and clarify a writera€™s main point., the details, facts, and explanations that develop and clarify the main point.
Graphic features, such as sidebars, diagrams, and charts, help students understand complex information and distinguish between essential and inessential points.
Reading chapter titles (and any subtitles within the chapter) will help you get a broad sense of what is covered. In magazine articles, these features (along with the closing paragraphs) present the main concepts.
A thesis statement is often one sentence long, and it states the writera€™s point of view., the idea or hypothesis the writer is trying to prove. Use them to identify sections you may need to reread, read more carefully, or ask your instructor about later. She found that by actively working to summarize the reading and asking and answering questions, she focused better and retained more of what she read.
However, the most successful students in college are not only competent readers but active, engaged readers. You may find that some questions come to mind immediately based on your initial survey or based on previous readings and class discussions. Are the authora€™s main points and overall approach about the same as what you predicteda€”or does the text contain a few surprises?
Put the book aside for a moment and recite aloud the main points of the section or any important answers you found there.
You will want to record information in a more detailed format than you used during reading, such as in an outline or a list. Visualizing is especially helpful when you are reading a narrative text, such as a novel or a historical account, or when you read expository text that describes a process, such as how to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). For instance, two writers might both address the subject of health care reform, but if one article is an opinion piece and one is a news story, the context is different. Being an interested, engaged student also helps you form lasting connections with your instructors and with other students that can be personally and professionally valuable. In those courses, you may use writing as one tool among many for learning how to think about a particular academic discipline. You will need to learn and follow the standard conventions for those types of written products. Which specific assignments you encounter will depend on the courses you take and the learning objectives developed by your instructors. You might need to contact administrators with questions about your tuition or financial aid. When the demands on your time and energy become more intense, you will have a system in place for handling them.
However, you may need to adapt them slightly to develop a system that works well for you personally. However, if you need a less distracting environment to stay focused, you may be able to find one on your collegea€™s campus or in your community. However, working this way takes extra planning and effort, so be sure to use the time productively. In your day-to-day routine, make time for activities that help you reduce stress, such as exercising, spending time with friends, or just scheduling downtime to relax.
However, if you do have one dominant learning style, you can work with it to get the most out of your classes and study time. High school teachers often take it upon themselves to track down students who miss class or forget assignments.
Therefore, if you are taking a biology course that meets three times a week for an hour at a time, you can expect to spend six to nine hours per week on it outside of class. All in all, a full-time student would spend about as much time on school each week as an employee spends on work. Use a format that you check regularly, such as your smartphone or the calendar feature in your e-mail. Realistically, some courses will be more challenging than others, and the demands will ebb and flow throughout the semester.
She and her husband discussed how to share their day-to-day household responsibilities so she would be able to get her schoolwork done.
Be sure to include any other nonnegotiable responsibilities, such as a job or child care duties. When Friday comes, you might end up abandoning your plans and hanging out with your friends instead. However, if you feel exhausted and overworked all the time, you may need to scale back on some of your commitments. At the end of the two weeks, review your schedule and determine whether you need to adjust it. Although taking good notes is an essential study skill, many students enter college without having received much guidance about note taking.
Finally, to be effective, your note-taking system must allow you to record and organize information fairly quickly. You can use this column as a study aid by covering the notes on the right-hand side, reviewing the key terms, and trying to recall as much as you can about them so that you can mentally restate the main points of the lecture. This section covers more about how to handle the demands college places upon you as a writer. Usually this step involves some additional fleshing out of the ideas generated in the first step. The draft covers the ideas the writer brainstormed and follows the organizational plan that was laid out in the first step. This stage involves moderate and sometimes major changes: adding or deleting a paragraph, phrasing the main point differently, expanding on an important idea, reorganizing content, and so forth. Editing involves making changes to improve style and adherence to standard writing conventionsa€”for instance, replacing a vague word with a more precise one or fixing errors in grammar and spelling. That task will be much easier if you give your best effort to the draft before submitting it. The old system's dataflow diagrams can be drawn up and compared with the new system's data flow diagrams to draw comparisons to implement a more efficient system. As you read about Crystal, think about how you can use her experience to get the most out of your own college experience. Even when you do understand the reading, it can be hard to write about it if you do not feel personally engaged with the ideas discussed. And if you have a highly engaging reading assignment, such as a novel you cannot put down, you may be able to read lengthy passages in one sitting. When you are assigned a reserve reading, download it ahead of time (and let your instructor know if you have trouble accessing it).
For instance, you might also read to compare two texts, to formulate a personal response to a text, or to gather ideas for future research. Others, however, will be longer or more complex, so you will need a plan for how to handle them. Finally, you can improve comprehension by taking time to determine which strategies work best for you and putting those strategies into practice. When you are assigned to read from a textbook, be sure to use available comprehension aids to help you identify the main points. Hard news articles in newspapers present the gist of the news story in the lead paragraph, while subsequent paragraphs present increasingly general details. Headings and subheadings can help you understand how the writer has organized support for his or her thesis. Participating in these discussions can help you determine whether your understanding of the main points is the same as your peersa€™. She also found that evenings were a good time to check the class discussion forums that a few of her instructors had created. If you are sincerely trying to keep up with the course reading but feel like you are in over your head, seek out help.
Look over sidebars, photographs, and any other text or graphic features that catch your eye.
You might also record ideas by jotting down a few brief notes in addition to, or instead of, reciting aloud. Some classes will also require persuasive writing assignments in which you state and support your position on an issue. If your friend swears by her smartphone, but you hate having to carry extra electronic gadgets around, then using a smartphone will not be the best organizational strategy for you.
If you find that group study sessions turn into social occasions, you may study better on your own.
Some people excel at mastering details and understanding concrete, tried and true ideas while others enjoy exploring abstract theories and innovative, even impractical ideas.
College instructors, however, expect you to take full responsibility for managing yourself and getting your work done on time. You will need to budget time for each class just like an employer schedules shifts at work, and you must make that study time a priority.
Crystal also made a note to talk to her supervisor at work about reducing her hours during finals week in December.
Sometimes, despite studentsa€™ best intentions, they end up procrastinating or pulling all-nighters to finish a paper or study for an exam.
And if, for some reason, a particular tool or strategy is not getting the job done, you need to figure out why and maybe try using something else. Instead of checking in with your boss about upcoming work deadlines, establish a buddy system where you check in with a friend about school projects.
Although some students like to create detailed, formal outlines or concept maps when they read, these may not be good strategies for class notes, because spoken lectures may not allow time for elaborate notes. Doing so keeps you focused during the presentation, allows you to record details you might otherwise forget, and gives you the opportunity to jot down questions or reflections to personalize the content. The general techniques you will learn will help ensure your success on any writing task, whether you complete a bluebook exam in an hour or an in-depth research project over several weeks. For people who do not like writing or do not think of themselves as good writers, writing assignments can be stressful or even intimidating.
The remaining chapters of this book provide more detailed, comprehensive instruction to help you succeed at a variety of assignments.
You come up with ideas (often vague at first), you work to give them some structure, you make a first attempt, you figure out what needs improving, and then you refine it until you are satisfied. Keep an eye on the clock as you write your response so you will have time to review it and make any needed changes before turning in your exam.
Data flow diagrams can be used to provide the end user with a physical idea of where the data they input ultimately has an effect upon the structure of the whole system from order to dispatch to report. ConceptDraw PRO allows you to draw a simple and clear Data Flow Diagram using special libraries. Skim through it to get a rough idea of how much time you will need to read the assignment in full. Additionally, academic journal articles often include a summary at the beginning, called an abstract, and electronic databases include summaries of articles, too.
Speak up in class, schedule a meeting with your instructor, or visit your university learning center for assistance. Either way, the physical act of articulating information makes you more likely to remember it. College instructors will hold you to a higher standard when it comes to supporting your ideas with reasons and evidence.
When you schedule your classes, try to balance introductory-level classes with more advanced classes so that your work load stays manageable. Finally, use the space at the bottom of the page to summarize each page of notes in a few sentences.
And of course, you cannot get through college without having to writea€”sometimes a lot, and often at a higher level than you are used to.
It can store about 93 characters of information, and up to 8 MaxiCode symbols can be chained together to convey more data.



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