Researchers have built a tiny flying machine that moves around like the ocean-dwelling jellyfish. The latest jellyfish-inspired bot is "sort of dumb," said Leif Ristroph, assistant professor of mathematics at NYU who designed the tiny machine, according to NBC news. A major problem with creating insect-like-flying bots is that bugs are very complex and respond to every change in their environment. The new bot design could help create machines that are capable of monitoring atmosphere and traffic. Swarms of jellyfish that have appeared recently in the Pacific Northwest and the United Kingdom are not unusual, but may signal an ocean out of balance, experts say.
This summer, huge numbers of blue Velella velella have been washing onto beaches of the Pacific Northwest, where they die and decompose into cellophane-like corpses. For one, agricultural runoff carrying fertilizers and other chemicals is fueling growth of algae and plankton, some of jellyfish’s favorite prey, says invertebrate biologist Jim Watanabe of Stanford University.
When winds blow just right off of the California coast, for instance, they can blow the jellyfish-like Velella velella onto shore. This is considered an apparent bloom, when jellyfish are pushed together into groups by tides, winds, or currents. Plankton, on which Velella likes to feed, also go through boom-and-bust cycles, and this could partly explain why these creatures appear onshore some years more than others. Mother nature has strange ways of taking care of imbalances and is very effective in doing so. On-shore winds, King tides and intense low pressure storm systems always bring the jellies to the beach.
We witness a swarm of Velella Velella beached on East Beach of Graham Island, Haida Gwaii, B,C, It was quite a devastating site, albeit they were beautiful. I found millions of the Velella Velella on the beaches of Washington last week while camping. We’re Moving!As of October 22, 2014, Weird & Wild will be hosted on National Geographic's main news site.
The images of the jellyfish above were created in Pov-Ray and represent a 'typical' jellyfish. A labelled diagram of Aurelia, the Moon Jelly, probably so-named both for its whitish disc-like body and its nocturnal habit of swimming near the surface of the sea. The main part of the medusa body is the bowl, dome, lantern, cuboidal, goblet, trumpet or disc-shaped bell or umbrella. Where is the jelly?The bell of the jellyfish is essentially two layers of cells, one on the outside surface, called the epidermis, and another which follows the lining of the subumbrella as it extends down the pendulous protuberance and enters the mouth, at which point the cell lining takes on different characteristics and is called the gastrodermis.
Above and below: a Pov-Ray model of an ephyra larva of a jellyfish like the moon jellyfish. The cnidarians (a type of colenterate) are diverse organisms and include hydra, sea anemones, true corals and the true jellyfish.
The model below is an older Pov-Ray jellyfish computer model, which illustrates the main anatomical features. The East Coast isn’t immune, either, as moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) swarmed off the coast of Maine. But in recent years, some scientists have begun to suspect that they’re becoming bigger and more common. Although nearly all jellyfish can move independently, using a bell-shaped top that propels the animal through the water and tentacles that capture prey, they are also transported throughout the ocean. Most, if not all, jellyfish feed primarily on plankton which is the the foundation for life in our seas. I’m not even sure that if we completely stopped all commercial fishing today, it would stop what is already taking place out there. Here in Eastern Australia the most common is: Physalia utriculus (Blue Bottle or Portuguese Man of War) cover the beaches after all of these naturally occurring events.
Of course there is really no such thing, jellyfish come in an incredible range of varieties and range in size from one centimetre or less in diameter, to over two metres in diameter and some, like the Lion Mane's jellyfish, may reach half a tonne in weight. Identify as many of these labels as you can on the 3D jellyfish medusa model before we look at what these structures are and what they do.
The domed surface of the bell, which is topmost, is called the exumbrella, whilst the lower surface, which ofter curves inwards, is called the subumbrella. This is an example of polydisk strobilation, in which the scyphistoma has constricted itself into a series of developing plate-like structures which are released at the tip as young ephyrae. These organisms are phenomenal fishing machines, trawling the seas for fish and other prey when they extend and spread their vast net of tentacles.The model illustrates the 8 primary lappets of the bell margin, the 4 frilly oral arms and 8 V-shaped clusters of tentacles (16 tentacles per cluster in this case, though this number is highly variable in life).
The true jellyfish, like Aurelia, are so-called because the bulk of their bodies are composed of gelatinous or cartilaginous mesogloea (shown in blue in the above diagram).
Russian photographer Alexander Semenov, specialized in underwater photography offers us a selection of superb photographs of Cyanea, a species comprising several species of large jellyfish. The southwestern coast of England has also been hit by explosions of huge barrel jellyfish (Rhizostoma pulmo). Every living thing in our oceans will vanish when plankton becomes incapable of maintaining certain levels. Despite their beautiful and enchanting appearance, jellyfish are highly efficient predators. Contractions of the bell, cause it to pulse and expel jets of water from the cavity beneath the umbrella (the subumbrellar cavity) and these jets propel the jellyfish along. The stomach in Aurelia, and in our model jellyfish, is divided into a central chamber and four pouches coming off the sides. Jellyfish alternate between attached and often stalked larvae (see below) which resemble hydra (the polyp stage) and the sexually-reproducing and free-swimming medusa (named after the woman of Greek legend who had her hair turned into snakes by goddesses envious of her beauty, in reference to the 'tentacled-head' appearance of jellyfish). The bot flies by flapping its wings, which resembles the pulsating movements of a jellyfish.
In the early oceans on the primordial Earth the jellyfish were the top predators, and even today they are vastly abundant and often swarm in thousands.

It is often said that jellyfish are weak swimmers and at the mercy of the tides and even that they can only swim upwards and sink downwards. There are 16 tentacles per cluster in this specimen, but there may be as many as 150 per cluster.
In other jellyfish, including Aurelia, the funnels disappear during the course of development to be replaced by shallower depressions, called subgenital pits. The medusae of the more familiar jellyfish are dome, saucer or bell-shaped with a number of tentacles hanging down from the edge.
To produce so much mass at such a prolific rate jellyfish must clearly be very efficient predators.The term 'jellyfish' is an imprecise term that refers to an enormous variety of creatures from those animal groups called the cnidarians (which includes corals and sea anemones) and the ctenophores (comb jellies).
However, much film footage clearly shows jellies swimming horizontally as well as vertically and many are strong swimmers, but not as strong as large fish and so they do sometimes get caught up in strong tidal currents, but they are better and more precise swimmers than most give them credit for. The gonads are visible in our model as the four pinkish horseshoe shaped structures in the centre of the bell.Beneath these two layers of cells, the epidermis and the gastrodermis, the main bulk of the jellyfish is made up of a jelly-like substance called mesogloea.
These are visible in the diagram as a small circle in the subumbrella inside each arc-shaped gonad.The most familiar jellyfish, especially to those living in temperate regions, belong to the order Semaeostomeae.
The upper surface is the exumbrella, whilst the undersurface is referred to as the subumbrella. The machine can hover and fly in a particular direction only, according to a press release.
The jellyfish are those members of these two groups (which are sometimes collectively called the coelenterates) which swim or float freely.
The bell contains a thick ring of strong muscle, called the coronal muscle, that generates most of the power. In some tiny jellyfish, the mesogloea may be little more than a thin sheet, but in large jellyfish it becomes a thick mass. These include the medusas, like the one above, named after the Greek myth of a beautiful woman who was cursed by a jealous goddess and left with a hideous appearance and writhing serpents for hair - these serpents have been compared to the jellyfish's tentacles. Other more complexly arranged muscles assist the coronal muscle.Hanging from the centre of the subumbrellar is a projection, called the manubrium, which bears the mouth at its terminus. The tentacles of Cyanea can be up to 10 to 30 metres or more in length and are very sticky, and they can be fanned-out to form a massive fishing net that the jellyfish trawls through the water.
They also include forms like the Portuguese Man O' War which consists of a colony of many individuals fused together into a single organism.
The mouth is often surrounded by four oral arms, though these may be absent and sometimes number a multiple of four, such as 8, depending upon species. Thus, the mature animal (especially in the larger jellyfish) contains more than simply two layers of cells!Radial Symmetry and the number 4Jellyfish of the medusa type we are considering here, have what we call radial symmetry - meaning they are essentially circular (or spherical). This page deals mostly with the medusae, and specifically those that are most commonly found washed up on seashores - the scyphozoan medusae.Jellyfish AnatomyLook at the image above and the other viewpoints of the same model shown below (click on thumbnails to enlarge) and then look at the labelled diagram of a similar jellyfish, Aurelia, the Moon Jellyfish, and see if you can use this diagram to identify some of the labelled structures on our 3D model! Cyanea lamarckii is up to 15 cm or more in diameter (I once saw what was almost certainly a specimen of this jellyfish some two to three feet across) and in this species the 8 primary lobes are divided into pairs of secondary lobes which divide at the edge into pairs again, making a total of 32 lobes. A human, on the other hand, has bilateral symmetry - meaning that your body is in two mirror halves and has a definite front end and back end. Some species lack the tentacles, some have hundreds of tentacles, others only four tentacles, some species have very short tentacles (like Aurelia) others have tentacles many metres in length.How do jellyfish feed, grow and reproduce?
Cyanea lamarckii is whitish-blue in colour (the specimen that I saw was a striking translucent sea-blue colour). Jellyfish are also built on around the number 4, with most of their structures occuring either in 4s or in multiples of 4, such as 8 or 16 etc.
Our model has 4 gonads, 32 (8 x 4) lappets (the crinkly projections along the bell margin), 4 oral arms, etc.Knowing which way is up and where things areThe rhopalia (singular rhopalium) are the small pink structures, 8 in number in our model, which can be seen located around the bell margin at regular intervals, between lappets. Each rhopalium contains a gravity sensor, which allows the jellyfish to tell which way is up and which way down, and to know how much its body is tilted. These organs may also contain what look like olfactory (smell) sensors and in some species each rhopalium has a tiny eye. Some jellyfish do not have eyes, but even these can detect light by other means.Scyphozoan jellyfish avoid bright sunlight, descend deeper into the water at midday and in darkness, but surface in the morning or late afternoon and during cloudy days.
Thus, most jellyfish medusae prefer twilight or diffuse light, though some do prefer sunlight. Medusae also descend into the water during rough and stormy weather.What no brain?Jellyfish have no obvious brain, as a large mass of nerve cells, but they clearly possess sophisticated computers.
What some do have is a marginal nerve ring which connects to the rhopalia and little ganglia (dense balls of nerve cells) each associated with one rhopalium, and they also have a nerve net.
The nerve net, or plexus, is a network of neurones (not true nerves) that cover the subumbrella (and sometimes a nerve net or plexus that covers the exumbrella) just beneath the surface. These structures function as a sophisticated computer, not as complex or as sophisticated as the mammalian brain, but sufficient for the medusa's needs.
In jellyfish like Aurelia and Cyanea there is no compact nerve ring, but neurones do form circular networks around the bell margin, what we may call a neuronal ring.
This, along with the rhopalia, is as close as jellyfish get to a 'brain' but is not a true brain since it does not consist of centralised ganglia (though each rhopalium may be innervated by a ganglion). Each rhopalium acts as a pacemaker to synchronise swimming muscles to produce coordinated and appropriately-timed bell pulsations when swimming. Mathematical models demonstrate that having several pacemakers connected in series, in this fashion, improves the degree of synchrony and the precision of the pacemaker system. At any one moment, one rhopalium dominates the others, but this changes randomly in the absence of stimulation. Stiffening fibres traverse the jelly and in some jellyfish, the mesogloea can form hardened plates, rather like cartilage, that hinge together. These plates provide support for the animal and the muscles may attach to these plates, so they function as a skeleton. Obviously, the jellyfish skeleton of jelly, of more or less firmness, is not as hard as the mammalian bony skeleton, nor as hard as the cartilagenous skeleton that sharks have, but it is still a skeleton, albeit more or less soft, and is sufficient for the jellyfish which does not move the bulk of its body quickly in complex ways and can rely on the surrounding sea water to buoy up and support its body.Making a living - the Jellyfish's StingThe tentacles, and sometimes other surfaces of the jellyfish, are armed with stinging cells called nematocysts. Each cell, when triggered by the touch of potential prey (or a predator), discharges a tiny thread which is a miniature harpoon that impales the victim and injects venom.

There are many different types of nematocyst found in the coelenterates, and which type or types an individual has depends upon species.Each tentacle can be moved by its own muscles, as can the oral arms. This consists of radial canals that radiate away from the stomach and then connect to the ring canal (if present) shown as a pink ring in the model, and then back to the stomach, with remaining waste being carried out through the mouth (jellyfish have no separate anus!). In some jellyfish the stomach gives off complex branching canals, in others just four straight radial canals are apparent. The gastrodermis lines these canals and each cell possesses a flagella, a long (but microscopic) whip-like structure that stirs up the water, creating specific currents that flow in the desired direction, transporting the broth around the body, along with sea water that enters through the stomach. This circulatory system probably also transports dissolved oxygen around the body and removes waste, including carbon dioxide.Aurelia feeds in a different way.
Tiny planktonic creatures, including molluscs, crustaceans, eggs, minute worms and larvae, collect on the exumbrella surface, where they become trapped in mucus. Tiny beating hairs (cilia or flagella) carry the food-laden mucus to the edge of the bell, where it collects in eight masses (in the centre of the lappets) where it is licked off by the oral arms and carried by tiny hairs along a groove that runs along the inside of each arm, through the mouth and into the stomach.
The food is partly digested by the stomach and then carried along 8 straight (ad)radial canals, along the ring canal, and back to the stomach along the branched radial canals. Outward currents generated by tiny beating hairs on the oral arms, carry the waste out through the mouth, as inward currents bring more food in. This is very efficient, for a single Aurelia medusa can clear the plankton from 700 ml of water in less than one hour and it doesn't have to do very much, just wait for the food to stick to its body as it swims past!The stomachs of jellyfish generally consist of four pouches or less-distinct lobes (the coronal stomach) radiating from a central stomach. The 4 muscular septa which divide the stomach into its 4 chambers are pierced by a circular opening (septal ostium), forming a ring sinus which connects the 4 chambers together. The inner edge of each septum is equipped with 2 rows of gastrodermal tentacles, called gastric filaments, which consists of  a mesogloea core lined by gastrodermis equipped with nematocysts and gland cells. This gut pattern occurs in the adults of some species, whilst in others (including Aurelia and Cyanea) it occurs only in the scyphistoma larval stage and is modified in the adult: the septa disappear, leaving a central stomach which may be slightly scalloped into four chambers. The gastric filaments now spring from the stomach floor, in rows or groups in an interradial position (in-between the four main radii).Most jellyfish, however, are fierce hunters, trapping and eating animals as large as fish. The huge Lion Mane's jellyfish has a vast tangle of tentacles that sweep the oceans like fishing nets, spanning an area the size of a tennis court. In some jellyfish, the oral arms are highly branched feathery structures, whilst in others these arms fuse to form a conical structure, which may be truly massive in some jellyfish, and which contains hundreds of frilly mouths!Reproduction - churning out new jellyfishMost jellyfish are dioecious, meaning that individuals are either male or female, but some species are hermaphrodite (having both male and female gonads).
The eggs develop either in the gonads, or in pockets on the oral arms (after being released from the gonads through the mouth) depending on species. Each egg produces a tiny larval creature, called a planula, which escapes and swims away with the help of tiny beating hairs (cilia) that cover its surface. After a short planktonic existence, during which the planula may travel great distances, the planula attaches to a solid surface, such as a submerged rock, and develops into a small trumpet-shaped organism called a scyphistoma. In some species the planula puts out stolons (shoots) which bud new scyphistomes at intervals and then detach.
If the scyphistoma moves about, stolons may detach and each fragment can regenerate into a new scyphistoma. In the related Stauromedusae, in which the adult is sessile and attached to the substrate by a stalk, the planula is vermiform (worm-like) and may put out 1 to 4 stolons may detach as vermiform creeping larvae which eventually develop into stalked sessile larvae.The scyphistoma deveops tentacles around the mouth which is on its top (apical) surface.
These tentacles catch tiny food items, with the help of nematocysts, and so the scyphistome eats and feeds, rather like an upside-down jellyfish stuck to the rock, but no more than a few centimetres long. The scyphistoma may bud-off new scyphistoma (asexual reproduction) or grow stolons which bud off new scyphistomae. In winter or early spring, the scyphistoma starts to split up into a stack of discs, rather like a stack of plates, a process called strobilation. One by one each disc detaches from the end of the strobila and become a tiny jellyfish, slightly different from the mature form, and called an ephyra. Depending on species, the scyphistoma may bud off one ephyra and then regenerate its tentacles before later budding off another ephyra, and so on.
Others undergo polydisk strobilation, in which the scyphistoma fragments into a stack of plate-like structures, the most distal (tipmost) detaching first ad the more basal develop. Ephyra detachment involves muscular constriction.Each ephyra is only a few millimetres in diameter, but will feed and grow, and if it survives then it will become a mature jellyfish, possibly weighing as much as half a tonne. Scyphistomae may live for several years, strobilating each winter, and feeding each summer.
In this way, each scyphistoma is like a jellyfish factory, churning out dozens of jellyfish!
Note that the life-cycle of some jellyfish is very different from that just described, and indeed is unknown for many.Where to see more jellyfishIt is impossible to do justice to the diversity, complexity and beauty of jellyfish in a couple of pages! One of the best accounts ever written about jellyfish, including many beautiful diagrams, is that given by Libbie Henrietta Hyman in her 1940 volume 1 of The Invertebrates (unfortunately not in print at the moment!).
Libbie Hyman was one of the greatest zoologists of all time and motivated by the sheer appreciation of the beauty of living things to produce one of the best series of zoology books ever written. The standard of this work is an example to all scientists and is one of the best scientific works ever produced. It is unfortunate that she never lived long enough to complete her review of the invertebrates, but then that's hardly surprising when one considers how many different types of invertebrate there are!
There are more living wonders on Earth than any individual can ever live long enough to see, study and appreciate, but just to see some of these creatures is well worth the while! If you don't get the chance to travel and see these wonders or maybe you can't travel to see these wonders, there are a lot of ways to still see these creatures. Visit you local library or rent textbooks, or search the Web where there are lots of resources. One other way could be to check out your local aquarium.The life-cycle of a scyphozoan such as Aurelia.

Tattoo sleeve right or left arm
Turtle tattoos on back
Tattoo car window decals

Comments to «Pics of jellyfish tattoos 3d»

  1. Elik_555 writes:
    Gear then upgrade to new ones as what you maybe.
  2. A_ZER_GER writes:
    Library however I think I discovered more shinohara, a dermatologist on the College took the form of a black.
  3. 8899 writes:
    Very first time country." ($1 = 0.7403 euros) ($1 = three.1394 Polish zlotys) At the start and likewise.
  4. Bratan writes:
    This happens because caricatures of a lot.
  5. BASABELA writes:
    Retrieve four dead our bodies after a hazardous.