Last week, I wrote a column (“Who are the 10 most famous athletes from Rockford?” posted online June 11) in which I composed a list of my choices for the “10 Most Famous Athletes from Rockford, Ill.” I never would have imagined how much feedback and conversation a column such as that could create. I also learned from a few people that I should have titled it “The 10 Most Famous Sports Figures from Rockford.” More than one person questioned whether a professional pool player or a NASCAR crew chief qualified as athletes. What I did learn is that the most blatant error I made was leaving “Bad” Brad Hefton off my list. Two other names that were mentioned more than a few times were Ira Matthews and Jerry Latin.
THE TOUR OF THE STATE ACADEMIC SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA OF KAZAKHSTAN HAS CONTINUED IN ARGENTINA AND ON NOVEMBER 8 ITS’ CONCERT TOOK PLACE IN THE MOST PRESTIGIOUS AND FAMOUS CONCERT HALL IN LATIN AMERICA - COLON THEATRE IN BUENOS AIRES. The Ambassador of Kazakhstan in Brazil and Argentina B.Ordabayev held a welcoming speech at the beginning of the concert. The first centre of culture of Kazakhstan in Latina America was inaugurated in Rosario (Argentina) on November 10 with the participation of the Kazakh Embassy in Brazil as well as representatives of the Kazakh diaspora in Argentina. At the opening ceremony the Ambassador B.Ordabayev and the representative of the Rosario Municipality Miguel Zamarini noted the solemnity of the day and called the opening as an important historical event in the cultural relations between Kazakhstan and Argentina, which will contribute to further development of cooperation between the countries in culture. During the event, guests were presented with video clips of modern Kazakhstan, photo exhibition, souvenirs and publications and postcards about Kazakhstan. DESCRIPTION: More or less elaborate diagram-maps, in the tradition of the early medieval world maps, were still being produced in the 14th and 15th centuries. This manuscript has the ownership inscription of John Wardeboys, who was abbot of Ramsey at the time of its dissolution in 1539. The world map of Higden, derived as usual from a variety of Roman sources, is found in the first book, and some 21 extant examples can be traced to the 1342 London manuscript of the Polychronicon for which stemmata have been developed by Konrad Miller, with modifications by R.A. Higden began work on the Polychronicon early in the 1320s and regularly updated it until his death in 1363. There is no evidence that Higden himself, unlike his famous predecessor, the chronicler Matthew Paris (Book II, #225), was particularly cartographically literate. The map that Higden finally selected for what is now the Huntington Library manuscript HM 132 was probably an already rather ancient model. Detail of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, from Ranulph Higdena€™s Polychronicon, England, c.
There is no pictorial illustration on the Huntington map apart from the depiction of Adam and Eve in Paradise and two dogsa€™ heads outside the map. The absence of any explicit connection between illustration and text brings to mind the acute observation made by Rudolf Wittkower in relation to the divergence between the illustrations and the text in 15th century copies of Marco Poloa€™s travels: a€?No medieval artist aimed at a descriptive illustration of a text. In the course of the 1340s - possibly before Higden had selected a map to fill the space left in the text for it - a copyist, perhaps working for Ramsey Abbey, Huntingdonshire, created a larger, more detailed and better-executed world map, which illustrates the text much more fully.
If evidence is needed of the decline of cartographic consciousness in England in the second half of the 14th century - perhaps as a consequence of the Black Death pandemic of 1348 a€“ one needs also to bear in mind that only twenty of the surviving 120 or so complete Polychronicon texts in Latin (and only those of the intermediate text and its continuations) contain maps. See also monograph #236.2, the Evesham world map, for additional information on Ranulf Higden. Detail of Noah in the ark with a ram, lion, and a stag, from Ranulph Higdena€™s Polychronicon, England, c. An example of Higdena€™s mandorla or almond-shaped maps is shown here, perhaps representing a common Christian symbol of the aureole surrounding Christ.
English manuscript map centered around Jerusalem and to be read from the north-west, in Ranulf Higden, Polychronicon, late 14th century, Oxford University MS. DESCRIPTION: The Nuremberg Chronicle, as this compendium is popularly known, was one of the most remarkable books of its time.
Two of the abundant illustrations are maps which typify well enough the range of old traditions and new information which characterizes the text itself.
What gives the map its present-day interest and attraction are the panels representing the outlandish creatures and beings that were thought to inhabit the further most parts of the earth. Hartmann Schedela€™s Liber chronicarum [Book of Chronicles] was first published in Latin on 12 July 1493; a German translation appeared the following 23 December.
The Nuremberg Chronicle is also best known for its eighty-nine views of towns and cities; of these, thirty are more or less recognizable renderings, while the other fifty-nine are fanciful (and share only seventeen different woodcuts). In the Liber chronicarum, now commonly known as the Nuremberg Chronicle, the history of the world is divided into seven ages according to the scheme laid down by the seventh century encyclopedist Isidore of Seville (Book II, #205). It has been a lot of fun hearing from so many people and reading their suggestions about who should have made the list. The former Professional Karate Association heavyweight champion and member of the Illinois State Martial Arts Hall of Fame definitely should have made the list.
He was a two-sport (football and basketball) star at Rockford East High School in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The 2500 seat theater was filled with audience and the event was attended by high-ranking officials, authorities of the Foreign Ministry and other government agencies, heads of diplomatic missions, public and political figures, businessmen and media who were able to appreciate the talents of Kazakh musicians.
During the discussions, the Governor and the Mayor proposed to expand bilateral cooperation by establishing twinned relations between Rosario and Astana or Almaty which are major cultural cities in Kazakhstan. One of them, in various versions, appears in copies of a compendious and immensely popular universal Latin history book, the Polychronicon, written in the mid-14th century by Ranulf Higden, a Benedictine monk at Chester (ca. It is oriented with East at the top, Jerusalem near its center and the heads around the map represent the twelve winds.


It depends largely on classical writings such as Plinya€™s Etymologia (especially as transmitted by earlier medieval writers and encyclopaedists, notably Isidore of Seville (Book II, #205), on medieval chronicles, on travel accounts such as those of Vincent of Beauvais, Giraldus Cambrensis and Marco Polo, on the Alexander legends and, above all, on the Bible.
Other chroniclers contributed their own a€?continuationsa€™ to Higdena€™s text until after 1400. Their occurrence or non-occurrence, however, is so apparently arbitrary and the design of most of them so unrelated to the text as to prompt questions about Higdena€™s attitude towards maps and about the nature and purpose of these so-called Higden maps.
Almost certainly the now-lost original short version of the Polychronicon did not contain a map. It presented the essentials of his worldview without the frills (such as the texts and illustrations relating to the Marvels of the East and to the Bible) found on the great 13th century world maps.
Only the principal cities, rivers, seas and provinces of the classical world are named, except in Western Europe where some medieval place-names appear.
In some ways this work resembles the great maps of the previous century with their descriptive texts. Even if a few of the other hundred mapless texts may originally have been accompanied by larger, separate maps - in the way that a copy of Gervase of Tilburya€™s Otia Imperialia may once have accompanied, explained and elucidated the Ebstorf world map (Book II, #224) a€“ the likelihood must be that most had none.
The text is an amalgam of legend, fancy and tradition interspersed with the occasional scientific fact or authentic piece of modern learning.
The first mappamundi is of Ptolemaic configurations, although without Ptolemya€™s scientific apparatus of latitudes, longitudes, scales, rich nomenclature, etc.
According to Wilson, the source of this map is apparently the frontispiece of Pomponius Melaa€™s Cosmographia printed by Ratdolt at Venice in 1488.
The second age begins with Noaha€™s ark and ends with the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. The book also contains a map of central Europe by Hieronymus Muinzer, based on a manuscript map made in 1454 by Nicolas of Cusa, which is probably the first map of the German Empire to appear in a printed book.
The overall measurements are 38 x 52 cm, with the map area being 31 x 44 cm.A  This survey of the history of the world from the Creation to the year 1493, with its 299 leaves, 1,809 illustrations (actually 1,165 woodcuts, some of which are repeated at different places, in some cases more than once) including 26 double-page city views, two double-page maps, this mappamundi, and a map of central Europe, was the most lavishly illustrated printed book of the 15th century. He ruled the world of kickboxing in the 1970s and 1980s, and is still regarded as one of the most fearless fighters in the history of the sport. He played collegiately for the NIU Huskies and spent four years in the NFL playing halfback and kick returner for the St. Not too surprising, in Britain (shown in the color red, lower left) there are more town symbols than are shown for all the rest of Europe. Fourteen cities are represented and identified, including London, Winchester, Lincoln, Oxford, Worcester, Gloucester, Norwich, Northampton, York, and Exeter. Commonly styled the Polychronicon which comes from the booka€™s longer title Ranulphi Castrensis, cognomine Higden, Polychronicon (sive Historia Polycratica) ab initio mundi usque ad mortem regis Edwardi III in septem libros dispositum, Higdena€™s Polychronicon became the most popular history book in medieval England and, as mentioned above, more than 120 manuscript copies survive today.
Although Higden occasionally interjected stories and observations of his own, and sometimes criticized earlier authors, he was generally satisfied with their information. After a few years, however, Higden evidently concluded that a map would be appropriate, and the intermediate and final versions of the text specifically refer the reader to a map. Furthermore, the one copyist of the 1340s who was sufficiently enthusiastic to create the more elaborate of the Ramsey Abbey maps, which closely corresponds to Higdena€™s text, was an isolated figure. That the Caspian is not an inland sea but open to the ocean signals this depictiona€™s conservatism. Below them to the right is the Red Sea (colored red), interrupted by a label marking where Moses led the Hebrews to safely from Herod. The many illustrations include two maps, one map of the world and one of Northern Europe, together with views of the principal cities, and a host of repeated decorative woodcuts.
The world map is a robust woodcut taken from Ptolemy (#119) without great attention to detail.
Pliny, Pomponius Mela, Solinus and Herodotusa€™ Fables have been the sources for many of these mythological creatures; others were doubtless born of medieval travelersa€™ tales. The woodcut from which it is printed is ascribed to Wohlgemuth, the teacher of Albrecht DA?rer, prepared in the year in which Columbus discovered America. It is in this section, following a discussion of the Flood and Noaha€™s drunkenness, that we find an account of the fabulous races of mankind, for which Schedel cites as his authorities Pliny, Saint Augustine, and Isidore of Seville.
The copy of the Chronicle from the National Gallery of Art is beautifully hand-colored and preserved in a fine binding made for Raimund Fugger (1489-1535) of Augsburg, a member of the famous banking family. It must also have been one of the most widely diffused, since more than 1,200 copies of the Latin and German versions are still extant. That he was English may be significant given the English associations of the group of world maps that include the Ebstorf and Hereford maps (Book II, #224 and #226). In fact, there are some 39 castellated towns throughout the entire world map, 14 of which are in England alone, while there are only four throughout all the continent of Africa. The original manuscript of the earliest version is lost, but the copy that the Huntington Library possesses is now generally accepted as Higdena€™s working copy for the intermediate version, which contains the text up to 1327 with continuations recording events up to 1352. Unlike Paris, however, Higden was either unable or unwilling to create a map specifically for his description of the world. The map omits all legends, notably those referring to the Marvels of the East or to the Bible (with the exception of an indication of the passage of the Hebrews across the Red Sea) even though these are dealt with in detail in the text.
The other copyists became, if anything, less cartographically concerned than Higden and their maps even more conventionalized.


The text specifies that Gog and Magog will break out at the end of the world and do great damage, and that they were enclosed by Alexander.
The small square islands near the middle of the page, set against a green sea, include Crete, Cyprus, Rhodes, and Sicily. As with illustrations, so with maps, Higden may have realized that the map he selected was not ideal, but he was not sufficiently cartographically sophisticated to be bothered by it. The border contains twelve dour wind-heads while the map is supported in three of its corners by the solemn figures of Ham, Shem and Japhet taken from the Old Testament. As a testimony to its popularity, some 150 manuscript copies of the Polychronicon have survived and are illustrated by a world map, all having similar geographical content, although their individual form and shape vary considerably. Not all of these town symbols are the same, for instance Jerusalem, Rome, Babylon, and Santiago de Compostella (Spain) are quite unique, large cathedral-like drawings with considerable more detail than the other identified towns.
Although he was evidently proud of Chester and of the English language, the tone of his text is not at all nationalist. Skelton and David Woodward have all followed Konrad Miller (who, however, did not know of the Huntington Library map) in focusing their attention on this map from Ramsey Abbey.
By the 1370s they were creating circular maps (or maps shaped like the aureoles often shown surrounding Christ in medieval art), which mostly lacked even the rudimentary coastlines and decoration shown on the Huntington Library Map. Higdena€™s work seems to have been very popular: around 185 Latin manuscripts traceable to Higdena€™s design. In this case, Higden himself is likely to have been responsible for the additions as well as the core text, and the Huntington Library manuscript, therefore, should be regarded as the most authoritative expression of Higdena€™s own intentions.
Almost certainly his chosen map was a familiar image that, because of its very familiarity, would have been as acceptable to his readers as to himself in providing an illustration of the world.
They appear next to a map of the world that has Noaha€™s sons at three of its corners, to represent Japheta€™s inheritance of Europe, Shema€™s of Asia, and Hama€™s of Africa. Most people who are regular readers of my columns know I’m a big fan of Patrick’s and would never purposely slight her. On some the map is circular, on some a pointed oval (vesica piscis [fish bladder] or mandorla type), and on some it is a rounded oval. Book I is devoted to a geographical description of the world, while Books 2 through Book 5 encompass the history of the world.
It is surely significant, as John Taylor has pointed out in his The Universal Chronicle of Ranulf Higden (1966), that several of the later copies of the earliest version have a blank folio - or a completely unrelated piece of text - at the end of the prologue to the first book - exactly where the map is to be found in the Huntington Library manuscript.
Undoubtedly it is relatively more informative than the Huntington Library map, i??but there are major problems in terming it the Higden map, as has been the practice. The relatively high level of map consciousness and cartographical skill that had distinguished England and the English in 13th century Europe had sunk low. The oval shape of Higdena€™s maps and its simplification, the vesica piscis, is a particular characteristic of his, but not original.
Undoubtedly it is relatively more informative than the Huntington Library map, but there are major problems in terming it the Higden map, as has been the practice.
Schedel used as a model the mappamundi found in an edition of the Cosmographia of the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela published at Venice in 1488. The circular Higden maps are thought to be simplifications of the earlier oval maps, and they certainly appear in later manuscripts. Like Melaa€™s, Schedela€™s world map is based on that of Ptolemy, but simplified and without indications of longitude and latitude; it is also shown as a segment of a globe in the conical projection, and surrounded by the twelve winds identified by name.
He played three years with the Raiders, and was a member of the Super Bowl XV championship team.
The cities of Rome and Jerusalem are always prominent, but are rarely placed in the center of the map.
Second, the inclusion in the same manuscript of another simpler map that is closely related to the Huntington Library map and may, therefore, be a slightly later addition to the Ramsey Abbey copy of the Polychronicon, suggests a loss of confidence on the part of the copyist - a feeling, perhaps, that with the fuller map he was unacceptably stepping out of line. Skelton implies that a lost prototype (which may have been a large world map such as that referred to by Matthew Paris a century earlier) was probably circular and that the oval shape was an adaptation to the shape of the codex leaf. Typical of the Ptolemaic world maps the Indian Ocean is wrongly depicted as an enclosed sea, with Asia linked to Africa by a strip of land. Third, it is worth recalling that the fuller Ramsey Abbey map produced no cartographic progeny, whereas the Huntington Library map is related to, and is probably the ancestor of, no fewer than ten oval or circular maps, including the Evesham world map (#236.2), which were being created up to and into the 1460s. It is more likely, however, that the oval shape was derived from the practice described by Hugh of Saint Victor of drawing maps in the supposed shape of Noaha€™s Ark (which, by the way, is actually pictured at center-left on the map displayed below). One of Schedela€™s very few improvements on the map in Melaa€™s Cosmographia involves the definition of the southeastern bend of the coast of West Africa, as recorded by Portuguese navigators around 1470.
By 1493, however, one would have expected a better understanding and a more accurate rendering of the whole west coast of Africa, since in 1487-1488 Bartolomeu Diaz had circumnavigated the Cape of Good Hope, the most southerly point of the African continent.
Even areas that were well-known, such as Western Europe and the Mediterranean, are relatively poorly rendered: they appear more accurately, for example, in the world map from the 1482 Ulm edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, and in nautical charts of the time.




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