Q-1.16 How do I indicate on the resume that I'm a member of a group that is sometimes discriminated against?
A resume is an advertisement that you hope will convince the persons reading it when you are not present to invite you for an interview. For someone to be hired, a hiring manager somewhere first has to decide that a position is open and that someone has to be hired.
Once the decision to hire someone is made, the employer writes a "requirement", or "req" for short, which lists the qualifications (skills, education, personal traits) required of and desired in a candidate.
Employers interested in hiring entry-level candidates typically send their reqs to the placement offices of reputable colleges, who make them available to their students and alumni. Employers interested in more advanced candidates sometimes send their reqs to selected third party recruiters (see Q-3.3), who in turn advertise in newspapers, on Usenet, etc, and match the reqs with their internal databases of resumes. Given a choice between a suitable candidate found through networking and a comparable candidate submitted by a contingency recruiter, most employers would prefer to hire the former to avoid paying a substantial fee (Q-3.5).
Out of a pile of resumes, the employers identify a few candidates to bring in for an interview.
There is no single right answer to this question, but some entry-level candidates find it helpful to take an inventory of things that make them proud, and also make them good job candidates. Now identify the information that may relate to a possible job or show different positive aspects of your personality or strength.
Since you're reading a Usenet FAQ, you'll probably be e-mailing your resume in electronic form.
In all formats, put your name, postal address, phone number, and e-mail address on top, center. Next, put a brief summary of your qualifications, areas of expertise, strengths, talents, and skills applicable to the kind of work you're seeking. If you've had a lot of short-term positions, list only those in the last 10--15 years that are relevant to the work you seek. Placing the education before the work experience tells the reader that you consider your education to be more impressive than your work experience (which may be appropriate for a recent graduate). Personal: Anything you have done on your own that you feel is a transferable skill -- HTML programming, e-mail usage, Perl programming, etc. If applicable, list your professional affiliations, languages proficiencies (foreign or computer), publications, etc in separate sections.
Description of papers presented at conferences: title, name of conference, dates and location.
These may be listed in reverse chronological order to be consistent with the education and experience sections and because your most recent publications are probably more relevant. Unlike the chronological resume, the functional resume ignores historical sequence and stresses skills and abilities regardless of where they were developed and demonstrated. Even if a recipient has the facilities to print out Postscript or (La)TeX resumes, resumes in these formats cannot be easily put into a text database for a subsequent keyword search. Whenever you submit a resume by fax or paper mail, you can be certain that someone will scan your c.v. Some resume screeners like resumes with targeted job objectives because they make it easier to toss the resume if if no req matches the narrow objective. Some posters feel that stating a career objective conveys a sense of direction on your part. Most recent graduates with impressive grade point averages (GPA) mention this fact on their resumes. Generally, the SAT, GRE, GPA, and other numbers are of little interest after about 5 years.
Note: for a resume is distributed in electronic form, a 'page' is roughly 60 lines of text. Unless you're a recent graduate, it's probably impossible to adequately describe your capabilities in one page, but even one page may be enough to grab the reader's attention. A resume should be visually attractive and easy to read, whether it's presented on paper or on a computer screen. Don't put detailed career objectives, salary expectations, or reasons for leaving jobs on the resumes.
Today, many candidates choose to indicate their membership in a group, figuring that if a potential employer has a problem with group members, they shouldn't waste each other's time.
Do include a cover letter, even one paragraph, whenever you submit your resume by e-mail, fax, or postal mail, to explain why you are submitting it.
Most recipients of a cover letter is read after the resume and only if the resume was interesting. Never use saluations like "To whom it may concern," or "Gentlemen," or "Dear Sir or Madam." If you know the name of a person who'll read it, use the name.
Many of these resumes are submitted by unqualified candidates who apply for every position just in case. Even if it takes a minute for a person to look at a resume and reject it, these minutes add up to hours when the the task is to extract one or two qualified resumes from hundreds of randomly submitted unqualified ones.
If the screener doesn't find an active requirement for the job title (your most recent job title, not the desired one) and the skills that you have on your resume, but your credentials are good, they will keep your resume on file (in paper or electronic form) for a while (typically 6 to 18 months) and review it periodically to see if it matches any newly arrived reqs. To increase the chances of keyword matching, use as many buzz words as are applicable to your skills. A typical company has procedures to stop you and your resume from bothering the hiring manager.
E-mailing unsolicited resumes to people who you think might have a job for you is rude and borders net-abuse. If you have any contacts within your target company, you can ask a friend to hand-carry your resume to the hiring manager and recommend you. An elementary school graduation speech should give thanks where thanks are due,A  acknowledge accolades achieved, pay tribute to both knowledge and attitudes attained and leave the students with a message for the future. You can use the speech with a bit of tweaking here and there, or you can use it as a guideline to structure your own speech. Good Evening Honored Guests, Ladies, Gentlemen and of course the Graduating Class of [insert year]. To our young Ladies and Gentlemen seated in front of us tonight listening to our elementary school graduation speech - we are immeasurably proud of eachA  and everyone of you. Step-by-step and day-by-day - your course was steadfast and you never lost sight of your goals. With that, the little chap turns happily on his heel, confident that the teacher will in fact find the "tall Senior boy" and he trots off to his next lesson. Ok, so the teacher never did find the elusive "tall one" - but something more important was "found". It is gratifying to find that at [insert name of School] a Senior Boy will still offer to play soccer withA  a younger boy because he remembers looking up to the bigger boys when he was just a little guy.

It is also heart-warming to see the complete trust and belief, as our young friend approached a teacher for help in this rather urgent matter,A  and more importantly, to see the faith that the little guy had in the simplicity of his request, and the faith that the teacher would do their best to help him. It is moments like these, not only the more tangible academic, sporting and cultural moments that are normally evident - when we are again reminded of what makes [insert name of School] so special. As you face a new academic year, my advise to you in our elementary school graduation speech is to continue soaring, continue boldly stepping forward, continue marching towards the beat of your drum and may the year that lies ahead be as phenomenal as your graduating year at [ insert name of School]. Your elementary school graduation speech will be even more effective with good quotes for graduation speeches.
A good resume focuses the reader's attention on those aspects of your background which are most relevant to your current career goals; and distinguishes you from hundreds of other candidates, so you are invited for an interview and they are not.
This happens because someone has left (resigned, was fired, promoted, transferred, passed away) or because increased workload necessitates increasing the head count.
Employers ask their friends, who ask their friends, and eventually suitable candidates are found. The purpose of this is to make you feel good about yourself as well as help you write a resume. List everything you left out thus far that you're proud of, such as the knowledge of foreign languages. On a multi-page paper resume, put your name and page number on each subsequent page, in case they get separated. Under some circumstances (particularly, a resume for an internship) it's appropriate to give more information about your coursework that may be important to the employer or show a special academic focus that is not obvious from your major.
Placing the education after the work experience will force the reader to look at your work experience before deciding to disqualify you because of the education. Names of local, state, regional and national professional associations in which you have current membership (in alphabetical order). Bibliographic citations of articles, pamphlets, monographs, chapters in books, research reports, etc., that have been published or accepted for publication.
Sometimes this is split into presentation by competition, and presentation by invitation and consulting.
Description (if applicable) of research projects recently conducted or in progress: type of research, purpose, etc. The well written resume is designed to make it abundantly clear what you have a accomplished, and what you can do for a potential employer. The combination resume is helpful in communicating skills for individuals whose experiences are limited, widely varied, or not clearly related to their job objective. If the resume is produced by a laser printer or a xerocopier, be very wary of stray toner marks that look sloppy to humans and confuse scanners. There may be opportunities which you qualify for and would be interested in, but which you reject by putting a narrowly focused objective on the resume. Unless you have a very clear idea of what you are seeking from a particular employer (which might be a case if you are responding to a very specific advertisement), it's better to explain your interests in a cover letter or during the interview -- after the employers express their interest in you.
Such a statement does not have to be limiting if it is worded in an open-ended, but not vague, fashion.
Do not sacrifice margins and white space to keep your resume to one page, when two pages may be more readable. Use even and wide margins, spacing between major headings, and clearly identifiable sections. There is a difference between making the most of your experience and exaggerating or falsifying it. An unobtrusive way to advertise is to mention one's membership in student or professional organizations. Simply state why you are writing, name the type of position and, if you have heard about a vacancy, mention how you heard about it (in certain affirmative-action situations, not stating that you saw the position advertised may preclude you from consideration). The cover letter should include relevant information not obvious in the resume and try to answer the questions that you expect to be raised by your resume, which might be asked in the first interview (see Q-2.6). In the past, your resume sat in in a stack of hundreds of resumes that was being mindlessly screened by a non-technical junior h.r.
If the screener doesn't see a match between your resume and one of their reqs, there's nothing they can do for you.
Some recipients might be so annoyed that they'll complain about your e-mail to your internet provider. An inside referral always has an edge on a total outsider if the manager probably knows and trusts your acquaintance.
The year started off at a sprint and it seems to have left many of us still trying to catch our breath.
There were those of you who seemed to have wings and you just soared over the obstacles and challenges that crossed your path. I can only applaud that kind of determination, that purposeful resolve to get where you need to be - even when it may not always have been very easy. The Senior kids smile and chuckle good-naturedly at the little guy's enthusiasm and conviction. The moments are seemingly unimportant, magical and many - but they happen every day at [insert name of school].
In most fields, it's extremely unlikely that a manager would first come across an impressive resume and then consider creating a new slot or replacing one of the existing employees. If a college doesn't participate in JobTrak, its placement office probably has plenty of entry-level reqs sent to it anyway. List the coursework that distinguishes you from other candidates and is relevant to the work you seek. Some recent college graduates mention the percentage of college cost financed through employment. One disadvantage of this format is that significant experiences in your background will not be highlighted unless they are recent.
If you've won any academic honors (scholarships, Dean's List, election to honor societies, class standing etc.), list them as well.
One way to do this is to first write a longer, all-inclusive resume, then, when you apply, cut on the details of no interest to this particular company.
Listing works that have only been submitted for publication or are in progress is considered tacky. When an employer reads a resume, you want to make sure it is written so that they feel a compelling need to call you and find out about your interest in their position. Once you've interested them enough with your resume, they will probably ask you to fill an "employment application" form that will list all of your past jobs, just like a c.v. The functional format may be most useful to career changers and those with many diverse experiences. Off-white or beige paper increases the number of OCR errors; other colors or textures may interfere even with photocopying, when your potential employer makes copies to pass around to others in the hiring process.

Sans-serif fonts (such as Helvetica) give fewer errors than serif fonts (like Times Roman).
For example, a programmer who states that her objective is to write programs under Unix may not be considered for a development position under WNT, even though she may be qualified and interested. In this case, the objective briefly describes your primary functional goal (type of work desired), your primary organizational goal (type of place where you want to work), and may contain a phrase about a particular interest area or short or long term professional goals. Some employers are very interested in your grades, and will ask, while others are not interested. Two or three pages is probably the most common if any elaboration of experience or accomplishments is to be done. A falsified resume can be easily spotted by an employer and if it doesn't prevent you from getting the job, it can cost you the job later on. The only exception is the header "CONFIDENTIAL RESUME" which should be placed on every page if your job search is confidential. For example, if it's clear from your resume that you were educated in another country, you can expect someone to ask whether you're authorised to work in this country. That's why, if you're responding to an ad that mentions an internal req number, be sure to indicate that, or the screener may not realize that there is a match.
Instead of just saying "worked in all aspects of X", list those aspects in parens, just in case the screener (computer or human) is searching for these keywords. However, once you do succeed in getting your resume through, the recipient may view it as an unwelcome intrusion.
As we looked forward to all the challenges that lay ahead of us, it did appear a little daunting at times - a huge mountain that lay ahead of us to climb.
Well done - you seized wonderful opportunities, academic, cultural and sportingA  and made them your own.
These words are never uttered by his Grandma in real; although he wished that could have been conceivable. The "hidden" job market (reqs that aren't formally open until the right candidate comes along) is a myth.
If she also declines, the employer may choose to sweeten the offer to the first candidate, make an offer to the third best candidate, invite more people for interviews, or solicit more resumes. If only some of your experience is relevant you can divide it into blocks: "Related Experience" and "Additional Experience," or "Industrial Experience" and "Academic Experience". In the business world, people don't have the time to spend trying to figure out what you can do from your multi-page lists of accomplishments. A broader objective, such as "A position to make use of my people skills or training in data processing", tells almost nothing, but may exclude you from consideration for a very interesting opportunity that doesn't require "people skills".
Try to answer the question: "What would you like to be doing in the next few years?" Never mention a specific job title.
If your overall GPA is really unimpressive, you may prefer to mention a subset of it on your resume, such as the GPA in the major, or the GPA during the senior year, or the GPA over the last four semesters, if one of these figures was higher than your overall GPA (mention how you arrived at the figure). It's better to have two to four pages, than to omit important information about yourself because it didn't fit.
A needlessly wordy resume will waste their time and may make them stop reading before they find the juicy parts. Next, detail what you could contribute to the company and how your qualifications could benefit the firm.
Today most companies, even small ones, enter all submitted resumes into a "resume management system" database (see Q-1.8) and search it with computer programs, which look for buzzwords and rank resumes by the number of "hits". The Grade [insert highest year of students]'s are outside a class,A  waiting for a lesson. What he meant to make out of this post was that Grandmothers should instead of giving sermons; ought to be giving useful advises and words of wisdom.
If you don't describe your qualifications on the resume, hoping to tell about them during the interview, you probably won't get an interview. A disadvantage of advertising a req is that in addition to qualified candidates, they will be inundated with resumes from unqualified candidates (typically, recent college graduates). Some promise a portion of their fee ("finder's fee") for pointing them to the right candidate. Hacker Award, granted to only one undergraduate in ten years." If you only have a few academic honors, group them with "Education". The reader of a functional resume is likely to assume that the candidate hasn't has recent work experience or has something to hide. If your resume doesn't fit on three or four pages, create a separate long version that you can provide after you've captured their interest with a shorter version. Use the minimum number of words necessary to convey your meaning (except when adding possible search keywords). Other questions often addressed in the cover letter are the pay rate you expect, your willingness to travel or relocate, why you wish to work for this specific company, how hiring you would benefit this particular company, and why you are better than the other candidates applying for the position.
He wondered if he turns old too what he would be preaching his grandchildren.It is a world of technology, gadgets, social media and cyber generation.
Some people "carpet-mail" their resumes in response to every ad, figuring that even though they clearly don't match this req, the advertiser may have other open reqs. Activities such as raising money for a charitable cause may bring skills to an employer's attention which are not prominently displayed elsewhere on your resume. Even if you're not sure, try to talk about the company's products or services in the cover letter. Besides pragmatic knowledge; grandparents should also be imparting useful tips of cyber world with the transmuting times.
On the Internet, indiscriminate e-mailing of resumes wastes everyone's time and borders net-abuse.
Also, there is some advantage to indicating a longstanding commitment to an interest, such as journalism, by tracing that interest back to high school. Job ads also allow competitors to know vacancy information, turn-over rate, position's salary and other information the company may not want revealed.
Creases may interfere with scanning, but this is much less of a problem than, say, small fonts.
Use past tense (never imperative) to describe a completed job and a present tense to describe continuing work.

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