1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. PAINTING OF THE WEEK - Ruins of the Holyrood Chapel by Moonlight, oil on canvas, 1824, Louis Daguerre. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph.
Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea.
Written by Christopher Morleya€™s daughter Louise before her death in 2012, and brought out between covers now by her children, to the benefit of we who care about the founder of The Baker Street Irregulars! Leavitt still claimed in the 1960s that Fuller had been an early BSI, albeit one largely ignorant of the Canon (a€™Thirties, p. But readers will learn a good deal from this book about Morley himself, and his Three Hours for Lunch Club preceding the BSI and giving it much of its early tone and personalities. Louise Morley Cochrane closes this lengthy letter by remarking: a€?The letter was not signed. Through the generosity of Christopher Music BSI, editor of the new Amateur Mendicant Society history From the Lower Vault (reviewed below by Donald Yates BSI), I have just read the late Russell McLauchlina€™s 1943 book Roaming Holidays: A Preface to Post-War Travel. McLauchlin, a Cornell man, became a lawyer after the World War, but instead pursued newspaper journalism as a career. Of Sherlock Holmes in this book therea€™s next to nothing, but of Baker Street Irregularitya€™s spirit, there is more than a little.
And a€?if I have any Anglo-Saxon blood at all, it is such a tiny drop that I do not know its origin. Alfred Street by McLauchlin, three years later (Detroit: Conjure House, 1946), does get very specific about Sherlock Holmes in one chapter. And when Starrett created The Hounds of the Baskerville (sic) in Chicago in the mid 1940s, Detroit heard the view-halloo as well. The paper, focusing on SCAN and the King of Bohemia in rhyme, was McLauchlina€™s hilariously titled a€?I Cana€™t Endorse This Czech,a€? which Edgar W. Alfred Street is where McLauchlin had grown up at the turn of the century, and the book is a superb picture of a certain era in American life.
And in the chapter a€?Alfred Street and Baker Streeta€? we learn how McLauchina€™s devotion arose. Not for worlds would I criticize that splendid society, being one of its most devout members.
The young men, who lived on Alfred Street in this centurya€™s early years, held the faith as firmly as ever did Christopher Morley or Msgr. I knew a great deal about Sherlock Holmes, some years before I learned to read, and so did all my Alfred Street companions. So we used to clamor for stories of Sherlock Holmes and my father, a great enthusiast, was always happy to comply, often relying on his own powers of invention for thrilling plots of an impromptu nature. And something like that went on in every household where Colliera€™s was delivered by the postman. The second reason, of course, was William Gillette, whose appearance as Sherlock Holmes, from his play of that name, was familiar by this time, and carried forward by Frederic Dorr Steelea€™s illustrations of those Return stories in Colliera€™s Weekly.
Few works in our literature capture as this book does the time and ethos of the early Irregulars as they first encountered, and learned to not only love, but study, the Sherlock Holmes stories. Reviewed by Jon Lellenberg, a€?Rodger Prescotta€? BSI, the conductor of this website and of the BSI Archival Histories. It was in 1984, at the BSIa€™s 50th anniversary dinner, that Bliss gave a talk about the Murray Hill Hotel era that began my own and othersa€™ interest in the BSIa€™s history.
Bliss was a stellar collector and bibliographer, making him sometimes a compelling commentator on the Canona€™s creation and its creatora€™s life. Sonia Fetherston, the author of this biography, despite not knowing Bliss, has constructed an informative portrait, deeply researched and thoughtfully written.
At the same time, Ia€™d love to know more about Blissa€™s first trip to London, when he was in his mid twenties.
But these factors do not subtract from an exceptionally valuable contribution to BSI history. In 1955, living in Dearborn, Michigan, just outside Detroit, I read a newspaper article about the Mendicants and soon was in touch with Russ McLauchlin. When I left the Detroit area in 1957 to accept a position in Michigan Statea€™s Department of Foreign Languages, I discovered that an early member of the Mendicants, Page Heldenbrand, had established a Holmes scion there that he had designated as the Greek Interpreters of East Lansing. Inspired by the work of Jon Lellenberg (the BSIa€™s Thucydides), Music has just brought forth his From the Lower Vault, which draws upon the Donovan file and Harrisa€™s papers and reminiscences to give us a sense of how a Sherlockian society comes into being, and displays the sparkling wit of Russ McLauchlin and Bob Harris in its pages, where all of McLauchlina€™s high-spirited periodic dispatches to the membership (his Encyclical Letters) are reproduced.
A recent incarnation is Baker Street Irregular by Jon Lellenberg in which a leading Sherlockian scholar and retired senior Pentagon staff officer takes his young New York lawyer, Woody Hazelbaker, through the major events in American history from the early 1930s to 1947, focusing on the beginnings and course of World War II, with an emphasis on the ever-increasing efforts at espionage and counter-espionage and the personalities involved.
Now Lellenberg, having written an entertaining spy novel about the Baker Street Irregulars, takes a new approach (at least for this reader) by producing a a€?companion volumea€? to Baker Street Irregular, addressing the background of the events and personalities in the original story with commentary and notes, both personal and objective. One topic given special attention, for example, is the long-lastingA  effort on the part of many to enlist the aid of the United States for Great Britain at war with Hitler prior to Pearl Harbor. One thing becomes very clear as one reads Sources and Methods a€” the author had a wonderful time writing this book. Ambassador Ralph Earle II is a€?Joyce Cumings,a€? BSI, a veteran himself of the Defense and State Departments and of the diplomatic life, and a Washington D.C.
For the student of BSI history, the personnel of Christopher Morleya€™s Three Hours for Lunch Club tend to divide into three categories: ones who went on to significant roles in the Baker Street Irregulars, such as Elmer Davis, W. Yet Bill Footner deserves more attention than I, and I daresay you, have given him previously. For this book, Christopher Morley penned a five plus page tribute to Footner, dated December 19th, 1944. By 1921, when the Three Hours for Lunch Club was being convened, Morley included Footner in this magic circle. Its protagonist is a member of The Three Hours for Lunch Club, at the time it had taken Hobokena€™s Old Rialto and Lyric Theatre to stage period melodrama like After Dark and The Black Crook, relying on Hobokena€™s reputation as a free-range speakeasy zone to help attract Manhattan audiences over, with fair success for a year or two. The Foundry is an old brick building of a pleasing quaintness of design, faintly German in flavor. The affairs of theA Three-Hours-for-Lunch Club and the Hoboken Theatrical Company were inextricably commingled, and the two organizations shared the Foundry between them.
The contrast of the elegant furniture with its rude surroundings tickled the fancy of the members. Morley, however much he enjoyed Bill Footnera€™s mystery novels, had a realistic view of their limited place in the genre. Without trying to put it so picturesquely a€” who can compete with Christopher Morley in such a vein? For those interested in the BSIa€™s history, there are no surprise answers in New York, City of Cities, but it offers greater understanding of the setting in which the BSI was born. And so on, if Morley had cared to set readers an examination: the possibilities in the City of Cities were endless. It is a distinct pleasure, particularly in these dumbed-down days, to encounter a solid work of old-fashioned, literate, witty disputation in the Canon; or rather, to honor Sauvagea€™s insistence, the Conan. The manuscript of Sherlockian Heresies survived for many years as part of the paternal archive saved by the three Sauvage children, and a happy accident brought them into contact with the editors. Sauvagea€™s critical strictures in Sherlockian Heresies are not nitpickings; this is not a chapter of faults, so to speak. There is much more to challenge the engaged readera€™s beliefs and assumptions, and he takes serious issue with the findings of even the greatest among us in the past. Varian Fry was not just forthright and successful, he was such despite the direct opposition of the U.S.
The Baring-Gould a€?editiona€? of his Annotated Sherlock Holmes is an offset-printed paste-up of various London: John Murray publications, and the texts reflect British usage as a result of this. George Fletcher is a€?The Cardboard Box,a€? BSI, and claims to have retired as director of Special Collections at the New York Public Library. In this, the first decade of the 21st century, anyone who can connect to the worldwide web can be deluged a€” and paralyzed a€” by a flood of virtual news, information, misinformation, blogs, opinions, images etc., on nearly any conceivable topic.
Both the Senior Editor, Harry Thurston Peck, and the Junior Editor, Arthur Bartlett Maurice, of the American Bookman were obsessed with the doings of Sherlock Holmes. The result of the mania shared by Peck and Maurice was a devotion to tracking and commenting upon various strands of Sherlockiana, Doyleana, and numerous other detective appearances coeval to their publication. This is an excellent route to appreciating the growth and development of Sherlockian appreciation essentially from the beginning.
Why, the a€?Editorial Adventure Storya€? by Trumbull White, in which he narrates his long quest to acquire a yet-to-be written manuscript co-authored by Conan Doyle and E. Bret Hartea€™s first volume of Condensed Novels was entirely admirable, not quite so much may be said for the second.
As an antiquarian bookseller, I cannot but be painfully reminded of an incident nearly forty years ago. Meanwhile, other not-to-be-missed nuggets in this compilation include a very late (1927) article by Conan Doyle which relates to his interest in Spiritualism.
Last, but certainly not least, this reprints various contributions by Vincent Starrett in advance of his immediate classic The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes. It is difficult to imagine the state of Sherlockian studies or the history of the Baker Street Irregulars without thinking of Vincent Starrett. This collection begins with his earliest columns in the Chicago Daily News and continues when it moved to the Chicago Tribune. The book is necessarily episodic, but nevertheless it is possible to read it straight through with pleasure as well as by dipping into it at random.
This is a book for anyone who enjoys reading Vincent Starrett, but it may also serve as a resource to events in the Sherlockian world between 1942 and 1967. A book that allows us to read something new by the Dean of Sherlockians (as Starrett was often called) is worth a place on our shelves.
Nature is full of pictures, and they are to be found in what appears to the uninitiated the most unlikely places. ON A SUNNY JUNE MORNING in 1903, Lily White ventured beyond the comfort of her new houseboat, the Raysark, anchored in a snug harbor on the Columbia River near Lyle, Washington.1 With stray hairs blowing about her face, she sped away in a small gasoline-powered launch for the ten-mile crossing to The Dalles, on the Oregon side of the river, in search of a boat mechanic.
Refitting the pipe joints this time with greater difficulty in the dark, and replacing the needle valve, I tried to start the engine.
WHILE THE FAMILY STORIES of Lily White and Sarah Ladd have little in common, their lives intertwined in a friendship that lasted throughout their adult years.
WHEN THE FIFTH ANNUAL Oregon Camera Club exhibit opened on October 30, 1899, at the club's rooms on the second floor of the Oregonian building, three hundred photographs a€” arranged alphabetically and lit by electric lights a€” hung on a background of green burlap, surrounded by wood ferns, draperies, and banners of the stars and stripes.
Art, love of the beautiful, ambitions to excel has raised the standard of the Camera Club's work high among amateurs. Included in Ladd's six displayed prints were A Japanese Phantasy, Silent the Phantom Wood by Waters Deep, a bucolic forest scene, and Youth and Old Age, an image portraying a butterfly amid the opened seedpods of an aging plant. TOWARD THE END of the nineteenth century, photographic salons, where a rigorous jurying process approved only the most artistic work, appeared in Europe and the United States. IN THE SPRING OF 1903, White's custom-built houseboat, the Raysark, was towed up the Columbia River rapids by the steamer Regulator, and White and her friends were now free to explore the bays and inlets of the upper river. White and Ladd intended to photograph their surroundings and develop and print the results in the Raysark's darkroom. BEGINNING IN JANUARY 1905, as entrepreneurs focused on promoting Oregon and the Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Ladd's and White's photographs of the Columbia River Gorge began appearing in the Pacific Monthly, a magazine owned and published by Ladd's husband Charles. Ladd's images included a cloud-shrouded Mount Hood and photographs titled Celilo Falls, Morning Mists, St. It was a romantic, visual tour to entice people to experience the basalt ledges and peaks of the Gorge and the serenity of the river.
FEW ARTISTIC PHOTOGRAPHERS of this era were able to devote themselves fulltime to making photographs.
Sarah Ladd, A Fish Wheel is Shown at the right Extending from an Island near the Middle of the river.
SARAH LADD WAS FIFTY-EIGHT years old when her husband died on March 20, 1920, at age sixty-three. I wish to thank Terry Toedtemeier for introducing me to the work of Lily White and Sarah Ladd and also Wayne Travillion, Lily White's grandnephew, for his generosity in providing information about White's family background. Content in the History Cooperative database is intended for personal, noncommercial use only.
Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium.
Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. No one else could have written it.a€? We can agree, grateful for such intimate looks into the BSIa€™s foundera€™s life and thoughts. It records Morleya€™s growing sense of mortality in the late 1940s and early a€™50s, a glimpse of which we had previously on p. McLauchlin (1894-1975) was the Detroit News cultural critic for many years, and the book consists of 21 short broadcasts he did over radio station WWJ in the winter of 1942-43, when such things were scarcely imaginable at a time of global total war. In a€?The Waters of the Earth,a€? for example, he says something very akin to Christopher Morleya€™s remark about the Atlantic I recently reported; McL.
There is no traditional reason why Scottish blood should leap when the name of England is spoken. McLauchlin grew up devoted to Sherlock Holmes, but in the 1930s and a€™40s he was close to Vincent Starrett in Chicago, not Christopher Morley in New York.
McLauchlin wanted to do the same there a€” but appears to have worried about his status for doing so. He brings to life a time and a place for readers today whose later lives and experiences have been very different. This true faith, I am happy to say, has made much progress in late years and, in our own republic, it has solidified into an active fellowship which calls itself the Baker Street Irregulars. Not only did we consider him a flesh-and-blood mortal, but we had the vague idea that he lived in Detroit and that we were likely to see him walking down the street. One was the Return stories appearing at the time in Colliera€™s Weekly, leading to their parents buying bonus volumes of A Study in Scarlet and The Sign of the Four: a€?this economical acquisition of a pair of masterpieces naturally prompted the close perusal of the same by our elders, producing much Sherlockian conversation around every fireside on the street. He was careful to inform us that all his storiesa€”even his excursions into fancya€”had been collected and written down by a certain Dr. In April of 1903, when McLauchlin was eight years old (he remembered having been five), Gillette brought his play to Detroita€™s Opera House, a€?and every young gentleman on Alfred Street demanded, with the utmost in passion, to be taken to see him, even if the family were in consequence obliged to temporize with the butcher.a€? The effect was instantaneous, and permanent. He came into the BSI in 1944, and almost at once received one of the first fifteen Titular Investitures from Edgar W. He provided encouragement to the young, and was generous not only with his time and knowledge, but with physical items, duplicates he had acquired in his collecting. Ita€™s a shame it shows signs of having been cut down by the publisher to make a a€?marketablea€? book well under 200 pp.
The groupa€™s original sparking plug was the ebullient, effervescent Scot, Russell McLauchlin, for many years the entertainment critic at the Detroit News. I had been a Holmes admirer from an early age, but my contact with his life and times had up until then been limited to the pages of my copy of the Doubleday Complete Sherlock Holmes, which my mother had given me on the occasion of my graduation from junior high school in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1944.
After a single meeting, the membership unaccountably dispersed and nothing more was heard of it, although the young Heldenbrand had subsequently become an active participant in the activities of New Yorka€™s Baker Street Irregulars. Also prominently displayed are the inimitable contributions of the comic genius of the late Bill Rabe BSI, whose gift for offbeat humor was unmatched. Yates (a€?The Greek Interpreter,a€? BSI) is retired chairman of the Romance Languages Department at Michigan State University, and today presides over The Napa Valley Napoleons of St. He does this in an orderly and well-organized but highly personal way; for each chapter he begins with a synopsis, then a€?Sources and Methodsa€? (a phrase fraught with meaning, or meanings, from his Pentagon days), followed by People and finally Places and Things. This is shown through Woodya€™s eyes in New York and Washington in 1940 and a€™41, and his close encounters not only with prominent history-book Americans like Dean Acheson and Wild Bill Donovan, and British agents in the States at the time, but with Baker Street Irregulars as well like Elmer Davis, Rex Stout, and Fletcher Pratt, who did play such clandestine roles before America itself entered the war at the end of 1941. Born in Hamilton, Ontario, in 1879, he came to New York at the age of nineteen to be an actor; got occasional parts in legitimate theater, and occasional vaudeville turns as well, and achieved a certain sort of immortality by doubling as Alf Bassick and Sir Edward Leighton in a road company of William Gillettea€™s Sherlock Holmes. Footner had published at least two more mysteries by then (Thievesa€™ Wit and The Owl Taxi), and would write many more.
A great central hall with a gallery all around, and the mighty traveling crane still hanging overhead; and room after room of different sizes and shapes, and all on different levels. Morley gave New York, City of Cities nearly a page and a half in the December 11, 1937, Saturday Review of Literature. New York City Guide (1939), 680 indexed pages packed with an amazing amount of information about New York in these decades.
Footner is interested in the feminine side too, Hattie Carnegie and Elsa Maxwell, and the anonymous corps of stenographers, shopgirls and waitresses without whom the city would grind to a halt faster than you could say Fiorello La Guardia, as well the haute monde. He can and does wax poetic at points, for example his description of night falling and the citya€™s lights coming on at twilight as seen from the Rainbow Grill, sixty-five floors atop Rockefeller Center, still new at the time.
The Waldorf-Astoria gets two pages, but many New York hotels, and their bars and restaurants which were vital to the citya€™s life, get unaccountably short shrift.
It may even help explain why, in the year of its publication, there had been no BSI annual dinner, and wouldna€™t be one a month later in January a€™38, either a€” not until 1940, after Edgar W. Of course, there is no overlooking the fact that the author left this book unfinished at his death twenty-two years ago, so that, rather like the appearance of the Hound in its own day, it is of necessity a retrospective work rather than a harbinger of restored better times. The Sauvage I knew, from the final dinners at Cavanagha€™s to the end of his life, was an older cosmopolitan New Yorker: a world-traveling journalist with a command of the most limpid, idiomatic prose in American English (and, I am confident, equally adept in at least two or three other languages), who spoke with a pronounced Maurice Chevaliera€“like French accent, something that was and is simply not noticeable in New York.
Mesdames McKuras and Vizoskie are to be congratulated heartedly for their excellent work of investigation, reconstruction, editing, and annotating.
1924), and thus was one of that vanished breed able to read certain of the adventures as they were published. The only area approaching this minor art form is his distaste for those aspects of American punctuation that put terminal punctuation inside closing quotation marks; then again, the editors did not permit this to survive their work, so the minor issue is moot in this publication.
What he consistently demands is that it be the Conan, and he writes often and strongly of Conanicity and the like. For that matter, he is doubtful that the actual residence was even on Baker Street, let alone its putative location on that street, whether the bifurcated thoroughfare of the Victorian era or the long single stretch of the decades since. Of course, I agree with the editors that Sauvage primarily used the Doubleday edition, with its errors and Americanisms, occasionally turning to the Baring-Gould Annotated for commentary. Previously Astor Curator of Printed Books and Bindings at the Pierpont Morgan Library, before that he was the director of Fordham University Press, where he published the Baker Street Journal for some happy years. A hundred years ago, a principal delivery system for those kinds of material was the monthly magazine. In fact, Peck claimed to be a€?the only true Sherlockiana€?; whereas, the annotators of this collection allege (p. They demonstrate the state of mind of a youngish Starrett trying to work from his reportera€™s notebooks, showing his growth toward writing his biography. Joyce (a€?The Yellow-backed Novel,a€? BSI) is a rare books dealer, and a long-time member of Chicagoa€™s bibliophile society, The Caxton Club.
Novelist, short story writer, poet, critic, columnist, bookman, he was the voice of literary Chicago in the middle of the twentieth century. Starrett was a man of his times and commented in passing on his times and the people who moved in it.
A dozen appendices record such topics as a Chicago Daily News article about the discovery of the real author of a€?The Case of the Man Who Was Wanted,a€? a list of pastiches involving Sherlock Homes and Gilbert & Sullivan, a list of Basil Rathbonea€™s movie roles before Sherlock Holmes, Ronald Knoxa€™s a€?10 Commandments of the Detective Story,a€? an essay on Sherlock Holmes by Christopher Isherwood, and Jay Finlay Christa€™s abbreviations for the stories. There is one column, for June 24, 1945, for which this reviewer wishes to have been told more by the editor. Let the honest student then choose some district with which he is in sympathy, and let him go there quietly and spend a few months, or even weeks if he cannot spare months, and let him day and night study the effects of nature, and try to produce one picture of his own, which shall show an honest attempt to probe the mysteries of nature and art, one picture which shall show the author has something to say and knows how to say it, as perhaps no other living person could say it; that is something to have accomplished.
All day the mechanics cut, turned, and fitted, making many trips to and from the workshop, until without rest or food they finished the repairs just as the sun was sinking from view. Through their work, the Raysark became legendary, providing the two women and their friends congenial summer memories and a source of their most enduring photographs.
Profiting from civic expansion projects, real estate, farming, and the burgeoning river transportation business, the Ladds became wealthy Portland bankers.
The movement nurtured amateur photographers who created artistic images purely for personal pleasure as opposed to commercial photographers who mass-produced studio portraits for profit. Judd of Pendleton donated a trophy a€” a large three-handled silver loving cup with gold lining a€” to be awarded each year for best general exhibit by an individual amateur photographer.


The twenty-eight-page exhibition catalogue highlighted the club's studio in the tower of the Oregonian Building, furnished with an enlarging camera, a lantern slide-reducing camera, a stereopticon, and developing rooms. In early 1901, San Francisco opened its first photographic salon at the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art with nearly five hundred photographs, including numerous works by Sarah Ladd and Lily White's A Soul Looked In and Rest. Stieglitz could single-handedly influence a photographer's future by accepting or rejecting his or her work in exhibitions, by publishing it in Camera Notesa€” the journal of the Camera Club of New York, which he edited a€” or by returning it with his deflating comments about work being technically perfect but pictorially deficient. White confessed to creating that setting by damming a stream and letting part of it run wild in Fulton Park, an area between Portland and the Ladd estate. Camera Craft judged Ladd's Eyes of the Earth to be the best of her five carbon prints and reproduced it with their review. Included were Ladd's A Decorative Panel, three flower studies presented as carbon prints on celluloid.37 In May 1902, the Camera Club of New York hung Ladd's work, and in July Stieglitz added Sarah Ladd to his list of photographers invited to represent the United States in the Turin International Exhibition at the Exposition of Decorative Arts in Turin, Italy.
The events connected photographers from across the United States and Europe, especially when their work was reviewed and published in journals and exhibition catalogues. Each active member contributed one print a month to a portfolio that traveled to cities where the club had members. In its regional announcement, Camera Craft emphasized the inclusion of the Secession's western members a€” Anne Brigman from California and Sarah Ladd, Lily White, and Myra Wiggins from Oregon.48 Considering the distance from New York City and the relative isolation of western states from the New York City photographic hub, the accomplishments of these women are notable.
The Columbia River became her home for creating pictures at any time of day, with rock formations, clouds, water, trees, and light creating the soft moodiness that was indicative of the photographic style of the time. The periodical, with a circulation of six thousand by 1900 and distributed throughout the Pacific Northwest, published western fiction, humor, travelogues, literary installments, and articles about economic progress and development in the Pacific Northwest and California.
Like so many photographers of flowers, Ladd created images that reflect the view that all art originates in nature and defies the complicated technical requirements to leave an impression of natural simplicity.
While these photos possessed the atmospheric content that asked viewers to contemplate the natural world a€” a popular theme of the era a€” they were reproduced to attract leisure-class tourists and potential new residents to the region.
Sarah Ladd's social obligations often required her attention, and those appearances increased when her husband Charles became involved with the 1905 Lewis and Clark Exposition, which provided an opportunity to glorify Portland's business and society and served as the culmination of personal ambitions for many of the city's elite. About a dozen subscribers to The Nautilus have discontinued the magazine on becoming Christian Scientists. On June 9, 1908, while living in Oswego and already a member of the First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Portland, she joined The Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston.67 A year later, she was living with Sarah and Charles Ladd at Cedarhurst and working as a Christian Science practitioner at 616 Beck Building.
Accustomed to moving on her own path, she set in motion a new course, and in July 1921 she was elected a member of the Christian Science Society in McMinnville. Ladd was noted for her beauty and during her married life in Portland won more than local recognition because of her interest in flowers and gardening, an interest she maintained throughout her life. White fit the archetype of the strong independent western female, while Ladd had been part of Portland's high society.
I am also grateful to the staff of the Oregon Historical Society Research Library for their assistance. Lily White probably taught photography to Fred and Oscar Kiser who, in 1903, created the Kiser Photographic Company, specializing in scenic photography. Catalogue, Sixth Annual Print Exhibition (Portland: Oregon Camera Club, October 29a€“November 3, 1900). Constitution, Oregon Camera Club [1895], Research Library, Oregon Historical Society, Portland [hereafter OHS Research Library]. In 1899, the Oregon Industrial Exposition featured a photography exhibition judged by Ida Rae Myrick, W. Minutes of the Oregon Camera Club, December 15, 1894a€“June 10, 1902, 57 OHS Research Library [hereafter OCC Minutes]. I maintain that many photographs attributed to Lily White were actually made by Sarah Ladd.
Judith Huenneke, The Mary Baker Library, e-mail correspondence with the author, July 2, 2004. David Nartonis, Assistant for Administration, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston, Massachusetts, letter to the author, June 13, 1988. You may not reproduce, publish, distribute, transmit, participate in the transfer or sale of, modify, create derivative works from, display, or in any way exploit the History Cooperative database in whole or in part without the written permission of the copyright holder. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. The book had been proposed by Morleya€™s visionary friend Buckminster Fuller back in the mid-1970s, in order to record a€?the friendship between two quite disparate personalities of the twen-tieth century, and the influence they had on each other in the course of their lives.a€? Morley, a man of letters if one ever lived, described his friend in 1938 as a€?an engineer, inventor, industrial designer, a very botanist of structure and materialsa€? and a€?a student of Trend,a€? and the experience of knowing each other was a bit like C. Leavitt as an a€?Holmesian aboriginea€? during the early years of that decade, and he appears on Morleya€™s mid-a€™30s membership list for the BSI (p. It is the inferiority complex of the newly cultivated, the intellectual climbers, that gives them their passion for dressing up and going to public festivity. 430 of Irregular Crises of the Late a€™Forties, in a March 1950 letter of his to Doubledaya€™s Kenneth McCormick about Morleya€™s fears for his health. Smitha€”Morley remarking to Fuller in 1944 about having sent Smith (perhaps prophetically) a copy of The Martyrdom of Man, a€?the wonderful book so highly praised by Sherlock Holmes.a€? But even in his final years Morley went on writing poetry, his daughter noted.
His vignettes are based a good deal on pre-war travel of his, from his home statea€™s and Canadaa€™s lake districts and wildernesses to sites in Europe, not only ones like London and Paris, but obscure ones as well both then and now.
Ia€™m obliged for my language and all that my language implies, including Shakespeare and Dickens.
Still, what sort of audience did he and it expect for a book about travel in a world convulsed by war? Smith looked up McLauchlin and the Amateur Mendicants on trips to General Motors headquarters in Detroit, and was greatly impressed, reporting to Christopher Morley in March 1947 that the AMS were a€?easily, under Russ McLauchlina€™s guidance, the most erudite of the Scions. The nature of young boys is largely unchanged, no doubt, but the sense of innocence at that time, where a€?the wara€? meant the three-month Spanish-American War, or even somebody elsea€™s Boer War, not the carnage of World War I or II, stirs a yearning in the readera€™s breast. Youthful ears overheard these discussions and the name of the detective grew familiar.a€? a€” a pattern doubtless replicated in many American homes then where early Irregulars were children.
Watson, who enjoyed the incalculable advantage of being the great mana€™s friend and room-mate. Later he lived in Pittsburgh, where in the 1970s he mentored its Fifth Northumberland Fusiliers. Bliss evoked that earlier Baker Street Irregularity when giants in the earth became Irregulars, writing so much to edify and entertain everyone else in it.
I was one of his beneficiaries in both ways, but it was his time and knowledge I appreciated most, working with him on his superlative contributions to Baker Street Miscellanea when I was one of its editors, and on an essay by him for my 1987 book The Quest for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Rufus Tucker (a€?The Greek Interpreter,a€? 1944), an economist who lived close by but worked in Manhattan at General Motors Overseas with Edgar W.
Randall (a€?The Golden Pince-Nez,a€? of Scribnera€™s Bookstore on Fifth Avenue) first attended the annual dinner in 1940, not 1941. Not a term I would use, though all the other fine things she says about him there and on the page following are accurate. The fact that by 1981 he could remark upon the swollen size of the BSI dinner, that it had reached a€?the maximum number of people but a minimum amount of fun,a€? made him not a curmudgeon, but a sober observer of an historical reality that neither Julian Wolff nor his successors have been prepared to address. These days the BSI prints books in runs of only 100 copies, a far cry from the 750 it once needed to print for my last three Archival History chronological volumes, all of them sold out today. He was soon joined at the helm of the Mendicants by attorney Robert Harris, and together they guided the sciona€™s activities with the rollicking blend of Baker Street nostalgia and encouragement for tongue-in-cheek scholarship that has somehow always effortlessly imposed itself on such gatherings. Russ invited me to the groupa€™s next meeting and asked if I could compose something with a Sherlockian connection to read on that occasion. I, for one, convey to Music my profound thanks for his masterful job of editing, a product of his dedication to the cause that motivates us all a€” keeping ever green the memory of Sherlock Holmes and Baker Street.
Each and every one of these subsets is a source of data covering many, many subject areas, and the whole creates a rich canvas for readers. The tense and uncertain atmosphere of those days comes across with clarity, and is a good example of Lellenberga€™s sense of atmosphere in evoking BSI history unknown to today's Irregulars. And like many would-be actors who come to New York, he did a lot of other things as well to make ends meet, including turning to writing.
One reason why his detective tales have always been for me the perfect laxative is that I usually read them when I should be doing something else.a€? Morley had read them all, from Footnera€™s first one published in 1918.
At this time it had not been altered from its original state beyond what could be accomplished by sweeping and scrubbing. The members never tired of conducting visitors through the endless, empty rooms, running up and down the odd steps, and climbing the casual ladders while they pointed out the future library, billiard-room, the private dining-room, etc., etc.
He limits himself for the most part to Manhattan Island, and goes about in his sleuthy fashion, inconspicuously conning and eavesdropping.
Ia€™m currently preparing my long-overdue a€?sources and methodsa€? companion volume to my novel Baker Street Irregular, and felt forced to go back to an early section identifying and discussing the books about New York per se which informed my novel a€” three about the city itself (all but one published in the 1930s), and seven more about life there in the 1930s and a€™40s. With that, and New York, City of Cities (1937) by Hulbert Footner, a detective-story writer friend of Christopher Morleya€™s and a fellow member of the Three Hours for Lunch Club, the prospective Irregular novelist may be able to do without the eleven books above. The Algonquin, despite manifold literary and theatrical associations, gets not a single word. Smith had arrived to take over the labors of dinner-arranging, notice-mailing, and negotiations with waiters that Morley eschewed. I heard that Bill had gone (suddenly, without long misery, as he would most have wished) and I carried onto the hearth the great oak stump I had chosen. Given an assignment some six decades ago on postwar American exports to Europe, Sauvage interviewed a certain gracious senior official of overseas operations for General Motors at his office on Broadway at 57th Street.
One such magazine, The Bookman, appeared with different content on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Bret Harte represented the United States in the role of Consul to a couple of European cities.
He not only wrote one of the best biographies of Sherlock Holmes in The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes (1933), but kept green the memory of the Master in his weekly a€?Books Alivea€? column for the Chicago Tribune.
At the very end (before a most able index) there is a chronology of the Life and Times of Vincent Starrett, with dates and events in the world beyond Starrett as well as those in his own life.
Remember that your photograph is a rough index of your mind; it is a sort of rough confession on paper.
She must make her own landing and arrive on the high deck of the wharf as best she could and under fire from a regiment of critical eyes.
Early amateur photographers such as White and Ladd, who had leisure time and economic freedom, undertook their work not for money, but for creative adventure. Ayer a€” a Portland bookseller, stationer, and printer a€” and lived in her grandfather's home at 348 Fourth Street.
Amateurs often printed their work on paper coated with light-sensitive platinum rather than ordinary silver coatings, and making carbon prints became popular with Camera Club enthusiasts in Portland. A photographer had to win the competition three times in order to keep the Judd Cup and have his or her name inscribed on it.
Beach, general manager of the Interchange, each camera club must prepare 50 to 125 slides, each 3A? inches by 4 inches. Her Bridge of Hope, taken from her houseboat near Castle Rock that summer, recorded a rainbow, which was considered an unusual achievement for a photographer.32 White also exhibited several photographs of Native Americans, including A Shadow of the Past, which depicted a mother and her baby.
After each member wrote comments about the prints, they were sent to the next city until eventually they returned to the owners. White and Ladd remained Photo-Secession members at least through 1905.49 Overall, the camera club structure and amateur movement created a symbiotic relationship, in this case a vertical one, scaled by Lily White and Sarah Ladd.
Steamers from Portland conveyed guests to and from her boat, which was often anchored near Lyle, Washington, a busy shipping port for wheat and sheep eighty-two miles east of Portland.
While White's darkroom-equipped houseboat was probably unique to Portland and the Columbia River Gorge, it was not an original idea. With this latest technology, the two friends could wait for the clouds to form, the water to calm, and reflections to appear. Telegraph poles peer below the looming cliff of White's Upper Cape Horn, Near Celilo Falls of the Columbia. Photographs in the Pacific Monthly appeared with the descriptive titles or local literary connections that were commonly used by photographers but were also likely to appeal to tourists.
When making flower photographs, there were aesthetic considerations of composition and lighting along with the formal qualities connected to the photographers' intentions, from the desire to portray botanical specimens to romantic associations, emotions, or beauty.
Ladd and White had become successful, benefiting from the prestige associated with their work and maintaining their economic independence by making artistic photographs for commercial projects.
The Ladds attended a banquet to honor the arrival of Vice President Charles Fairbanks, for example, and joined a thousand people at an opening reception of the American Inn, which Charles Ladd built on the fairgrounds.63 The festive activities offered quite a contrast to Sarah Ladd's life on the river.
Elizabeth Struble Towne, born in Portland in 1865 (one year before White), was a follower of Quimby's and the publisher of the Nautilus, an influential periodical associated with New Thought. On June 2, 1911, Ladd joined White as a member of the Mother Church of the First Church of Christ Scientist in Boston.69 In July, she and nine other women organized the Carlton Civic Improvement Association.
Together, they joined the local Christian Science Church, where they remained members until their deaths. Each had a photographic and aesthetic vision that gave them the same status as the men who photographed the Columbia River at the same time, and both adopted a religion that allowed them to take prominent roles that were not permissible in traditional religions.
The Kiser brothers grew up on the Columbia River opposite Beacon Rock, near Dodson, Oregon, where White would sometimes stop. The lectures were available after the club renewed its membership with the American Lantern Slide interchange in 1901. The slides most preferred by the Interchange board of managers were cloudy landscapes, figures studies, and genre subjects.
According to Penrose Annuals from this time period, Photoloid was introduced as a print material that would give a "true carbon [look] unattended with the great labor and care that the latter requires. Given that Bell's intention was to organize the Salon Club as a challenge to Alfred Stieglitz and his Photo-Secession, it is interesting to note the inclusion of Sarah Ladd and the initial listing of Myra Wiggins, both Photo-Secession members. Twenty-two-year-old Oscar Kiser disappeared on Saturday, November 4, 1905, from the Charles Ladd boathouse at Riverdale, where he worked as the caretaker.
Ladd left $3,000 to the Christian Science Society of McMinnville for the maintenance of their grounds and set aside $1,500 for a drinking fountain in Carlton in memory of her husband. From 1930, Lily White lived on Scenic Drive between Martin Way and Carmel Point with Mabel Spicker. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
But it sheds some new light on Morleya€™s composition of Sherlock Holmesa€™s Prayer in 1944, which Fuller was one of the first to see, and provides interesting insights into Morleya€™s relationship with people swept into the early BSIa€™s orbit, like Don Marquis in the 1930s and Morleya€™s secretary Elizabeth Winspear at 46W47 in the 1940s, until she went off to war. He was not a great nor even a very good poet, but he loved doing it, and despite his first strokea€™s handicap a€?he was still able to write enough poems to complete a final small collection called Gentlemena€™s Relish (1955).a€? One poem, first published in the Saturday Review of Literature on October 2, 1954, was a€?Elegy to a Railroad Station,a€? a tribute by an ageing man who still considered himself a Main Line Boy, to the Broad Street Station of his Philadelphia childhood that had been razed in 1953. I suspect that he and I are the only Baker Street Irregulars whoa€™ve ever been to TromsA?, Norway, above the Arctic Circle.
Ia€™m obliged to England for the law under which I live, for the English common law, which was developed through many centuries, is the law of America today, although many heedless Americans do not realize it. He died in 1988, one of the BSIa€™s great personalities and scholars a€” the a€?Prince of the Realma€? of this booka€™s title, taken from my obituary for him in the Baker Street Journal at the time. He made a strong impression upon Smith and Morley to be included so soon in the first crop of Titular Investitures, and repaid their confidence in him through the decades that followed as one of the BSIa€™s leading collectors and scholars, writing for the Baker Street Journal, Baker Street Miscellanea, and his own annual, eagerly awaited, Baker Street Christmas Stockings which have been collected in book form. He was a gentleman and scholar in the best sense of that expression, and a model contributor to the Writings About the Writings. For example, Peter Blau in his foreword refers to it containing the landmark talk that Bliss gave at the 1976 BSI dinner about BSI a€?poetess laureatea€? Helene Yuhasova, but it is not present. While Park Avenue north of Grand Central was fashionable, the Murray Hill Hotel was south of it.
But this book has made it into a second printing, which shows people still care about the BSIa€™s history.
It was during this rebirth of the society, beginning in 1975, that Tom Voss joined the group. Some travel-adventure books about Canada did not make a noticeable mark, so he turned to mysteries next, more successfully this time.
But Morley had read it even earlier, he bragged: a€?I read it in MS, way back about 1916, when I was contact man for Bill at his publishers.
No mere scrubbing could really clean up a place in which the grime of decades of iron-founding was ingrained. He is in a sense a stool pigeon between the mystery (New York itself) and the inquisitive reader. Footner, like every other whose heart is capable of stir, does not see only our great ladya€™s moods of cockeyed comedy and exhibitionism. Morley may have been too darned busy enjoying New York instead; and tracking down the answers to the a€?little examination paper on Mr. They have brought this book close to the form its author would have achieved had he been vouchsafed the time to do so. The niceties of selling vehicles in Europe took ten minutes; the next two hours were devoted to Sherlock Holmes. Individual Foreign Service officers assisted Fry at the risk of their careers, just as, at sea, the U.S.
Barrie, Jack London, Harding Davis, Anna Katherine Green, as well as his predecessors in Poe, Gaboriau, and Vidocq. As poor as any is a€?The Stolen Cigar Case,a€? in which Sherlock Holmes as Hemlock Jones deduces a condition of affairs which puts an end to his long association with Watson. 179, Starrett relates an anecdote at the Cliff Dwellersa€™ Club in Chicago which involved Arnold Bennett and Karl Edwin Harriman. Not every column mentioned Sherlock Holmes, but just as King Charlesa€™ head kept popping up in the manuscript Mr.
Interestingly, the very first discusses the manuscript of a€?The Case of the Man Who Was Wanted,a€? suspected at that time to be an actual undiscovered Sherlock Holmes story written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Whenever a person or event might not be understood by todaya€™s reader, editor Murdock has inserted a footnote of explanation. It begins almost a decade before Starretta€™s birth with the birth of Carl Sandburg, another noted Chicago literary figure and friend of Starretta€™s whose birthday is also that of Sherlock Holmes, January 6. Hatch of Minneapolis, who supplied Starrett with some statistics regarding the detective story. Ia€™m obliged to EnglandA  for the law under which I live, for the English common law, which was developed through many centuries, is the law of America today, although many heedless Americans do not realize it. When a woman will step into the world of action and do a few vigorous things for herself, she may do all the resta€”ahem!
And here it was, during the time which followed, that I learned the real meaning of stillness.
In Portland, privileged men and women chartered riverboats for moonlight excursions on the Willamette and Columbia rivers and enjoyed the new sport of golf a€” and they documented their leisure activities by taking photographs. Her mother, Nancy Hoffman White, had crossed the plains from Illinois at age eleven with her parents and twelve brothers and sisters. Ladd's son, Charles Elliot, graduated from Amherst College in 1881 and brought his bride Sarah L. Lily White taught Oregon Camera Club members the latest photography and darkroom techniques, using ready-to-expose, emulsion-coated glass plate negatives and platinum paper for image-making.
Favored for its permanence and ability to produce colored prints at a time when color photography was rare, carbon printing involved exposing a negative against pigmented tissue sensitized with potassium bichromate. To select the winner, the club chose three judges a€” a professional photographer, an artist, and an amateur who was not a club member a€” to evaluate each personal grouping of photographs (at least six but not more than ten pictures mounted, with framing optional). Individual slides had to be as technically perfect as possible, without areas too dense or too clear, matted and labeled, and without too much soot. Stieglitz's pronouncements signaled a new era, but Ladd and White's adventures on the river had already begun. White had supervised the boat's construction, and the Raysark was built to accommodate her personal needs. They might move closer to or farther away from Castle Rock (now Beacon Rock) or stand on a sandy beach.
In a change from her typical landscapes, White also captured the work of fish seining on the Columbia with her photographs of horses and men grappling with the nets spread by boats.57 The exhilaration of the two women's work and the pleasures of life on the river, away from the pace of city life, contributed to a series of photographs that many believe is unmatched by other photographers. There were also many decisions to make concerning plate development, paper selection, and mounting techniques. Their first project involved working with the city council to purchase trash cans for the streets.70 Unlike White, Ladd continued to exhibit her photographs despite the changes in her life.


Living near the ocean in a creative, invigorating community of writers and artists would have supported and nurtured their interests, but their life together was not to last long. Their work as artists influenced the Oregon Camera Club, which depended on photographers whose photographs reflected their lifestyle, the artistic genre of their era, and the landscapes they cherished. Photoloid consists of a colloid emulsion placed upon a cellulose base, from which combination the name evolved. The same author then discussed the formation of a Western Division of the Salon Club, a group organized by photographer Curtis Bell. In 1904, Charles Ladd bought it from Jay Cooke, a railroad financier, and then sold it to Henry J.
Holman, a lawyer and amateur rose grower, suggested that every Portland home should plant roses the following spring so the plants would have three years' growth by the time the Lewis and Clark Centennial opened. A bronze medallion of Charles Ladd, Chinese vases, and Greek glass bowls were left to the Portland Art Museum. The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
Snowa€™s The Two Cultures coming together and exploding like the fissile spheres of an atom bomb. The non-BSI journalist Henry Morton Robinson averred, in a December 4, 1943, Saturday Review of Literature article (which the BSI did not regard highly; it appears as ch. There are welcome references to Christ Cellaa€™s and Billy the Oysterman in Morleya€™s literary and social life, and to the Saturday Review of Literature where the BSI presented itself to the world. EG the Phi Beta Kappa campaign for Defense (of Intellectual Freedom!) They have sent me a booklet: a€?Phi Beta Kappa Fortifies Its Sector in the Defense of the Humanitiesa€™ etc.
Ia€™m obliged to England for about 85 per cent of the social conventions which make community living a pleasant thing. But the answera€™s in the reading of it: it was written and published for civilized men and women waiting and working for that war to end, with democracy victorious.
205, a€?received and transmitted such masterworks from and to the effete of the East, and commonfolk like ourselves elsewhere. Yet he was a man of the humanities too, and not of Sherlock Holmes and Conan Doyle alone: Japanese art as well, with a collection of prints that are at Pittsburgha€™s Carnegie Mellon Museum today. By the 1980s he was the chief representative of the BSIa€™s Murray Hill Hotel era and its values, but he was never a relic himselfa€”he was instead someone very much engaged with the present. Sonia also does an excellent job on Bliss as a collector, and how he made his collection work for him, and thereby for the rest of us as well.
While vastly respected by Julian Wolff, our Commissionaire from 1961 through most of the a€™80s, I dona€™t know of him ever involving Bliss significantly in the running of the BSI. Of some three dozen mystery novels, his final one, Orchids to Murder, was published by Harper & Brothers in 1945, following Footnera€™s death from a heart attack the previous November 25th. He was the first author professionally assigned to me when I started work at Doubledaya€™s, in 1913. Somebody had presented the Foundry with a set of elaborately carved and lacquered Chinese Chippendale for the dining-room. On racial issues, he is enlightened for his era, respectful of New Yorka€™s black community, and fascinated by Harlem and its society. In the poeta€™s truest vein is his description of the lights at dusk seen from the RCA building. Where is the extra show-window that rises from the pavement at night to fill the front doorway of the store?
Navy actively cooperated with the Forces FranA§aises Navales Libres (Free French Naval Forces) before Pearl Harbor, in direct disobedience of official policy. Not that I would not love to leisurely flip through all of the four decades of The Bookman, but the essence of this volume is that Dahlinger and Klinger have already extracted the full contributions, and reorganized them chronologically and by genre (Chronicle and Comment, Letters to the Editor, Articles, Pastiches and Parodies, and Reviews), giving a contemporary flow to each section.
A lot of this material is familiar to in-depth students of the subject, but it is a quick, rewarding refresher course in the subject matter, with learned annotations, but with occasional nuggets that pop to the surface. One night, after a night of partying, Harte returned home to discover that he had lost his cigarette case.
I would swear that elsewhere (in Born in a Bookshop?) the same anecdote is told involving Opie Read and Vincent Starrett.
Steve Doyle and his Gasogene Press colleagues are to be applauded for producing this project. Dick was writing in David Copperfield, the name of Sherlock Holmes would surface in Starretta€™s columns without warning. The last column completely devoted to Sherlock Holmes is a review of Pierre Nordona€™s Conan Doyle: A Biography. In addition, there is a lengthy section at the end of biographical sketches (a€?Personaliaa€?) of Sherlockians and others whom Starrett mentions in his columns.
Unfortunately, there is no footnote or entry under a€?Personaliaa€? to explain just who Talbot C. Camera clubs across the country were giving amateur photographers the opportunity to socialize, obtain darkroom assistance, share ideas and information, and go on organized outings on bicycles, trains, or river steamers. Despite the death of Nancy's father on the Snake River, the family arrived in Oregon in 1852. Several moonlight scenes bring forth the latent beauties of pale lights and dark backgrounds.
On another day, they might hike inland for a view of Upper Cape Horn, near Celilo Falls, catch the rays of sun reaching through the clouds after a storm, or capture the early morning mists. The Panamaa€“Pacific International Exposition opened in San Francisco in 1915, and Ladd exhibited fourteen photographs in the Art Room of the Oregon Building. White's Camera Club demonstrations encouraged countless photographers to progress in style and technique. The emulsion is a fairly rapid one to be developed in approximately the usual way like developing paper. During the following days, the Oregonian and Oregon Daily Journal reported he had fled the city, been shanghaied, met foul play, and been murdered. Twenty-three practitioners are listed in the city 1909 directory, fifteen of whom worked in the Beck Building. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced.
13 in a€™Thirties) that a€?Buckminster Fuller, perpetrator of the Dymaxion car, hired a Central Park hansom and clopped to the [1934 BSI] dinner as Dr.
And this booka€™s discussion of Morleya€™s changing mood postwara€”noting that by 1947 he a€?was becoming more withdrawn and disinclined to company unless he himself had arranged the meetinga€?a€”helps explain the BSIa€™s existential crisis of 1947-48 examined in detail in Irregular Crises of the Late a€™Forties. Ia€™m obliged to England for the fine spirit which generally animates the whole diverse activity of sports.
If an occasional paper looked particularly choice, one might even send a copy to the Mother Church in New York, but I recall no acknowledgment or reply. 2 in my Irregular Crises of the Late a€™Forties.) But Soniaa€™s biography is nonetheless the best and most valuable account we are likely to have of Bliss Austina€™s life, and what made him the man and outstanding Baker Street Irregular he was. We have important collectors today, but none of them are doing what Bliss did with his collection, so one hopes this book will lead to more from the same. 50-51, of the BSIa€™s existential crisis of 1947-48 is so abbreviated that readers should consult the detailed account in Irregular Crises of the Late a€™Forties in order to understand fully what was going on. Russ liked it and recommended that I send it to Edgar Smith, who was then editing the Baker Street Journal. We hadna€™t been doing too well with his early novels of the Canadian Northwest, and Bill wanted to develop a new vein. Walls and rafters were covered by innumerable coats of whitewash which flaked down like snow; and the windows bore a sulphurous patina that had so far refused to yield to soapsuds. This was arranged at the rear of the wide gallery upstairs, partly enclosed by handsome screens that matched the furniture; and in the little room thus formed a small company was gathered for the usual midday rites.
They were of great importance to their author, for they gave him a chance to express certain stoic observations on the human comedy he had watched unflinchingly.a€? After Footner resettled in Marylanda€™s Eastern Shore countryside, he wrote nonfiction books about it as well. He points out the positive effects of Robert Mosesa€™ redesign of the citya€™s layout, but also shows his readers the lasting negative effects of Prohibition and Depression. The effect was akin to my first visit to New York at age eight with my parents, and the overpowering Circle Line boat trip we took around the island: I still have the guidebook from it.
The nugget within the nugget is that Doyle refused to be engaged upon the project despite an essentially guaranteed advance payment of half a million dollars! In Portland, White and Ladd dedicated themselves to the Oregon Camera Club and the nascent photographic movement in the city.
They were easily transported and could be exposed and developed whenever it was convenient rather than on location, as wet-plate negatives required. Prints could result in tints of yellow, green, red, or violet by varying the toning or amount of light and carbon tissue paper used.18 Experimentation with photographic printing techniques and materials was indicative of the true craftsmanship of amateur photographers who thought of themselves as artists.
That year, 28 slides by 12 members of the Oregon Camera Club were accepted by the board of managers. For scale, they sometimes added a human figure or their houseboat as a reminder of their location and how they lived. The two friends' boundless physical and creative energy shaped an image of the Pacific Northwest seen by thousands of people.
His body was found December 25, 1905, in the Willamette River downriver from the Ladd boathouse. Watson.a€? No data corroborating this assertion is known to exist, or that Fuller even attended that dinner (or any other BSI dinner as far as I recall). He never went into the Knothole [his writing cabin at home] again, nor would he allow anyone else to sort his papers.a€? After a third stroke in 1955 a€?he required round-the-clock nursing care and remained bedridden for the rest of his life,a€? which came to an end on March 28, 1957. And Ia€™m obliged to England for at least nine-tenths of the books which Ia€™ve ever read in all my life.
You are now, yourself, at liberty to write that paper on the Scandal, and I shall look forward to it. It soon appeared in the BSJ, and as if by magic a new world of bonhomie was opened to me, an association that has lasted a lifetime. When a second hiatus occurred, the accumulated papers comprising the Mendicantsa€™ archives that had been passed to Voss went into storage. Nevertheless, the members of the Three-Hours-for-Lunch Club loved their unconventional clubhouse.
Christopher Morley, who modestly describes himself as steward in perpetuum to the Three Hours for Lunch Club, but is really the whole works. And in 1937, the same year that four of his mystery novels came out, he published another quite different book entirely: a€?a testament of his love of New York City,a€? Morley called it a€” New York, City of Cities.
Fry, who ended his life uncelebrated, suffering from alcoholism and making a poor living teaching Greek and Latin to young boys at a New England prep school, had been more than heroic, rescuing upwards of 2,000 persons, until State had Vichy throw him out of France. He contributed quizzes to Ellery Queena€™s Mystery Magazine in the 1940s and compiled an extensive bibliography of writers of detective fiction that exists in at least two typewritten copies. Both women understood the power of photography to record their own ways of seeing a landscape. Portraits were never better and afford new studies that would appeal to the eye of an artist. While Ladd's photographs received more attention than those of Lily White, both locally through the Pacific Monthly and on the East Coast, it was White's sense of adventure and the opportunities she created on the Raysark that set the tone for their posterity. Maud Ainsworth was awarded first prize of ten dollars in the Architecture and Interiors Division for Melrose Abbey. White and sister of Milton White), Lily White may have thought of Maud Ainsworth as her cousin.
In an interesting twist, White is listed on the April 1910 United States census twice a€” once boarding with the Ladds in Portland and working as a Christian Science physician and again living in her family residence on Fourth Street working as an artist with a studio. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. When we became acquainted with Vincent Starrett after he published The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes in late 1933, we found him a more gracious point of exchange. Mike Whelan, the current Wiggins, uses that term, a€?for the young Irregulars of the a€™60s and a€™70s,a€? on pp.
Prominent among these documents was an exhaustive record of the doings of the society that had been brought together by Mendicant Raymond Donovan, who had joined in 1948.
As I have written elsewhere, Julian was the master of the one-liner, and the consummate detector of humbug and pretense.
Van Allen Bradley (author of Gold in Your Attic), offered to sell me that original autograph letter.
During those years, they also cultivated opportunities for personal promotion that intersected with Portland's rise in regional and national status.
Sarah established a formal garden there with imported plants, a bowling green, a tennis court, a barn, stables, and a caretaker's home. The Expo, which was open for four weeks, featured music, art, trapeze artists, bands, cakewalks, a photography show, and military, mining, and agricultural, displays. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. Fate dictated that the file should eventually end up in the hands of Music, who joined the group in 2001.
Some of the most disturbing and tantalizing things in his testament are unfinished scraps of overheard conversation. Sadly I could not afford the approximately $150 he asked for it, and it went to someone else. She filled her home with mahogany furniture, china and silver serving pieces, and imported statues and vases of bronze and porcelain. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered.
Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
With his opulence of physique and temperament he seems to belong to a younger age than ours. Cruikshank examined the minutes of the membership meetings in 1902a€“1922 and the early membership list. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. His heartiness, his nimble play with words, his penchant for the theater, all stamp him as a belated Elizabethan. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened. More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype).
Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide.
On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers.
He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning.
Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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